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Pasargadae
Pasargadae
(from Ancient Greek: Πασαργάδαι, from Old Persian Pāθra-gadā, "protective club" or "strong club"[1][2]; Modern Persian: پاسارگاد Pāsārgād) was the capital of the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
under Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great
who had issued its construction (559–530 BC); it was also the location of his tomb. It was a city in ancient Persia, located near the city of Shiraz
Shiraz
(in Pasargad County), and is today an archaeological site and one of Iran's UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Sites.[3]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Tomb of Cyrus
Tomb of Cyrus
the Great

2 Archaeology 3 Sivand Dam
Sivand Dam
controversy 4 In popular culture

4.1 Vou‐me embora pra Pasárgada 4.2 I'm off to Pasargadae

5 Gallery 6 See also 7 References 8 Bibliography 9 External links

History[edit] Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great
began building the capital in 546 BC or later; it was unfinished when he died in battle, in 530 or 529 BC. The remains of the tomb of Cyrus' son and successor Cambyses II
Cambyses II
have been found in Pasargadae, near the fortress of Toll-e Takht, and identified in 2006.[4] Pasargadae
Pasargadae
remained the capital of the Achaemenid
Achaemenid
empire until Cambyses II
Cambyses II
moved it to Susa; later, Darius founded another in Persepolis. The archaeological site covers 1.6 square kilometres and includes a structure commonly believed to be the mausoleum of Cyrus, the fortress of Toll-e Takht sitting on top of a nearby hill, and the remains of two royal palaces and gardens. Pasargadae
Pasargadae
Persian Gardens provide the earliest known example of the Persian chahar bagh, or fourfold garden design (see Persian Gardens). The Gate R, located at the eastern edge of the palace area, is the oldest known freestanding propylaeum. It may have been the architectural predecessor of the Gate of All Nations
Gate of All Nations
at Persepolis.[5] Tomb of Cyrus
Tomb of Cyrus
the Great[edit] Main article: Tomb of Cyrus

"I am Cyrus the king, an Achaemenid." in Old Persian, Elamite
Elamite
and Akkadian languages. It is carved in a column in Pasargadae

The most important monument in Pasargadae
Pasargadae
is the tomb of Cyrus the Great. It has six broad steps leading to the sepulchre, the chamber of which measures 3.17 m long by 2.11 m wide by 2.11 m high and has a low and narrow entrance. Though there is no firm evidence identifying the tomb as that of Cyrus, Greek historians tell that Alexander
Alexander
believed it was. When Alexander
Alexander
looted and destroyed Persepolis, he paid a visit to the tomb of Cyrus. Arrian, writing in the second century AD, recorded that Alexander
Alexander
commanded Aristobulus, one of his warriors, to enter the monument. Inside he found a golden bed, a table set with drinking vessels, a gold coffin, some ornaments studded with precious stones and an inscription on the tomb. No trace of any such inscription survives, and there is considerable disagreement to the exact wording of the text. Strabo
Strabo
reports that it read:

Passer-by, I am Cyrus, who gave the Persians an empire, and was king of Asia. Grudge me not therefore this monument.

Another variation, as documented in Persia: The Immortal Kingdom, is:

O man, whoever thou art, from wheresoever thou cometh, for I know you shall come, I am Cyrus, who founded the empire of the Persians. Grudge me not, therefore, this little earth that covers my body.

The design of Cyrus' tomb is credited to Mesopotamian or Elamite ziggurats, but the cella is usually attributed to Urartu
Urartu
tombs of an earlier period.[6] In particular, the tomb at Pasargadae
Pasargadae
has almost exactly the same dimensions as the tomb of Alyattes II, father of the Lydian King Croesus; however, some have refused the claim (according to Herodotus, Croesus
Croesus
was spared by Cyrus during the conquest of Lydia, and became a member of Cyrus' court). The main decoration on the tomb is a rosette design over the door within the gable.[7] In general, the art and architecture found at Pasargadae
Pasargadae
exemplified the Persian synthesis of various traditions, drawing on precedents from Elam, Babylon, Assyria, and ancient Egypt, with the addition of some Anatolian influences. Archaeology[edit]

Dovetail
Dovetail
Staples from Pasargadae

The first capital of the Achaemenid
Achaemenid
Empire, Pasargadae
Pasargadae
lies in ruins 40'40 kilometers from Persepolis, in present-day Fars province
Fars province
of Iran.[8] Pasargadae
Pasargadae
was first archaeologically explored by the German archaeologist Ernst Herzfeld
Ernst Herzfeld
in 1905, and in one excavation season in 1928, together with his assistant Friedrich Krefter (de).[9] Since 1946, the original documents, notebooks, photographs, fragments of wall paintings and pottery from the early excavations are preserved in the Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution, in Washington, DC. After Herzfeld, Sir Aurel Stein
Sir Aurel Stein
completed a site plan for Pasargadae
Pasargadae
in 1934.[10] In 1935, Erich F. Schmidt produced a series of aerial photographs of the entire complex.[11] From 1949 to 1955, an Iranian team led by Ali Sami worked there.[12] A British Institute of Persian Studies team led by David Stronach resumed excavation from 1961 to 1963.[13][14][15] It was during the 1960s that a pot-hoard known as the Pasargadae
Pasargadae
Treasure was excavated near the foundations of 'Pavilion B' at the site. Dating to the 5th-4th centuries BC, the treasure consists of ornate Achaemenid jewellery made from gold and precious gems and is now housed in the National Museum of Iran
Iran
and the British Museum.[16] It has been suggested that the treasure was buried as a subsequent action once Alexander
Alexander
the Great approached with his army, then remained buried, hinting at violence.[17] After a gap, work was resumed by the Iranian Cultural Heritage Organization and the Maison de l'Orient et de la Méditerranée of the University of Lyon
University of Lyon
in 2000.[18] The complex is one of the key cultural heritage sites for tourism in Iran[19]. Sivand Dam
Sivand Dam
controversy[edit] There has been growing concern regarding the proposed Sivand
Sivand
Dam, named after the nearby town of Sivand. Despite planning that has stretched over 10 years, Iran's own Iranian Cultural Heritage Organization was not aware of the broader areas of flooding during much of this time. Its placement between both the ruins of Pasargadae
Pasargadae
and Persepolis
Persepolis
has many archaeologists and Iranians worried that the dam will flood these UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage sites, although scientists involved with the construction say this is not obvious because the sites sit above the planned waterline. Of the two sites, Pasargadae
Pasargadae
is the one considered to be more threatened. Experts agree that the planning of future dam projects in Iran
Iran
will merit an earlier examination of the risks to cultural resource properties.[20] Of broadly shared concern to archaeologists is the effect of the increase in humidity caused by the lake.[21] All agree that the humidity created by it will speed up the destruction of Pasargadae, yet experts from the Ministry of Energy believe it could be partially compensated for by controlling the water level of the reservoir. Construction of the dam began April 19, 2007. In popular culture[edit] In 1930, the Brazilian poet Manuel Bandeira
Manuel Bandeira
published a poem called "Vou-me embora pra Pasárgada" ("I'm off to Pasargadae" in Portuguese), in a book entitled Libertinagem.[22] It tells the story of a man who wants to go to Pasargadae, described in the poem as a utopian city. This poem has become one of the Portuguese language's classics. The following is an extract, in the original then in a translation:

Vou‐me embora pra Pasárgada[edit]

Vou-me embora pra Pasárgada Lá sou amigo do rei Lá tenho a mulher que eu quero Na cama que escolherei

[…]

E quando eu estiver mais triste Mas triste de não ter jeito Quando de noite me der Vontade de me matar — Lá sou amigo do rei — Terei a mulher que eu quero Na cama que escolherei Vou-me embora pra Pasárgada.

I'm off to Pasargadae[edit]

I'm off to Pasargadae There I am friend with the king There I shall have the woman I want On the bed of my choice

[…]

And when I'm sadder So sad there's nothing left When at night I feel Desire to kill myself — There I am friend with the king — I will have the woman I want On the bed of my choice I'm off to Pasargadae.

Gallery[edit]

Tomb of Cyrus
Tomb of Cyrus
the Great

The "prison of Solomon", another part of the ruined compound, which may be the tomb of Cambyses I

The Private Palace.

The Audience Palace.

The Gateway Palace.

The citadel of Pasargadae. At its top many column bases indicate the structure was not unlike the Athenian Acropolis
Acropolis
in positioning and structure.

Caravanserai
Caravanserai
of Mozaffari, built during the Mozaffari dynasty

See also[edit]

2,500 year celebration of Iran's monarchy Achaemenid
Achaemenid
architecture Cities of the ancient Near East History of Iran Iranian architecture Tang-e Bolaghi Ka'ba-ye Zartosht, modeled after the "Prison of Solomon"

References[edit]

^ "BATRAKATAŠ," Encyclopædia Iranica, online edition, available at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/batrakatas-place-name-which-appears-on-the-elamite-fortification-tablets-found-at-persepolis-apparently-the-same-as-pasarga ^ David Stronach and Hilary Gopnik, “PASARGADAE,” Encyclopædia Iranica, online edition, 2009, available at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/pasargadae ^ Ancient Pasargadae
Pasargadae
threatened by construction of dam, Mehr News Agency, 28 August 2004, archived from the original on 11 March 2007, retrieved Sep 15, 2006 . ^ Discovered Stone Slab Proved to be Gate of Cambyses’ Tomb, CHN, archived from the original on 2009-11-29 . ^ electricpulp.com. "PASARGADAE – Encyclopaedia Iranica". www.iranicaonline.org. Retrieved 4 April 2018.  ^ Hogan, C Michael (Jan 19, 2008), "Tomb of Cyrus", The Megalithic Portal, Surrey, UK: Andy Burnham . ^ Ferrier, Ronald W (1989), The Arts of Persia, Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-03987-5 . ^ Lendering, Jona, Pasargadae, Livius . ^ Herzfeld, E (1929), Bericht über die Ausgrabungen von Pasargadae 1928 (in German), 1, Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Iran, pp. 4–16 , ^ Stein, A (1936), An Archaeological Tour in Ancient Persis, Iraq, 3, pp. 217–20 . ^ Schmidt, Erich F (1940), Flights Over Ancient Cities of Iran
Iran
(PDF), University of Chicago Oriental Institute, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0-918986-96-6 . ^ Ali-Sami (1971) [March 1956], Pasargadae. The Oldest Imperial. Capital of Iran, 4, Rev. RN Sharp transl (2nd ed.), Shiraz: Learned Society of Pars; Musavi Print. Office . ^ Stronach, David (1963), "First Preliminary Report", Excavations at Pasargadae, Iran, 1, pp. 19–42 . ^ ———————— (1964), "Second Preliminary Report", Excavations at Pasargadae, Iran, 2, pp. 21–39 . ^ ———————— (1965), "Third Preliminary Report", Excavations at Pasargadae, Iran, 3, pp. 9–40 . ^ "Collection search: You searched for Pasargadae
Pasargadae
Pavilion B Hoard". British Museum. Retrieved 4 April 2018.  ^ "Pasargadae, Paradise". Livius.  ^ Boucharlat, Rémy (2002), Pasargadae, Iran, 40, pp. 279–82 . ^ Butler, Richard; O'Gorman, Kevin D.; Prentice, Richard (2012-07-01). "Destination Appraisal for European Cultural Tourism to Iran". International Journal of Tourism Research. 14 (4): 323–338. doi:10.1002/jtr.862. ISSN 1522-1970.  ^ Sivand Dam
Sivand Dam
Waits for Excavations to be Finished, Cultural Heritage News Agency, 26 February 2006, archived from the original on 11 March 2007, retrieved Sep 15, 2006 . ^ Date of Sivand Dam
Sivand Dam
Inundation Not Yet Agreed Upon, Cultural Heritage News Agency, 29 May 2006, archived from the original on 12 March 2007, retrieved Sep 15, 2006 . ^ Bandeira, Manuel (2009). "Libertinagem" [Salacity]. In Seffrin, André (organizer). Manuel Bandeira: poesia completa e prosa, volume único [Manuel Bandeira: complete poetry and prose, unique volume] (in Portuguese). Rio de Janeiro [(City) "River of January"], RJ [(State) "River of January"], Brasil [Brazil]: Editora Nova Aguilar [New Aguilar Press]. pp. XXIII, 118–119. 

Bibliography[edit]

Sivand
Sivand
Dam’s Inundation Postponed for 6 Months, Cultural Heritage News Agency, 29 November 2005, archived from the original on 12 March 2007, retrieved Sep 15, 2006 . Fathi, Nazila (November 27, 2005), "A Rush to Excavate Ancient Iranian Sites", The New York Times ; fully accessible at Fathi, Nazila (27 November 2005), "SF Gate", The San Francisco Chronicle . Ali Mousavi (September 16, 2005), "Cyrus can rest in peace: Pasargadae and rumors about the dangers of Sivand
Sivand
Dam", History, Iranian, archived from the original on May 23, 2010 . Pasargadae
Pasargadae
Will Never Drown, Cultural Heritage News Agency, 12 September 2005, archived from the original on 12 March 2007, retrieved Sep 15, 2006 . Matheson, Sylvia A, Persia: An Archaeological Guide . Seffrin, André (2009), Manuel Bandeira: poesia completa e prosa, volume único [Manuel Bandeira: complete poetry and prose, unique volume], Rio de Janeiro: Editora Nova Aguilar, ISBN 978-85-210-0108-9 . Stronach, David (1978), Pasargadae: A Report on the Excavations Conducted by the British Institute of Persian Studies from 1961–63, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-813190-9 .

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pasargadae.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Pasargadae.

" Pasargadae
Pasargadae
Excavation Documentation and Fragments of Wall Paintings from Pasargadae", Freer Gallery of Art, Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, archived from the original on 2010-06-07 . "Records of Pasargadae", Ernst Herzfeld
Ernst Herzfeld
Papers, 5: Drawings and Maps, Washington, DC: Collections Search Center, S.I.R.I.S., Smithsonian Institution . Tall_e Takht, archived from the original (pictures) on 2007-01-18 . World Heritage Center, Unesco . "Pasargadae", History, Iran
Iran
Chamber Society . "European languages", Save Pasargadae
Pasargadae
From Destruction  "Pasargad", Land of Aryan, ATSpace . Pasargad (virtual reconstruction of Pasargadae), Persepolis3D . Persepolis
Persepolis
& Pasargad (photo gallery) (in German), M Heße, 2009 . Pasargadae, Ancient History Encyclopedia  Pasargadae, Cultural Heritage Organization of Iran, archived from the original on 2011-10-20 

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