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Pashto
Pashto
(/ˈpʌʃtoʊ/,[9][10][11] rarely /ˈpæʃtoʊ/,[Note 1] Pashto: پښتو‎ Pax̌tō [ˈpəʂt̪oː]), sometimes spelled Pukhto,[Note 2] is the language of the Pashtuns. It is known in Persian literature as Afghāni (افغانی)[14] and in Urdu
Urdu
and Hindi
Hindi
literature as Paṭhānī.[15] Speakers of the language are called Pashtuns
Pashtuns
or Pakhtuns and sometimes Afghans or Pathans.[1] It is an Eastern Iranian language, belonging to the Indo-European family.[16][17][18] Pashto
Pashto
is one of the two official languages of Afghanistan,[5][19][20] and it is the second-largest regional language of Pakistan, mainly spoken in the west and northwest of the country.[21] Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal Areas
Federally Administered Tribal Areas
(FATA) are almost 100% Pashto-speaking, while it is the majority language of the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
and the northern districts of Balochistan. Along with Dari Persian, Pashto
Pashto
is the main language among the Pashtun diaspora
Pashtun diaspora
around the world. The total number of Pashto-speakers is estimated to be 45–60 million people worldwide.[2][22][23][24] Pashto
Pashto
belongs to the Northeastern Iranian group of the Indo-Iranian branch,[25][26] but Ethnologue
Ethnologue
lists it as Southeastern Iranian.[27] Pashto
Pashto
has two main dialect groups, "soft" and "hard", the latter locally known as Pakhto or Paxto.[1]

Contents

1 Geographic distribution

1.1 Afghanistan 1.2 Pakistan

2 History 3 Grammar 4 Phonology

4.1 Vowels 4.2 Consonants

5 Vocabulary 6 Writing system 7 Dialects 8 Literature

8.1 Poetry example 8.2 Proverbs

9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Bibliography 13 External links

Geographic distribution[edit] Further information: Languages of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Languages of Pakistan As a national language of Afghanistan,[28] Pashto
Pashto
is primarily spoken in the east, south, and southwest, but also in some northern and western parts of the country. The exact numbers of speakers are unavailable, but different estimates show that Pashto
Pashto
is the mother tongue of 45–60%[29][30][31][32] of the total population of Afghanistan. In Pakistan, around 26 million people speak Pashto, according to the 2006 census, which was around 15% of Pakistan's population at the time. Most of these people are in the northwestern areas of the country, including the Federally Administered Tribal Areas, northern Balochistan, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. There are also many Pashtun speakers in the major cities of Pakistan.[33] Other communities of Pashto
Pashto
speakers are found in Tajikistan,[34] and further in the Pashtun diaspora. There are also Hindu and Muslim communities of part Pashtun descent in India, including Bollywood families and Indian Film Cinema such as Khans and Kapoors. They are integrated into Indian languages, hold mixed races, ethnicities, religions and culture and do not hold cultural reverence to the ethnicity or their origins. Pashtuns
Pashtuns
are of ancient Iranian origin and lived in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
years before other ethnic groups in Afghanistan.[35][36][37] In addition, sizable Pashto-speaking communities also exist in the Middle East, especially in the United Arab Emirates,[38] Saudi Arabia, northeastern Iran
Iran
(primarily in South Khorasan Province
South Khorasan Province
to the east of Qaen, near the Afghan border).[39] The Pashtun diaspora
Pashtun diaspora
speaks Pashto in countries like the United States, United Kingdom,[40] Thailand, Canada, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, Qatar, Australia, Japan, Russia, New Zealand, etc. Afghanistan[edit] Pashto
Pashto
is one of the two official languages of Afghanistan, along with Dari.[41] Since the early 18th century, kings of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
were ethnic Pashtuns
Pashtuns
except for Habibullāh Kalakāni
Habibullāh Kalakāni
in 1929.[42] Persian, the literary language of the royal court,[43] was more widely used in government institutions while Pashto
Pashto
was spoken by the Pashtun tribes as their native tongue. King Amanullah Khan
Amanullah Khan
began promoting Pashto during his reign as a marker of ethnic identity and a symbol of "official nationalism"[42] leading Afghanistan
Afghanistan
to independence after the defeat of the British Empire
British Empire
in the Third Anglo-Afghan War
Third Anglo-Afghan War
in 1919. In the 1930s, a movement began to take hold to promote Pashto
Pashto
as a language of government, administration and art with the establishment of a Pashto
Pashto
Society Pashto
Pashto
Anjuman in 1931[44] and the inauguration of the Kabul University
Kabul University
in 1932 as well as the formation of the Pashto Academy Pashto
Pashto
Tolana in 1937.[45] Although officially strengthening the use of Pashto, the Afghan elite regarded Persian as a “sophisticated language and a symbol of cultured upbringing”.[42] King Zahir Shah thus followed suit after his father Nadir Khan had decreed in 1933, that both Persian and Pashto
Pashto
were to be studied and utilized by officials.[46] In 1936, Pashto
Pashto
was formally granted the status of an official language[47] with full rights to usage in all aspects of government and education by a royal decree under Zahir Shah despite the fact that the ethnically Pashtun royal family and bureaucrats mostly spoke Persian.[45] Thus Pashto
Pashto
became a national language, a symbol for Afghan nationalism. The status of official language was reaffirmed in 1964 by the constitutional assembly when Afghan Persian was officially renamed to Dari.[48][49] The lyrics of the national anthem of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
are in Pashto. Pashto
Pashto
is also the indigenous language of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
but Persian became popular in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
mainly because of the Persian empire and its influences. Persian was spoken all over. Pakistan[edit] In Pakistan, Pashto
Pashto
is spoken as a first language by about 35-40 million people – 15.42%[50] of Pakistan's 170 million population. It is the main language of the Pashtun-majority regions of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Federally Administered Tribal Areas[1] and northern Balochistan. It is also spoken in parts of Mianwali and Attock districts of the Punjab province and in Islamabad, as well as by Pashtuns
Pashtuns
who live in different cities throughout the country. Modern Pashto-speaking communities are found in the cities of Karachi
Karachi
and Hyderabad in Sindh.[33][51][52][53][53] Urdu
Urdu
and English are the two official languages of Pakistan. Pashto has no official status at the federal level. On a provincial level, Pashto
Pashto
is the regional language of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and northern Balochistan.[54] The primary medium of education in government schools in Pakistan
Pakistan
is Urdu,[55] but from 2014 onwards, the Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
has placed more emphasis on English as the medium of instruction.[56] English-medium private schools in Pashto-speaking areas, however, generally do not use Pashto.

Play media

Zaeem speaking Pashto

The imposition of Urdu
Urdu
as the primary medium of education in public schools has caused a systematic degradation and decline of many of Pakistan's native languages including Pashto.[57] This has caused growing resentment amongst Pashtuns, who also complain that Pashto
Pashto
is often neglected officially.[58][59] History[edit]

This section appears to contradict the article Dari language. Please see discussion on the linked talk page. (May 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

According to 19th-century linguist James Darmesteter
James Darmesteter
and modern linguist Michael M. T. Henderson, Pashto
Pashto
is "descended from Avestan".[16][17][18] The Rabatak inscription
Rabatak inscription
of Emperor Kanishka written in Bactrian and Greek contains words are borrowed from Pashto language due to their proximity to the modern Pashto
Pashto
language.[60] Strabo, who lived between 64 BC and 24 CE, explains that the tribes inhabiting the lands west of the Indus River
Indus River
were part of Ariana
Ariana
and to their east was India. Since the 3rd century CE and onward, they are mostly referred to by the name Afghan (Abgan)[61][62][63] and their language as "Afghani".[14] Scholars such as Abdul Hai Habibi
Abdul Hai Habibi
and others believe that the earliest modern Pashto
Pashto
work dates back to Amir Kror Suri of Ghor
Ghor
in the eighth century, and they use the writings found in Pata Khazana. However, this is disputed by several modern experts such as David Neil MacKenzie and Lucia Serena Loi due to lack of evidence.[64][65] Pata Khazana is a Pashto
Pashto
manuscript[66] claimed to be first compiled during the Hotaki dynasty
Hotaki dynasty
(1709–1738) in Kandahar, Afghanistan. Lucia Serena Loi considers Pata Khazana a late 19th century forgery.[65] From the 16th century, Pashto
Pashto
poetry become very popular among the Pashtuns. Some of those who wrote poetry in Pashto
Pashto
are Pir Roshan, Khushal Khan Khattak, Rahman Baba, Nazo Tokhi, and Ahmad Shah Durrani, founder of the modern state of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
or the Durrani Empire. In modern times, noticing the incursion of Persian and Persianised- Arabic
Arabic
vocabulary, there is a strong desire to "purify" Pashto
Pashto
by restoring its old vocabulary.[67][self-published source][68][69] Grammar[edit] Main article: Pashto
Pashto
grammar Pashto
Pashto
is a subject–object–verb (SOV) language with split ergativity. Adjectives come before nouns. Nouns and adjectives are inflected for two genders (masc./fem.),[70] two numbers (sing./plur.), and four cases (direct, oblique I, oblique II and vocative). There is also an inflection for the subjunctive mood. The verb system is very intricate with the following tenses: present, simple past, past progressive, present perfect and past perfect. The sentence construction of Pashto
Pashto
has similarities with some other Indo-Iranian languages such as Prakrit
Prakrit
and Bactrian. The possessor precedes the possessed in the genitive construction. The verb generally agrees with the subject in both transitive and intransitive sentences. An exception occurs when a completed action is reported in any of the past tenses (simple past, past progressive, present perfect or past perfect). In such cases, the verb agrees with the subject if it is intransitive, but if it is transitive, it agrees with the object,[28] therefore Pashto
Pashto
shows a partly ergative behavior. Like Kurdish, but unlike most other Indo-Iranian languages, Pashto
Pashto
uses all three types of adpositions – prepositions, postpositions and circumpositions. Phonology[edit] Main article: Pashto
Pashto
phonology Vowels[edit]

Front Central Back

Close i

u

Mid e ə o

Open

a ɑ

Consonants[edit]

Labial Denti- alveolar Retroflex Post- alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal

Nasal

m

n

ɳ

ŋ

Plosive p b t

d

ʈ ɖ

k ɡ q

Affricate

t͡s d͡z

t͡ʃ d͡ʒ

Fricative f

s z ʂ ʐ ʃ ʒ ç ʝ x ɣ

h

Approximant

l

j

w

Rhotic

r

ɺ̢ 

Phonemes that have been borrowed, thus non-native to Pashto, are colour-coded. The phonemes /q, f/ tend to be replaced by [k], [p].[71] The retroflex lateral flap /ɭ̆/ (ɺ̢  or ) is pronounced as retroflex approximant [ɻ] when final.[72][73] The retroflex fricatives /ʂ, ʐ/ and palatal fricatives /ç, ʝ/ represent dialectally different pronunciations of the same sound, not separate phonemes. In particular, the retroflex fricatives, which represent the original pronunciation of these sounds, are preserved in the southern/southwestern dialects (especially the prestige dialect of Kandahar), while they are pronounced as palatal fricatives in the west-central dialects. Other dialects merge the original retroflexes with other existing sounds: The southeastern dialects merge them with the postalveolar fricatives /ʃ, ʒ/, while the northern/northeastern dialects merge them with the velar phonemes in an asymmetric pattern, pronouncing them as /x, ɡ/ (not /ɣ/). Furthermore, according to Henderson (1983),[17] the west-central voiced palatal fricative /ʝ/ actually occurs only in the Wardak Province, and is merged into /ɡ/ elsewhere in the region. The velars /k, ɡ, x, ɣ/ followed by the close back rounded vowel /u/ assimilate into the labialized velars [kʷ, ɡʷ, xʷ, ɣʷ]. Voiceless stops [p, t, t͡ʃ, k] are all unaspirated, like Spanish, other Romance languages, and Austronesian languages; they have slightly aspirated allophones prevocalically in a stressed syllable. Vocabulary[edit] In Pashto, most of the native elements of the lexicon are related to other Eastern Iranian languages. However, a remarkably large number of words are unique to Pashto.[25] Post-7th century borrowings came primarily from the Persian and Hindustani languages, with some Arabic words being borrowed through those two languages, but sometimes directly.[74][75] Modern speech borrows words from English, French and German.[76] Here is an exemplary list of Pure Pashto
Pashto
and borrowings:[77]

Pashto Persian Arabic Meaning

چوپړ chopaṛ خدمت khidmat خدمة khidmah Service

هڅه hat͡sa کوشش kušeš

Effort/Try

پرېکړه prekṛa تصمیم tasmeem فيصله Decision

ملګری, ملګرې malgaray, malgare دوست dost صديق sadeeq Friend

Writing system[edit] Main article: Pashto
Pashto
alphabet Pashto
Pashto
employs the Pashto
Pashto
alphabet, a modified form of the Perso- Arabic
Arabic
alphabet. It has extra letters for Pashto-specific sounds. Since the 17th century, Pashto
Pashto
has been primarily written in the Naskh script, rather than the Nasta'liq script
Nasta'liq script
used for Urdu alphabet and, to some degree, the Persian alphabet.[78] The Pashto alphabet
Pashto alphabet
consists of 45 letters[79] and 4 diacritic marks. The following table gives the letters' isolated forms, along with the Latin equivalents and typical IPA values:

The Pashto
Pashto
Alphabet

ا ā, — /ɑ, ʔ/ ب b /b/ پ p /p/ ت t /t̪/ ټ ṭ /ʈ/ ث s /s/ ج j /d͡ʒ/ ځ ź /d͡z/ چ č /t͡ʃ/ څ c /t͡s/ ح h /h/ خ x /x/

د d /d̪/ ډ ḍ /ɖ/ ﺫ z /z/ ﺭ r /r/ ړ ṛ /ɺ˞~ɻ/ ﺯ z /z/ ژ ž /ʒ/ ږ ǵ (or ẓ̌) /ʐ, ʝ, ɡ/ س s /s/ ش š /ʃ/ ښ x̌ (or ṣ̌) /ʂ, ç, x/

ص s /s/ ض z /z/ ط t /t̪/ ظ z /z/g ع — /ʔ/ غ ğ /ɣ/ ف f /f/ ق q /q/ ک k /k/ ګ g /ɡ/ ل l /l/

م m /m/ ن n /n/ ڼ ṇ /ɳ/ و w, ū, o /w, u, o/ ه h, a /h, a/ ۀ ə /ə/ ي y, ī /j, i/ ې e /e/ ی ay, y /ai, j/ ۍ əi /əi/ ئ əi, y /əi, j/

Dialects[edit] Main article: Pashto
Pashto
dialects Pashto dialects
Pashto dialects
are divided into two varieties, the “soft” southern variety Paṣ̌tō, and the “hard” northern variety Pax̌tō (Pakhtu).[1] Each variety is further divided into a number of dialects. The southern dialect of Wanetsi is the most distinctive Pashto
Pashto
dialect. 1. Southern variety

Durrani dialect (or Southern dialect) Kakar dialect (or Southeastern dialect) Shirani dialect Marwat-Bettani dialect Wanetsi dialect Southern Karlani group

Khattak dialect Banuchi dialect Dawarwola dialect Masidwola dialect Wazirwola dialect

2. Northern variety

Central Ghilji dialect (or Northwestern dialect) Northern dialect (or Eastern dialect) Yusufzai dialect (or Northeastern dialect) Northern Karlani group

Taniwola dialect Khosti dialect Zadran dialect Bangash-Orakzai-Turi-Zazi-Mangal dialect Afridi dialect Khogyani dialect Wardak dialect

Literature[edit] Main article: Pashto
Pashto
literature and poetry Pashto-speakers have long had a tradition of oral literature, including proverbs, stories, and poems. Written Pashto
Pashto
literature saw a rise in development in the 17th century mostly due to poets like Khushal Khan Khattak (1613–1689), who, along with Rahman Baba (1650–1715), is widely regarded as among the greatest Pashto
Pashto
poets. Both of these poets belonged to the modern day Khyber Pakhtunkhwa region of Pakistan). From the time of Ahmad Shah Durrani (1722–1772), Pashto
Pashto
has been the language of the court. The first Pashto
Pashto
teaching text was written during the period of Ahmad Shah Durrani by Pir Mohammad Kakar with the title of Maʿrifat al-Afghānī ("The Knowledge of Afghani [Pashto]"). After that, the first grammar book of Pashto
Pashto
verbs was written in 1805 in India
India
under the title of Riyāż al-Maḥabbah ("Training in Affection") through the patronage of Nawab Mohabat Khan, son of Hafiz Rahmat Khan, chief of the Barech. Nawabullah Yar Khan, another son of Hafiz Rahmat Khan, in 1808 wrote a book of Pashto
Pashto
words entitled ʿAjāyib al-Lughāt ("Wonders of Languages"). Poetry example[edit] An excerpt from the Kalām of Rahman Baba: زۀ رحمان پۀ خپله ګرم يم چې مين يم چې دا نور ټوپن مې بولي ګرم په څۀ IPA: Zə ra.mɑn pə xpəl.a gram jəm t͡ʃe ma.jən jəm t͡ʃe d̪ɑ nor ʈo.pan me bo.li gram pə t͡sə Transliteration: Zə Rahmān pə xpəla gram yəm če mayən yəm Če dā nor ṭopan me boli gram pə tsə Translation: 'I Rahman, myself am guilty that I am a lover, On what does this other universe call me guilty.' Proverbs[edit] Pashto
Pashto
also has a rich heritage of proverbs ( Pashto
Pashto
matalūna, sg. matal).[80][81] An example of a proverb: اوبه په ډانګ نه بېليږي "One cannot divide water by [hitting it with] a pole." See also[edit]

Afghanistan
Afghanistan
portal Pakistan
Pakistan
portal Languages portal

Indo-European languages Eastern Iranian languages Pre-Islamic scripts in Afghanistan Languages of Pakistan

Notes[edit]

^ The only American pronunciation listed by Oxford Online Dictionaries, /ˈpæʃtoʊ/,[12] is so rare that it is not even mentioned by the American Heritage and Merriam–Webster dictionaries. ^ Sometimes spelled "Pushtu" or "Pushto",[10][11] and then either pronounced the same[13] or differently.[10][11] The spelling "Pakhto" is so rare that it is not even mentioned by any major English dictionaries or even recognized by major English– Pashto
Pashto
dictionaries such as Thepashto.com, and it is specifically listed by Ethnologue only as an alternative name for Northern Pashto, not Southern or Central Pashto.

References[edit]

^ a b c d e Claus, Peter J.; Diamond, Sarah; Ann Mills, Margaret (2003). South Asian Folklore: An Encyclopedia : Afghanistan, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka. Taylor & Francis. p. 447. ISBN 9780415939195.  ^ a b Penzl, Herbert; Ismail Sloan (2009). A Grammar of Pashto
Pashto
a Descriptive Study of the Dialect of Kandahar, Afghanistan. Ishi Press International. p. 210. ISBN 0-923891-72-2. Retrieved 2010-10-25. Estimates of the number of Pashto
Pashto
speakers range from 40 million to 60 million...  ^ Nationalencyklopedin
Nationalencyklopedin
"Världens 100 största språk 2007" The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007 (39 million) ^ Pashto
Pashto
(2005). Keith Brown, ed. Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics (2 ed.). Elsevier. ISBN 0-08-044299-4.  ^ a b Constitution of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
– Chapter 1 The State, Article 16 (Languages) and Article 20 (Anthem) ^ Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World. Elsevier. 6 April 2010. pp. 845–. ISBN 978-0-08-087775-4.  ^ Sebeok, Thomas Albert (1976). Current Trends in Linguistics: Index. Walter de Gruyter. p. 705.  ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Pashto". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ " Pashto
Pashto
(less commonly Pushtu)". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Merriam-Webster, Incorporated. Retrieved 18 July 2016.  ^ a b c " Pashto
Pashto
(also Pushtu)". American Heritage Dictionary. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Retrieved 18 July 2016.  ^ a b c " Pashto
Pashto
(also Pushtu)". Oxford Online Dictionaries, UK English. Oxford University Press.  ^ " Pashto
Pashto
(also Pushto or Pushtu)". Oxford Online Dictionaries, US English. Oxford University Press.  ^ " Pashto
Pashto
(also Pushtu)". Collins English Dictionary. HarperCollins Publishers. Retrieved 18 July 2016.  ^ a b John Leyden, Esq. M.D.; William Erskine, Esq., eds. (1921). "Events Of The Year 910 (1525)". Memoirs of Babur. Packard Humanities Institute. p. 5. Retrieved 2012-01-10. To the south is Afghanistān. There are eleven or twelve different languages spoken in Kābul: Arabic, Persian, Tūrki, Moghuli, Hindi, Afghani, Pashāi, Parāchi, Geberi, Bereki, and Lamghāni.  ^ India. Office of the Registrar General (1961). Census of India, 1961: Gujarat. Manager of Publications. pp. 142, 166, 177.  ^ a b Henderson, Michael. "The Phonology of Pashto" (PDF). Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin. Retrieved 2012-08-20.  ^ a b c Henderson, Michael (1983). "Four Varieties of Pashto". Journal of the American Oriental Society (103): 595–8.  ^ a b Darmesteter, James (1890). Chants populaires des Afghans. Paris.  ^ "Article Sixteen of the 2004 Constitution of Afghanistan". 2004. Retrieved 13 June 2012. From among the languages of Pashto, Dari, Uzbeki, Turkmani, Baluchi, Pashai, Nuristani, Pamiri (alsana), Arab and other languages spoken in the country, Pashto
Pashto
and Dari are the official languages of the state.  ^ Banting, Erinn (2003). Afghanistan: The land. Crabtree Publishing Company. p. 4. ISBN 0-7787-9335-4. Retrieved 2010-08-22.  ^ Population by Mother Tongue, Population Census – Pakistan
Pakistan
Bureau of Statistics, Government of Pakistan ^ Paul M. Lewis, ed. (2009). "Pashto, Northern". SIL International. Dallas, Texas: Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Sixteenth edition. Retrieved 2010-09-18. Ethnic population: 49,529,000 possibly total Pashto
Pashto
in all countries.  ^ "Pashto". Omniglot.com. Retrieved 2010-10-25. The exact number of Pashto
Pashto
speakers is not known for sure, but most estimates range from 45 million to 55 million.  ^ Thomson, Gale (2007). Countries of the World & Their Leaders Yearbook 08. 2. European Union: Indo-European Association. p. 84. ISBN 0-7876-8108-3. Retrieved 2010-10-25.  ^ a b "AFGHANISTAN vi. Paṧto". G. Morgenstierne. Encyclopaedia Iranica. Retrieved 2010-10-10. Paṧtō undoubtedly belongs to the Northeastern Iranic branch.  ^ Nicholas Sims-Williams, Eastern Iranian languages, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, 2010. "The Modern Eastern Iranian languages are even more numerous and varied. Most of them are classified as North-Eastern: Ossetic; Yaghnobi (which derives from a dialect closely related to Sogdian); the Shughni group (Shughni, Roshani, Khufi, Bartangi, Roshorvi, Sarikoli), with which Yaz-1ghulami (Sokolova 1967) and the now extinct Wanji (J. Payne in Schmitt, p. 420) are closely linked; Ishkashmi, Sanglichi, and Zebaki; Wakhi; Munji and Yidgha; and Pashto." ^ Paul M. Lewis, ed. (2009). " Pashto
Pashto
Family Tree". SIL International. Dallas, Texas: Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Sixteenth edition. Archived from the original on 13 March 2015. Retrieved 2 April 2011.  ^ a b " Pashto
Pashto
language". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2010-12-07.  ^ "Languages: Afghanistan". Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook. Retrieved 2010-09-18.  ^ Brown, Keith; Sarah Ogilvie (2009). Concise encyclopedia of languages of the world. Elsevie. p. 845. ISBN 0-08-087774-5. Retrieved 2012-04-07. Pashto, which is mainly spoken south of the mountain range of the Hindu Kush, is reportedly the mother tongue of 60% of the Afghan population.  ^ "Pashto". UCLA International Institute: Center for World Languages. University of California, Los Angeles. Retrieved 2010-12-10.  ^ "AFGHANISTAN v. Languages". Ch. M. Kieffer. Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 2010-10-10. A. Official languages. Paṧtō (1) is the native tongue of 50 to 55 percent of Afghans...  ^ a b Sharmeen Obaid-Chinoy (2009-07-17). "Karachi's Invisible Enemy". PBS. Retrieved 2010-08-24.  ^ "Pashto, Southern". SIL International. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, 14th edition. 2000. Archived from the original on 2008-06-26. Retrieved 2010-09-18.  ^ Walter R Lawrence, Imperial Gazetteer of India. Provincial Series, pg 36–37, Link ^ "Study of the Pathan Communities in four States of India". Khyber.org. Archived from the original on 2008-05-14. Retrieved 2009-06-07.  ^ "Phonemic Inventory of Pashto" (PDF). CRULP. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-07-23. Retrieved 2007-06-07.  ^ "Languages of United Arab Emirates". SIL International. Ethnologue: Languages of the World. Retrieved 2010-09-27.  ^ "Languages of Iran". SIL International. Ethnologue: Languages of the World. Archived from the original on 2012-02-04. Retrieved 2010-09-27.  ^ "Languages of United Kingdom". SIL International. Ethnologue: Languages of the World. Retrieved 2010-09-27.  ^ Modarresi, Yahya: "Iran, Afghanistan
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and Tadjikistan, 1911–1916." In: Sociolinguistics, Vol. 3, Part. 3. Ulrich Ammon, Norbert Dittmar, Klaus J. Mattheier, Peter Trudgill (eds.). Berlin, De Gryuter: 2006. p. 1915. ISBN 3-11-018418-4 [1] ^ a b c Tariq Rahman. " Pashto
Pashto
Language & Identity Formation in Pakistan." Contemporary South Asia, July 1995, Vol 4, Issue 2, p151-20. ^ Lorenz, Manfred. "Die Herausbildung moderner iranischer Literatursprachen." In: Zeitschrift für Phonetik, Sprachwissenschaft und Kommunikationsforschung, Vol. 36. Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR. Akademie Verlag, Berlin: 1983. P. 184ff. ^ Other sources note 1933, i.e. Johannes Christian Meyer-Ingwersen. Untersuchungen zum Satzbau des Paschto. 1966. Ph.D. Thesis, Hamburg 1966. ^ a b Hussain, Rizwan. Pakistan
Pakistan
and the emergence of Islamic militancy in Afghanistan. Burlington, Ashgate: 2005. p. 63. ^ István Fodor, Claude Hagège. Reform of Languages. Buske, 1983. P. 105ff. ^ Campbell, George L.: Concise Compendium of the world's languages. London: Routledge 1999. ^ Dupree, Louis: "Language and Politics in Afghanistan." In: Contributions to Asian Studies. Vol. 11/1978. p. 131–141. E. J. Brill, Leiden 1978. p. 131. ^ Spooner, Bryan: "Are we teaching Persian?" In: Persian Studies in North America: Studies in Honor of Mohammad Ali Jazayery. Mehdi Marashi (ed.). Bethesda, Iranbooks: 1994. p. 1983. ^ "Government of Pakistan: Population by Mother Tongue" (PDF). statpak.gov.pk. Pakistan
Pakistan
Bureau of Statistics. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 February 2006. Retrieved 18 July 2016.  ^ "In a city of ethnic friction, more tinder". The National. 2009-08-24. Archived from the original on 16 January 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-24.  ^ "Columnists The Pakhtun in Karachi". Time. 28 August 2010. Retrieved 2011-09-08.  ^ a b [2], thefridaytimes ^ Septfonds, D. 2006. Pashto. In: Concise encyclopedia of languages of the world. 845 – 848. Keith Brown / Sarah Ogilvie (eds.). Elsevier, Oxford: 2009. ^ Rahman, Tariq (2004), Craig Baxter, ed., Education in Pakistan
Pakistan
a Survey, Pakistan
Pakistan
on the Brink: Politics, Economics and Society, Lexington Books, p. 172, ISBN 978-0195978056  ^ Rahim, Bushra (28 September 2014). "Will change in medium of instruction improve education in KP?". dawn.com. Retrieved 18 July 2016.  ^ Hywel Coleman (2010). TEACHING AND LEARNING IN PAKISTAN: THE ROLE OF LANGUAGE IN EDUCATION (Report). British Council, Pakistan. Archived from the original on 4 November 2010. Retrieved 24 September 2012.  ^ Daniel Hallberg (1992). Sociolinguistic Survey of Northern Pakistan (PDF). 4. Quaid-i-Azam University & Summer Institute of Linguistics. p. 36 to 37. ISBN 969-8023-14-3.  ^ "د کرښې پرغاړه (په پاکستان کې د مورنیو ژبو حیثیت)". mashaalradio.org. Retrieved 18 July 2016.  ^ Habib, Abdul (1967). The Two Thousand Years Old Language of Afghanistan
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or The Mother of Dari Language (An Analysis of the Baghlan Inscription) (PDF). Historical Society of Afghanistan. p. 6.  ^ "Afghan and Afghanistan". Abdul Hai Habibi. alamahabibi.com. 1969. Retrieved 2010-10-24.  ^ "History of Afghanistan". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2010-11-22.  ^ Noelle-Karimi, Christine; Conrad J. Schetter; Reinhard Schlagintweit (2002). Afghanistan
Afghanistan
– a country without a state?. University of Michigan, United States: IKO. p. 18. ISBN 3-88939-628-3. Retrieved 2010-09-24. The earliest mention of the name 'Afghan' (Abgan) is to be found in a Sasanid inscription from the third century AD, and it appears in India
India
in the form of 'Avagana'...  ^ David Neil MacKenzie: David N. Mackenzie: The Development of the Pashto
Pashto
Script. In: Shirin Akiner (Editor): Languages and Scripts of Central Asia. School of Oriental and African Studies, Univ. of London, London 1997, ISBN 978-0-7286-0272-4.p. 142 ^ a b Lucia Serena Loi: Il tesoro nascosto degli Afghani. Il Cavaliere azzurro, Bologna 1987, p. 33 ^ "Pata Khazana" (PDF). Archived from the original (pdf) on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 27 September 2010.  ^ Ehsan M Entezar (2008). Afghanistan
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101: Understanding Afghan Culture. Xlibris Corporation. p. 89. ISBN 978-1-4257-9302-9.  ^ Carol Benson; Kimmo Kosonen (13 June 2013). Language Issues in Comparative Education: Inclusive Teaching and Learning in Non-Dominant Languages and Cultures. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 64–. ISBN 978-94-6209-218-1.  ^ Muhammad Gul Khan Momand, Hewād Afghanistan ^ Emeneau, M. B. (1962) “Bilingualism and Structural Borrowing” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 106(5): pp. 430–442, p. 441 ^ Tegey, Habibullah; Robson, Barbara (1996). A Reference Grammar of Pashto
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(PDF). Washington: Center for Applied Linguistics. p. 15.  ^ D.N. MacKenzie, 1990, “Pashto”, in Bernard Comrie, ed, The major languages of South Asia, the Middle East
Middle East
and Africa, p. 103 ^ Herbert Penzl, 1965, A Reader of Pashto, p 7 ^ Vladimir Kushev (1997). "Areal Lexical Contacts of the Afghan (Pashto) Language (Based on the Texts of the XVI-XVIII Centuries)". Iran
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and the Caucasus. 1: 159–166. doi:10.1163/157338497x00085. JSTOR 4030748.  ^ "Census of India, 1931, Volume 17, Part 2". Times of India: 292. 1937. Retrieved 7 June 2009. At the same time Pashto
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has borrowed largely from Persian and Hindustani, and through those languages from Arabic.  ^ Herbert Penzl (January–March 1961). "Western Loanwords in Modern Pashto". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 81 (1): 43–52. doi:10.2307/594900. JSTOR 594900.  ^ Raverty, Henry George Rahman (1867). A dictionary of the Puk'hto, Pus'hto, or language of the Afghans (2 ed.). London: Williams and Norgate.  ^ John Hladczuk (1992). International Handbook of Reading Education. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 148. ISBN 9780313262531.  ^ Ullah, Noor (2011). Pashto
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Grammar. AuthorHouse. p. 5. ISBN 978-1-4567-8007-4.  ^ Zellem, Edward (2014). Mataluna: 151 Afghan Pashto
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Proverbs. Cultures Direct Press. ISBN 978-0692215180.  ^ Bartlotti, Leonard and Raj Wali Shah Khattak, eds. (2006). Rohi Mataluna: Pashto
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Academy, Peshawar University.

Bibliography[edit]

Schmidt, Rüdiger (ed.) (1989). Compendium Linguarum Iranicarum. Wiesbaden: Reichert. ISBN 3-88226-413-6. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Gusain, Lakhan (2008?) A Grammar of Pashto. Ann Arbor, MI: Northside Publishers. Georg Morgenstierne
Georg Morgenstierne
(1926) Report on a Linguistic Mission to Afghanistan. Instituttet for Sammenlignende Kulturforskning, Serie C I-2. Oslo. ISBN 0-923891-09-9 Daniel G. Hallberg (1992) Pashto, Waneci, Ormuri
Ormuri
(Sociolinguistic Survey of Northern Pakistan, 4). National Institute of Pakistani Studies, 176 pp. ISBN 969-8023-14-3. Herbert Penzl A Grammar of Pashto: A Descriptive Study of the Dialect of Kandahar, Afghanistan, ISBN 0-923891-72-2 Herbert Penzl A Reader of Pashto, ISBN 0-923891-71-4

External links[edit]

Pashto
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edition of, the free encyclopedia

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pashto
Pashto
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For a list of words relating to Pashto, see the Pashto
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phrasebook.

Pashto
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Dictionary with Phonetic Keyboard & Auto-Suggestion Pashto
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Phonetic Keyboard Pashto
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Language & Identity Formation in Pakistan Indo-Aryan identity of Pashto Henry George Raverty. A Dictionary of the Puk'hto, Pus'hto, or Language of the Afghans. Second edition, with considerable additions. London: Williams and Norgate, 1867. D. N. MacKenzie, "A Standard Pashto", Khyber.org Freeware Online Pashto
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Pashto

Overview

Language History Alphabet Dialects Grammar Keyboard Literature and poetry (List of poets) Names Numerals Phonology Script

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Links to related articles

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Pashto
Pashto
literature

Classical

Amir Kror Suri Khushal Khan Khattak Rahman Baba Nazoo Anaa Hamza Baba Ajmal Khattak Kabir Stori Babarzai Karwan Malang Jan Baba Shah Sayed Miran Shah Sayed Guloon Ahmad Shah Baba Shah Shuja Timur Shah

Contemporary

Abdul Ali Mustaghni Abdul Bari Jahani Abdul Shakoor Rashad Ajmal Khattak Ghani Khan Gul Pacha Ulfat Hamza Shinwari Hashem Zamani Ismail Yoon Kabir Stori Malang Jan Mujawar Ahmad Ziar Pir Mohammad Karwan Rahmat Shah Sail Sulaiman Layeq

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Pashtun-related topics

Dynasties

Lodi dynasty Suri dynasty Hotak dynasty Durrani dynasty Barakzai dynasty more

Key figures

Bahlul Lodi Sher Shah Suri Mirwais Hotak Ahmad Shah Khan Ahmad Shah Durrani Dost Mohammad Khan Malalai of Maiwand Saidu Baba Abdur Rahman Khan Mahmud Tarzi Soraya Tarzi Amanullah Khan Mohammed Nadir Shah Mullah Powindah Sartor Faqir Umra Khan Mirzali Khan Bacha Khan Abdul Samad Khan Achakzai Wali Khan Zahir Shah Daoud Khan Abdul Ahad Mohmand Mohammad Najibullah Ghulam Ishaq Khan Mohammed Omar Hamid Karzai Asfandyar Wali Khan Zalmay Khalilzad Mohammad Ashraf Ghani Abdur Rab Nishtar Abdul Waheed Kakar Ayub Khan (President of Pakistan) Karnal Sher Khan Malala Yousafzai

Culture

Pashtun culture Pashtun cuisine Pashtunwali Pashto Pashtunization Pashtun dress Pashto
Pashto
media Pashto
Pashto
singers Pashtun tribes Loya jirga Adam Khan and Durkhanai Yusuf Khan and Sherbano Jirga

Poets

Amir Kror Suri Pir Roshan Rahman Baba Khushal Khattak Nazo Tokhi Abdul Hamid Baba Hussain Hotak Ahmad Shah Durrani Hamza Baba Ajmal Khattak Kabir Stori Ghani Khan

Topics and controversies

Pashtun nationalism Pashtunistan Afghan (ethnonym) Durand Line Bannu Resolution Khudai Khidmatgar Kalabagh Dam Taliban Names of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Anti-Pashtun sentiment

Battles and conflicts

First Battle of Panipat Battle of Gulnabad Third Battle of Panipat Battle of Attock Battle of Multan Battle of Shopian Battle of Nowshera Battle of Jamrud Siege of Malakand Anglo-Afghan Wars Battle of Maiwand Tirah Campaign Battle of Saragarhi Soviet–Afghan War War in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(2001–2014) War in North-West Pakistan War in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(2015–present)

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Languages of Afghanistan

Official languages

Dari Pashto

Regional languages

Balochi Kyrgyz Nuristani Pashayi Tajiki Turkmen Uzbek

Minority languages

Ashkunu Brahui Kamkata-viri Khowar Kyrgyz Pamiri

Ishkashimi Munji Shughni Yidgha

Tregami Waigali Wakhi Vasi-vari

Sign languages

Afghan Sign Language

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Punjabi Pashto Sindhi Balochi

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Balochistan

Brahui Dehwari Hazaragi Jadgali Khetrani Wanetsi

FATA

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Balti Purgi Burushaski Domaaki Khowar Munji Shina Wakhi

‎Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Burushaski Badeshi Bateri Chilisso Dameli Gawar-Bati Gowro Hindko Kalami Kalasha Kalkoti Kamviri Khowar Indus Kohistani Mankiyali Palula Torwali Ushoji Yidgha

Punjab

Bagri Dogri Pahari-Pothwari Punjabi dialects Saraiki Rajasthani

Sindh

Aer Bagri Bhaya Dhatki Goaria Gujarati Jandavra Jogi Koli

Parkari

Kutchi Loarki Marwari Memoni Mewari Od Rajasthani Vaghri

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Indo-Aryan languages Dardic languages Iranic languages Pakistani Sign Language Arabic Persian Persian and Urdu Chagatai

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Iranian languages

Old

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Middle

Western

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Eastern

Bactrian Khwarezmian Ossetic

Jassic

Saka Scythian Sogdian

Modern

North

Old Azari Balochi Central Iran Zoroastrian Dari Fars Gilaki Gorani Kurdic

Sorani Kurmanji Southern group Laki

Mazandarani Semnani Taleshi Deilami Tati Zazaki

Eastern

Pamir

Ishkashimi Sanglechi Wakhi Munji Yidgha Vanji Yazghulami Shughni Roshani Khufi Bartangi Sarikoli

Others

Ossetian

Digor Iron

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Central Northern Southern Wanetsi

Yaghnobi Ormuri Parachi

Western

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Caucasian Tat Dari Tajik

Luri

Feyli Bakhtiari Kumzari

Larestani Bashkardi

Italics indicate

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