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PASHTO (/ˈpʌʃtoʊ/ , rarely /ˈpæʃtoʊ/ , Pashto: پښتو‎ _Pax̌tō_ ), sometimes spelled PUSHTU or PUSHTO, is the South -Central Asian language of the Pashtuns . It is known in Persian literature as AFGHāNI (افغانی) and in Urdu and Hindi literature as PAṭHāNī. Speakers of the language are called Pashtuns or Pukhtuns and sometimes Afghans or Pathans. It is an Eastern Iranian language , belonging to the Indo-European family . Pashto is one of the two official languages of Afghanistan , and it is the second-largest regional language of Pakistan , mainly spoken in the west and northwest of the country. Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) are almost 100% Pashto-speaking, while it is the majority language of the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and the northern districts of Balochistan . Pashto is the main language among the Pashtun diaspora around the world. The total number of Pashto-speakers is estimated to be 45–60 million people worldwide.

Pashto belongs to the Northeastern Iranian group of the Indo-Iranian branch, but _ Ethnologue _ lists it as Southeastern Iranian. Pashto has two main dialect groups, “soft” and “hard”, the latter known as _Pakhto_.

CONTENTS

* 1 Geographic distribution

* 1.1 Official status

* 2 History * 3 Grammar

* 4 Phonology

* 4.1 Vowels * 4.2 Consonants

* 5 Vocabulary * 6 Writing system * 7 Dialects

* 8 Literature

* 8.1 Poetry Example * 8.2 Matalūna (proverbs)

* 9 See also * 10 Notes * 11 References * 12 Bibliography * 13 External links

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION

Further information: Languages of Afghanistan and Languages of Pakistan Areas with Pashtun-speakers as mother tongue

As a national language of Afghanistan, Pashto is primarily spoken in the east, south, and southwest, but also in some northern and western parts of the country. The exact numbers of speakers are unavailable, but different estimates show that Pashto is the mother tongue of 45–60% of the total population of Afghanistan .

In Pakistan Pashto is spoken as a first language by about 15.42% of Pakistan\'s 170 million people . It is the main language of the Pashtun-majority regions of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa , Federally Administered Tribal Areas and northern Balochistan . It is also spoken in parts of Mianwali and Attock districts of the Punjab province and in Islamabad , as well as by Pashtuns who are found living in different cities throughout the country. Modern Pashto-speaking communities are found in the cities of Karachi and Hyderabad in Sindh .

Other communities of Pashto speakers are found in Tajikistan , and further in the Pashtun diaspora . There are also communities of Pashtun descent in the southwestern part of Jammu and Kashmir .

In addition, sizable Pashto-speaking communities also exist in the Middle East , especially in the United Arab Emirates , Saudi Arabia , northeastern Iran (primarily in South Khorasan Province to the east of Qaen , near the Afghan border) as well as in the United States , United Kingdom , Thailand , Canada , Germany , the Netherlands , Sweden , Qatar , Australia , Japan , Russia , New Zealand , etc.

OFFICIAL STATUS

Pashto is one of the two official languages of Afghanistan, along with Dari . Since the early 18th century, all the kings of Afghanistan were ethnic Pashtuns except for Habibullah Kalakani . Persian as the literary language of the royal court was more widely used in government institutions while Pashto was spoken by the Pashtun tribes as their native tongue . King Amanullah Khan began promoting Pashto during his reign as a marker of ethnic identity and a symbol of "official nationalism" leading Afghanistan to independence after the defeat of the British colonial power in the Third Anglo-Afghan War . In the 1930s, a movement began to take hold to promote Pashto as a language of government, administration and art with the establishment of a Pashto Society _ Pashto Anjuman_ in 1931 and the inauguration of the Kabul University in 1932 as well as the formation of the Pashto Academy _ Pashto Tolana_ in 1937. Although officially strengthening the use of Pashto, the Afghan elite regarded Persian as a “sophisticated language and a symbol of cultured upbringing”. King Zahir Shah thus followed suit after his father Nadir Khan had decreed in 1933, that both Persian and Pashto were to be studied and utilized by officials. In 1936, Pashto was formally granted the status of an official language with full rights to usage in all aspects of government and education by a royal decree under Zahir Shah despite the fact that the ethnically Pashtun royal family and bureaucrats mostly spoke Persian. Thus Pashto became a national language , a symbol for Afghan nationalism.

The status of official language was reaffirmed in 1964 by the constitutional assembly when Afghan Persian was officially renamed to Dari. The lyrics of the national anthem of Afghanistan are in Pashto.

In Pakistan, Urdu and English are the two official languages. Pashto has no official status at the federal level. On a provincial level, Pashto is the regional language of Khyber Pukhtunkhwa , Federally Administered Tribal Areas and northern Balochistan . The primary medium of education in government schools in Pakistan is Urdu but the Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa have placed more emphasis on English as the medium of instruction as of April 2014. English medium private schools in Pashto-speaking areas, however, generally do not use Pashto. The imposition of Urdu as the primary medium of education in public schools has caused a systematic degradation and decline of many of Pakistan's native languages including Pashto. This has caused growing resentment amongst Pashtuns and they also complain that Pashto is often neglected officially.

HISTORY

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According to 19th-century linguist James Darmesteter and modern linguist Michael M. T. Henderson, Pashto is “descended from Avestan ”, but Georg Morgenstierne says they are merely closely related. The Rabatak inscription of Emperor Kanishka written in Bactrian and Greek contains words are borrowed from Pashto language due to their proximity to the modern Pashto language.

Strabo , who lived between 64 BC and 24 CE , explains that the tribes inhabiting the lands west of the Indus River were part of Ariana and to their east was India . Since the 3rd century CE and onward, they are mostly referred to by the name _Afghan_ (_Abgan_) and their language as _"Afghani"_.

Scholars such as Abdul Hai Habibi and others believe that the earliest modern Pashto work dates back to Amir Kror Suri of Ghor in the eighth century, and they use the writings found in Pata Khazana . However, this is disputed by several modern experts such as David Neil MacKenzie and Lucia Serena Loi due to lack of evidence. Pata Khazana is a Pashto manuscript claimed to be first compiled during the Hotaki dynasty (1709–1738) in Kandahar , Afghanistan. Lucia Serena Loi considers Pata Khazana a late 19th century forgery.

From the 16th century, Pashto poetry become very popular among the Pashtuns. Some of those who wrote poetry in Pashto are Pir Roshan , Khushal Khan Khattak , Rahman Baba , Nazo Tokhi , and Ahmad Shah Durrani , founder of the modern state of Afghanistan or the Durrani Empire .

In modern times, noticing the incursion of Persian and Persianised-Arabic vocabulary, there is a strong desire to purify Pashto by restoring its old vocabulary.

GRAMMAR

Main article: Pashto grammar

Pashto is a subject–object–verb (SOV) language with split ergativity . Adjectives come before nouns . Nouns and adjectives are inflected for two genders (masc./fem.), two numbers (sing./plur.), and four cases (direct, oblique I, oblique II and vocative). There is also an inflection for the subjunctive mood . The verb system is very intricate with the following tenses: present, simple past, past progressive, present perfect and past perfect. The sentence construction of Pashto has similarities with some other Indo-Iranian languages such as Prakrit and Bactrian . The possessor precedes the possessed in the genitive construction. The verb generally agrees with the subject in both transitive and intransitive sentences. An exception occurs when a completed action is reported in any of the past tenses (simple past, past progressive, present perfect or past perfect). In such cases, the verb agrees with the subject if it is intransitive, but if it is transitive, it agrees with the object, therefore Pashto shows a partly ergative behavior. Like Kurdish , but unlike most other Indo-Iranian languages, Pashto uses all three types of adpositions – prepositions, postpositions and circumpositions.

PHONOLOGY

Main article: Pashto phonology

VOWELS

FRONT CENTRAL BACK

CLOSE i

u

MID e ə o

OPEN

a ɑ

CONSONANTS

LABIAL Denti- alveolar RETROFLEX Post- alveolar PALATAL VELAR UVULAR GLOTTAL

NASAL

m

n

ɳ

ŋ

PLOSIVE p b t

d ʈ ɖ

k ɡ q

AFFRICATE

t͡s d͡z

t͡ʃ d͡ʒ

FRICATIVE f

s z ʂ ʐ ʃ ʒ ç ʝ x ɣ

h

APPROXIMANT

l

j

w

RHOTIC

r

ɺ̢ 

Phonemes that have been borrowed, thus non-native to Pashto, are colour-coded. The phonemes /q, f/ tend to be replaced by , .

The retroflex lateral flap /ɭ̆/ (ɺ̢  or ) is pronounced as retroflex approximant when final.

The retroflex fricatives /ʂ, ʐ/ and palatal fricatives /ç, ʝ/ represent dialectally different pronunciations of the same sound, not separate phonemes. In particular, the retroflex fricatives, which represent the original pronunciation of these sounds, are preserved in the southern/southwestern dialects (especially the prestige dialect of Kandahar ), while they are pronounced as palatal fricatives in the west-central dialects. Other dialects merge the original retroflexes with other existing sounds: The southeastern dialects merge them with the postalveolar fricatives /ʃ, ʒ/, while the northern/northeastern dialects merge them with the velar phonemes in an asymmetric pattern, pronouncing them as /x, ɡ/ (NOT /ɣ/). Furthermore, according to Henderson (1983), the west-central voiced palatal fricative /ʝ/ actually occurs only in the Wardak Province , and is merged into /ɡ/ elsewhere in the region.

The velars /k, ɡ, x, ɣ/ followed by the close back rounded vowel /u/ assimilate into the labialized velars .

Voiceless stops are all unaspirated , like Spanish , other Romance languages , and Austronesian languages ; they have slightly aspirated allophones prevocalically in a stressed syllable.

VOCABULARY

In Pashto, most of the native elements of the lexicon are related to other Eastern Iranian languages . However, a remarkably large number of words are unique to Pashto. Post-7th century borrowings came primarily from the Persian and Hindustani languages , with some Arabic words being borrowed through those two languages, but sometimes directly. Modern speech borrows words from English, French and German .

Here is an exemplary list of Pure Pashto and borrowings:

PASHTO PERSIAN ARABIC MEANING

چوپړ _chopaṛ_ خدمة Service

هڅه _hat͡sa_ کوشش

Effort/Try

پرېکړه _prekṛa_ فيصله Decision

ملګری, ملګرې _malgaray_, _malgare_ دوست

Friend

WRITING SYSTEM

Main article: Pashto alphabet

Pashto employs the Pashto alphabet , a modified form of the Perso-Arabic alphabet . It has extra letters for Pashto-specific sounds. Since the 17th century, Pashto has been primarily written in the Naskh script , rather than the Nasta\'liq script used for Urdu alphabet and, to some degree, the Persian alphabet.

The Pashto alphabet consists of 45 letters and 4 diacritic marks. The following table gives the letters' isolated forms, along with the Latin equivalents and typical IPA values: The Pashto Alphabet

ا ā, — /ɑ, ʔ/ ب b /b/ پ p /p/ ت t /t̪/ ټ ṭ /ʈ/ ث s /s/ ج j /d͡ʒ/ ځ ź /d͡z/ چ č /t͡ʃ/ څ c /t͡s/ ح h /h/ خ x /x/

د d /d̪/ ډ ḍ /ɖ/ ﺫ z /z/ ﺭ r /r/ ړ ṛ /ɺ˞~ɻ/ ﺯ z /z/ ژ ž /ʒ/ ږ ǵ (_or_ ẓ̌) /ʐ, ʝ, ɡ/ س s /s/ ش š /ʃ/ ښ x̌ (_or_ ṣ̌) /ʂ, ç, x/

ص s /s/ ض z /z/ ط t /t̪/ ظ z /z/g ع — /ʔ/ غ ğ /ɣ/ ف f /f/ ق q /q/ ک k /k/ ګ g /ɡ/ ل l /l/

م m /m/ ن n /n/ ڼ ṇ /ɳ/ و w, ū, o /w, u, o/ ه h, a /h, a/ ۀ ə /ə/ ي y, ī /j, i/ ې e /e/ ی ay, y /ai, j/ ۍ əi /əi/ ئ əi, y /əi, j/

DIALECTS

Main article: Pashto dialects

Pashto dialects are divided into two varieties, the “soft” southern variety _Paṣ̌tō_, and the “hard” northern variety _Pax̌tō_ (Pakhtu). Each variety is further divided into a number of dialects. The southern dialect of Wanetsi is the most distinctive Pashto dialect.

1. SOUTHERN VARIETY

* _Durrani _ dialect (or _Southern_ dialect) * _Kakar_ dialect (or _Southeastern_ dialect) * _Shirani_ dialect * _Marwat-Bettani_ dialect * _ Wanetsi _ dialect * SOUTHERN KARLANI GROUP

* _Khattak_ dialect * _Banuchi_ dialect * _Dawarwola_ dialect * _Masidwola_ dialect * _ Wazirwola _ dialect

2. NORTHERN VARIETY

* _Central Ghilji _ dialect (or _Northwestern_ dialect) * _Northern _ dialect (or _Eastern_ dialect) * _Yusufzai_ dialect (or _Northeastern_ dialect) * NORTHERN KARLANI GROUP

* _Taniwola_ dialect * _Khosti_ dialect * _Zadran_ dialect * _Bangash-Orakzai-Turi-Zazi-Mangal_ dialect * _Afridi _ dialect * _Khogyani_ dialect * _Wardak_ dialect

LITERATURE

Main article: Pashto literature and poetry

Pashto-speakers have long had a tradition of oral literature , including proverbs , stories, and poems. Written Pashto literature saw a rise in development in the 17th century mostly due to poets like Khushal Khan Khattak (1613–1689), who, along with Rahman Baba (1650–1715), is widely regarded as among the greatest Pashto poets. Both of these poets belonged to the modern day Khyber Pakhtunkhwa region of Pakistan ). From the time of Ahmad Shah Durrani (1722–1772), Pashto has been the language of the court. The first Pashto teaching text was written during the period of Ahmad Shah Durrani by Pir Mohammad Kakerr with the title of _Maʿrifat al-Afghānī_ ("The Knowledge of Afghani "). After that, the first grammar book of Pashto verbs was written in 1805 in India under the title of _Riyāż al-Maḥabbah_ ("Training in Affection") through the patronage of Nawab Mohabat Khan, son of Hafiz Rahmat Khan , chief of the Barech . Nawabullah Yar Khan, another son of Hafiz Rahmat Khan, in 1808 wrote a book of Pashto words entitled _ʿAjāyib al-Lughāt_ ("Wonders of Languages").

POETRY EXAMPLE

An excerpt from the _Kalām_ of Rahman Baba :

زۀ رحمان پۀ خپله ګرم يم چې مين يمه چې دا نور ټوپن مې بولي ګرم په څۀ

IPA: _Zə Ra.mɑn pə xpəl.a gram jam t͡ʃe ma.jən jam.a_ _t͡ʃe d̪ɑ nor ʈo.pan me bo.li gram pə t͡sə_

TRANSLITERATION: Zə Rahmān pə xpəla gram yam če mayən yama' Če dā nor ṭopan me boli gram pə tsə

TRANSLATION: 'I Rahman, myself am guilty that I am a lover, On what does this other universe call me guilty.'

MATALūNA (PROVERBS)

Pashto also has a rich heritage of proverbs or matalūna. An example matal (proverb):

اوبه په ډانګ نه بېليږي

'Water does not separate with a pole '

SEE ALSO

* Afghanistan portal * Pakistan portal * Languages portal

* Indo-European languages * Eastern Iranian languages * Pre-Islamic scripts in Afghanistan * Languages of Pakistan

NOTES

* ^ The only American pronunciation listed by Oxford Online Dictionaries, /ˈpæʃtoʊ/ , is so rare that it is not even mentioned by the American Heritage and Merriam-Webster dictionaries. * ^ Sometimes spelled "Pushtu" or "Pushto", and then either pronounced the same or differently. The spelling "Pakhto" is so rare that it is not even mentioned by any major English dictionaries or even recognized by major English- Pashto dictionaries such as Thepashto.com, and it is specifically listed by Ethnologue.com only as an alternative name for Northern Pashto, not Southern or Central Pashto.

REFERENCES

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Elsevier, Oxford: 2009. * ^ Rahman, Tariq (2004), Craig Baxter, ed., _Education in Pakistan a Survey_, Pakistan on the Brink: Politics, Economics and Society, Lexington Books, p. 172, ISBN 978-0195978056 * ^ Rahim, Bushra (28 September 2014). "Will change in medium of instruction improve education in KP?". _dawn.com_. Retrieved 18 July 2016. * ^ Hywel Coleman (2010). TEACHING AND LEARNING IN PAKISTAN: THE ROLE OF LANGUAGE IN EDUCATION (Report). British Council , Pakistan. Archived from the original on 4 November 2010. Retrieved 24 September 2012. * ^ Daniel Hallberg (1992). _Sociolinguistic Survey of Northern Pakistan_ (PDF). 4. Quaid-i-Azam University & Summer Institute of Linguistics. p. 36 to 37. ISBN 969-8023-14-3 . * ^ "د کرښې پرغاړه (په پاکستان کې د مورنیو ژبو حیثیت)". _mashaalradio.org_. Retrieved 18 July 2016. * ^ Morgenstierne, Georg (1983). "AFGHANISTAN vi. Paṧto". _Encyclopaedia Iranica_. Retrieved 14 July 2013. it seems that the Old Iranic ancestor dialect of Paṧtō must have been close to that of the Gathas. * ^ Habib, Abdul (1967). _The Two Thousand Years Old Language of Afghanistan or The Mother of Dari Language (An Analysis of the Baghlan Inscription)_ (PDF). Historical Society of Afghanistan. p. 6. * ^ "Afghan and Afghanistan". _ Abdul Hai Habibi _. alamahabibi.com. 1969. Retrieved 2010-10-24. * ^ "History of Afghanistan". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2010-11-22. * ^ Noelle-Karimi, Christine; Conrad J. Schetter; Reinhard Schlagintweit (2002). _ Afghanistan – a country without a state?_. University of Michigan , United States: IKO. p. 18. ISBN 3-88939-628-3 . Retrieved 2010-09-24. The earliest mention of the name 'Afghan' (Abgan) is to be found in a Sasanid inscription from the third century AD, and it appears in India in the form of 'Avagana'... * ^ David Neil MacKenzie: _David N. Mackenzie:_ The Development of the Pashto Script_. In: Shirin Akiner (Editor):_ Languages and Scripts of Central Asia_. School of Oriental and African Studies, Univ. of London, London 1997, ISBN 978-0-7286-0272-4 .p. 142_ * ^ Lucia Serena Loi: _Il tesoro nascosto degli Afghani_. Il Cavaliere azzurro, Bologna 1987, p. 33 * ^ "Pata Khazana" (pdf). Retrieved 2010-09-27. * ^ Lucia Serena Loi: _Il tesoro nascosto degli Afghani_. Il Cavaliere azzurro, Bologna 1987, p. 33 * ^ Ehsan M Entezar (2008). _ Afghanistan 101: Understanding Afghan Culture_. Xlibris Corporation. p. 89. ISBN 978-1-4257-9302-9 . * ^ Carol Benson; Kimmo Kosonen (13 June 2013). _Language Issues in Comparative Education: Inclusive Teaching and Learning in Non-Dominant Languages and Cultures_. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 64–. ISBN 978-94-6209-218-1 . * ^ Muhammad Gul Khan Momand, Hewād Afghanistan * ^ Emeneau, M. B. (1962) “Bilingualism and Structural Borrowing” _Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society_ 106(5): pp. 430–442, p. 441 * ^ Tegey, Habibullah; Robson, Barbara (1996). _A Reference Grammar of Pashto_ (PDF). Washington: Center for Applied Linguistics. p. 15. * ^ D.N. MacKenzie, 1990, “Pashto”, in Bernard Comrie, ed, _The major languages of South Asia, the Middle East and Africa_, p. 103 * ^ Herbert Penzl, 1965, _A Reader of Pashto_, p 7 * ^ Vladimir Kushev (1997). "Areal Lexical Contacts of the Afghan (Pashto) Language (Based on the Texts of the XVI-XVIII Centuries)". _ Iran and the Caucasus_. Brill. 1: 159–166. JSTOR 4030748 . doi :10.1163/157338497x00085 . * ^ "Census of India, 1931, Volume 17, Part 2". Times of India . 1937. Retrieved 7 June 2009. At the same time Pashto has borrowed largely from Persian and Hindustani, and through those languages from Arabic. * ^ Herbert Penzl (January–March 1961). "Western Loanwords in Modern Pashto". _ Journal of the American Oriental Society _. 81 (1): 43–52. doi :10.2307/594900 . * ^ Raverty, Henry George Rahman (1867). _A dictionary of the Puk\'hto, Pus\'hto, or language of the Afghans_ (2 ed.). London: Williams and Norgate. * ^ John Hladczuk (1992). _International Handbook of Reading Education_. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 148. ISBN 9780313262531 . * ^ Ullah, Noor (2011). _ Pashto Grammar_. AuthorHouse. p. 5. ISBN 978-1-4567-8007-4 . * ^ Zellem, Edward (2014). _Mataluna: 151 Afghan Pashto Proverbs_. Cultures Direct Press. ISBN 978-0692215180 . * ^ Bartlotti, Leonard and Raj Wali Shah Khattak, eds. 2006. _Rohi Mataluna: Pashto Proverbs_, (revised and expanded edition). First edition by Mohammad Nawaz Tair and Thomas C. Edwards, eds. Peshawar, Pakistan: Interlit and Pashto Academy, Peshawar University.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Schmidt, Rüdiger (ed.) (1989). _Compendium Linguarum Iranicarum_. Wiesbaden: Reichert. ISBN 3-88226-413-6 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * Gusain, Lakhan (2008?) _A Grammar of Pashto_. Ann Arbor, MI: Northside Publishers. * Georg Morgenstierne (1926) _Report on a Linguistic Mission to Afghanistan_. Instituttet for Sammenlignende Kulturforskning , Serie C I-2. Oslo. ISBN 0-923891-09-9 * Daniel G. Hallberg (1992) _Pashto, Waneci, Ormuri (Sociolinguistic Survey of Northern Pakistan, 4)_. National Institute of Pakistani Studies, 176 pp. ISBN 969-8023-14-3 . * Herbert Penzl _A Grammar of Pashto: A Descriptive Study of the Dialect of Kandahar, Afghanistan_, ISBN 0-923891-72-2 * Herbert Penzl _A Reader of Pashto_, ISBN 0-923891-71-4

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