The Info List - Party-list Proportional Representation

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Party-list proportional representation
Party-list proportional representation
systems are a family of voting systems emphasizing proportional representation (PR) in elections in which multiple candidates are elected (e.g., elections to parliament) through allocations to an electoral list. They can also be used as part of mixed additional member systems.[1] In these systems, parties make lists of candidates to be elected, and seats get distributed to each party in proportion to the number of votes the party receives. Voters may vote directly for the party, as in Albania, Argentina, Turkey, and Israel; or for candidates whose vote total will pool to the party, as in Finland, Brazil
and the Netherlands; or for a list of candidates, as in Hong Kong.[2] Voters in Luxembourg's multi-seat constituencies can choose between voting for a complete list of candidates of a single party ("list vote") or voting for individual candidates from one or several lists ("panachage").[3]

Part of the Politics

Electoral systems



First-past-the-post Single non-transferable vote Limited voting Plurality-at-large (block voting) General ticket

Multi-round voting

Two-round Exhaustive ballot

Ranked/preferential systems

Instant-runoff (alternative vote)

Contingent vote Coombs' method

Condorcet methods (Copeland's, Dodgson's, Kemeny-Young, Minimax, Nanson's, Ranked pairs, Schulze) Borda count Bucklin voting

Oklahoma primary electoral system

Preferential block voting

Cardinal/graded systems

Range voting Approval voting Multi-winner approval voting (Proportional, Sequential proportional, Satisfaction) Majority judgment

Proportional representation

Party-list (Open lists, Closed lists, Local lists)

Highest averages (D'Hondt, Sainte-Laguë, Huntington-Hill) Largest remainder (Hare, Droop, Imperiali, Hagenbach-Bischoff)

Single transferable vote
Single transferable vote
(CPO-STV, Gregory, Schulze STV, Wright) Biproportional apportionment

Fair majority voting

Mixed systems

Mixed member proportional

Additional member system

Parallel voting (Mixed member majoritarian) Scorporo Majority bonus Alternative vote plus Dual member proportional

Other systems & related theory

Cumulative voting Binomial voting Proxy voting

Delegated voting

Random selection (Sortition, Random ballot)

Comparison of electoral systems Social choice theory

Arrow's theorem Gibbard–Satterthwaite theorem

Public choice theory


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The order in which a party's list candidates get elected may be pre-determined by some method internal to the party or the candidates (a closed list system) or it may be determined by the voters at large (an open list system) or by districts (a local list system). Many variations on seat allocation within party-list proportional representation exist. The two most common are:

The highest average method, including the D'Hondt method (or Jefferson's method) used in Albania, Argentina, Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cambodia, Estonia, Finland, Israel, Poland, Spain
and many other countries; and the Sainte-Laguë method (or Webster's method) used in Norway, Sweden, New Zealand, the German Bundestag, and in six German states (e.g., North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia
and Bremen). The largest remainder (LR) methods, including the Hamilton method.

List proportional representation may also be combined in various hybrids, e.g., using the additional member system. List of main apportionment methods:[4]

Macanese "d'Hondt method" (greatly favors small parties) Webster/Sainte-Laguë method, LR-Hare (slightly favors very small parties when unmodified, if there is no election threshold) LR-Droop (very slightly favors larger parties) D'Hondt method (slightly favors larger parties)[5] Huntington-Hill method (greatly favors larger parties) LR-Imperiali (greatly favors larger parties)

While the allocation formula is important, equally important is the district magnitude (number of seats in a constituency). The higher the district magnitude, the more proportional an electoral system becomes - the most proportional being when there is no division into constituencies at all and the entire country is treated as a single constituency. More, in some countries the electoral system works on two levels: at-large for parties, and in constituencies for candidates, with local party-lists seen as fractions of general, national lists. In this case, magnitude of local constituencies is irrelevant, seat apportionment being calculated at national level. In France, party lists in proportional elections must include as many candidates (and twice as many substitutes for the departmental elections) as there are seats to be allocated, whereas in other countries "incomplete" lists are allowed. See also[edit]

Proportional representation Comparison of the Hare and Droop quotas Outline of democracy List MP Ley de Lemas Sectoral representation in the House of Representatives of the Philippines


^ "Proportional Representation Systems". mtholyoke.edu.  ^ "Proportional Representation Open List Electoral Systems in Europe" (PDF). International Foundation for Electoral Systems. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-12-24.  ^ "Système électoral du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg(fr)". elections.public.lu.  ^ Benoit, Kenneth. "Which Electoral Formula Is the MostProportional? A New Lookwith New Evidence" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-06-24.  ^ Wilson, Helen J. "The D'Hondt Method Explained" (PDF). 

External links[edit]

Advantages and disadvantages of List PR - from the ACE Project Open, Closed and Free Lists - from the ACE Project Handbook of Electoral System Choice Apportionment, or How to Round Seat Numbers Glossary of Electoral Formulas

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Electoral systems

Part of the politics and election series

Single-winner voting system

Approval voting Borda count Bucklin voting Contingent vote Coombs' method Copeland's method Dodgson's method Exhaustive ballot First-past-the-post voting Instant-runoff voting Kemeny–Young method Majority judgment Simple majoritarianism Minimax Condorcet Nanson's method Plurality Positional voting system Range voting Ranked pairs Schulze method Two-round system

Proportional representation

Mixed-member Party-list Single transferable vote Schulze STV CPO-STV Highest averages method

Sainte-Laguë D'Hondt

Largest remainder method Alternative vote Plus Closed list Open list Overhang seat Underhang seat

Semi-proportional representation

Parallel voting Single non-transferable vote Cumulative voting Limited voting Proportional approval voting Sequential proportional approval voting Satisfaction approval voting


Table of voting systems by country

Voting system
Voting system

Comparison Condorcet criterion Condorcet loser criterion Consistency criterion Independence of clones Independence of irrelevant alternatives Independence of Smith-dominated alternatives Later-no-harm criterion Majority criterion Majority loser criterion Monotonicity criterion Mutual majority criterion Pareto efficiency Participation criterion Plurality criterion Resolvability criterion Reversal symmetry Smith criterion

Voting system
Voting system

Droop quota Hagenbach-Bischoff quota Hare quota Imperiali quota


Ballot Election
threshold First-preference votes Spoilt vote Sortition