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The Info List - Party-list Proportional Representation


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PARTY-LIST PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION systems are a family of voting systems emphasizing proportional representation (PR) in elections in which multiple candidates are elected (e.g., elections to parliament ) through allocations to an electoral list . They can also be used as part of mixed additional member systems .

In these systems, parties make lists of candidates to be elected, and seats get allocated to each party in proportion to the number of votes the party receives. Voters may vote directly for the party, as in Albania
Albania
, Argentina
Argentina
, Turkey
Turkey
, and Israel
Israel
; or for candidates whose vote total will pool to the party, as in Finland
Finland
, Brazil
Brazil
and the Netherlands
Netherlands
; or for a list of candidates, as in Hong Kong
Hong Kong
. Voters in Luxembourg
Luxembourg
's multi-seat constituencies can choose between voting for a complete list of candidates of a single party ("list vote") or voting for individual candidates from one or several lists ("panachage ").

Part of the Politics
Politics
series

ELECTORAL SYSTEMS

Plurality/majoritarian

* Simple majoritarianism

* Limited voting * Single non-transferable vote

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* Plurality

* First-past-the-post * Two-round * Exhaustive ballot

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* Preferential/ranked/ordinal systems

* Borda count * Bucklin voting * Condorcet methods (Copeland\'s , Dodgson\'s , Kemeny-Young , Minimax , Nanson\'s , Ranked pairs , Schulze ) * Coombs\' method

* Instant-runoff (alternative vote)

* Contingent vote

* Oklahoma primary electoral system

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* Cardinal/graded/rated systems

* Approval voting * Proportional approval voting * Sequential proportional approval voting * Satisfaction approval voting * Majority judgment * Range voting

Proportional representation

* Party-list (Open lists , Closed lists , Local lists )

* Highest averages (D\'Hondt , Sainte-Laguë , Huntington-Hill ) * Largest remainder (Hare , Droop , Imperiali , Hagenbach-Bischoff )

* Single transferable vote ( CPO-STV , Gregory , Schulze STV , Wright ) * Dual-member proportional representation

Mixed-member

* Mixed-member proportional * Majority bonus system

* Additional member system

* Scorporo , Av+ * Parallel voting

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* Majoritarian representation

* Plurality-at-large * Preferential block voting * General ticket

Other

* Proxy voting

* Delegable voting * Delegated voting

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* Random selection

* Sortition * Random ballot

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* Social choice theory

* Arrow\'s theorem * Gibbard–Satterthwaite theorem * Voting system
Voting system
criteria * Public choice theory (separate but related)

* Multiple Ballot
Ballot
Voting

* Cumulative voting

Politics
Politics
portal

* v * t * e

The order in which a party's list candidates get elected may be pre-determined by some method internal to the party or the candidates (a closed list system) or it may be determined by the voters at large (an open list system) or by districts (a local list system).

Many variations on seat allocation within party-list proportional representation exist. The two most common are:

* The highest average method , including the D\'Hondt method (or Jefferson's method) used in Albania
Albania
, Argentina
Argentina
, Austria
Austria
, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
, Croatia
Croatia
, Cambodia
Cambodia
, Estonia
Estonia
, Finland
Finland
, Israel
Israel
, Poland
Poland
, Spain
Spain
and many other countries; and the Sainte-Laguë method (or Webster's method) used in Norway
Norway
, Sweden
Sweden
, New Zealand
New Zealand
, the German Bundestag
Bundestag
, and in six German states (e.g., North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia
and Bremen ). * The largest remainder (LR) methods , including the Hamilton method.

List proportional representation may also be combined in various hybrids, e.g., using the additional member system .

List of main apportionment methods (most proportional to least proportional):

* Macanese "d\'Hondt method" (greatly favors small parties) * Webster/ Sainte-Laguë method , LR-Hare (slightly favors very small parties when unmodified , if there is no election threshold) * LR-Droop (very slightly favors larger parties) * D\'Hondt method (slightly favors larger parties) * LR-Imperiali (greatly favors larger parties)

While the allocation formula is important, equally important is the district magnitude (number of seats in a constituency). The higher the district magnitude, the more proportional an electoral system becomes - the most proportional being when there is no division into constituencies at all and the entire country is treated as a single constituency. More, in some countries the electoral system works on two levels: at-large for parties, and in constituencies for candidates, with local party-lists seen as fractions of general, national lists. In this case, magnitude of local constituencies is irrelevant, seat apportionment being calculated at national level.

In France, party lists in proportional elections must include as many candidates (and twice as many substitutes for the departmental elections ) as there are seats to be allocated, whereas in other countries "incomplete" lists are allowed.

SEE ALSO

* Proportional representation * Comparison of the Hare and Droop quotas * Outline of democracy * List MP * Ley de Lemas * Sectoral representation in the House of Representatives of the Philippines

REFERENCES

* ^ "Proportional Representation Systems". mtholyoke.edu. * ^ "Proportional Representation Open List Electoral Systems in Europe" (PDF). International Foundation for Electoral Systems. * ^ "Système électoral du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg(fr)". elections.public.lu. * ^ Benoit, Kenneth. "Which Electoral Formula Is the MostProportional? A New Lookwith New Evidence" (PDF). * ^ Wilson, Helen J. "The D’Hondt Method Explained" (PDF).

EXTERNAL

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