Parwān ( fa|پروان), also spelled Parvān, is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan
. It has a population of about 2 Million. The province is multi-ethnic and mostly a rural society. the province is divided into ten districts
. The town of Charikar
serves as the provincial capital. The province is located in East Afghanistan north of Kabul Province
and south of Baghlan Province
, west of Panjshir Province
and Kapisa Province
, and east of Wardak Province
and Bamyan Province
The name Parwan is also attributed to a town, the exact location of which is now unknown, that supposedly existed during prehistory, in the nearby Hindu Kush
[Frye, Richard Nelson (1999). "Farwan (also Parwan)". ''Encyclopaedia of Islam'' CD-ROM Edition v. 1.0. Leiden, The Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill NV. Retrieved on December 18, 2007.]
Despite a four decade-long state of war in Afghanistan
, Parwan was relatively free of conflict by the mid-2010s. While occasional attacks on government or international forces are reported, they are usually minor. Such incidents in Parwan mostly involve grenade attacks on the residences of government officials or roadside bombs.
Bagram Air Base
, which is one of the largest US military bases in Afghanistan, is located in Parwan.
In 329 BC, Alexander the Great
founded the settlement of Parwan as his Alexandria of the Caucasus
. It was conquered by Arab Muslims
in 792 AD.
In 1221, the province was the site of the battle between the invading Mongols
, led by Genghis Khan
, and the Khwarezmian Empire
led by Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu
, where the Mongols were defeated.
The famous Moroccan
traveler and scholar, Ibn Battuta
, visiting the area in 1333 writes:
The area was subsequently ruled by the Timurids
until Ahmad Shah Durrani
made it part of the Durrani Empire
in 1747. In 1840, Parwan was the site of a major battle in the First Anglo-Afghan War
where the invading British
Parwan's modern history began with the construction of a new textile factory in the town of Jabal Saraj
Parwan was involved in the Soviet–Afghan War
as some of the fiercest fighting took place in the area. In the 1990s it was the site of heavy resistance against the Taliban
Since the removal of the Taliban in late 2001, the United States Armed Forces
took control of Bagram Air Base
and began using it as one of their main bases in Afghanistan. A Provincial Reconstruction Team
(PRT) led by South Korea
helped the locals with development activities in the province until 2014. In mid-February 2011, five rocket-propelled grenade
s hit the newly built South Korean military base housing the provincial reconstruction team and civilian aid workers. No one was injured in the attack, but it came hours after a visit by South Korean Defense Minister Kim Kwan-jin
, raising suspicions of Taliban
involvement. The opening ceremony of the base was postponed indefinitely.
A plan to build a power plant in the province is under consideration. A large portion of Parwan's economy relies on remittances from the Afghan diaspora
In July 2012, the Taliban executed a married woman in front of a large crowd after she was found guilty of adultery.NBC News
/ref> It was reported that the woman had a secret affair with a married military commander of the Afghan National Army.
Politics and governance
The current governor of the province is Mohammad Asim Asim. The city of Charikar is the capital of the province. All law enforcement activities throughout the province are handled by the Afghan National Police (ANP). The provincial police chief represents the Ministry of the Interior in Kabul. The ANP is backed by other Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF), including the NATO-led forces.
The percentage of households with clean drinking water fell from 32% in 2005 to 11% in 2011.
The percentage of births attended to by a skilled birth attendant increased from 4% in 2005 to 7% in 2011.
The overall literacy rate (6+ years of age) fell from 37% in 2005 to 28% in 2011.
The overall net enrolment rate (6–13 years of age) increased from 42% in 2005 to 54% in 2011.
Demographics and geography
The total population of the province is about 631,600, which is a Tajik dominated and mostly a rural society with around 70 - 80% being Tajiks and the rest being a mix of Pashtuns and Hazaras.
According to the Naval Postgraduate School, the ethnic groups of the province are as follows: Tajiks, Hazaras, Uzbeks, Pashtuns, Kuchis and other minority groups.
According to Afghanistan's Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation and Development:
Notable towns and villages
File:CH-NB - Afghanistan, Shibar Pass (Shebar Pass, Kowtal-e Shebar)- Landschaft - Annemarie Schwarzenbach - SLA-Schwarzenbach-A-5-20-220.jpg|Near the Shibar Pass that connects Parwan to Bamyan.
File:Road in Parwan-11.jpg|A road in the Parwan Province, near the Sayed Bridge which is located short distance north from Bagram Air Base.
File:Near Sayed Bridge in Parwan-4.jpg|Fields near the Sayed Bridge
File:Flickr - boellstiftung - Parwan.jpg|School girls in a rural area of Parwan
File:Afghan boys and police in 2010.jpg|A member of the Afghan National Police trying to control local children awaiting the distribution of goods from the U.S. military for the winter months.
File:Afghan women in Parwan province.jpg|Afghan women working inside a factory in Parwan
*Provinces of Afghanistan
*Battle of Parwan
* , April 16, 2019, Ariana Television Network.
* , February 7, 2012, TOLO/USAIDAfghanistan.
by the Naval Postgraduate School
by the Institute for the Study of War
Category:Provinces of Afghanistan