The PAROPAMISADAE, also known by other names , were a people who
lived in the area of southern
Afghanistan and northern
classical antiquity . The name was also used to refer to the lands
these people inhabited, properly known as PAROPAMISUS.
* 1 Name
* 2 History
* 3 Geography and peoples
* 4 See also
* 5 Notes
* 6 References
* 6.1 Citations
* 6.2 Bibliography
* 7 External links
A map depicting the realm of the "Paropanisadai" from a
15th-century Greek manuscript edition of Ptolemy 's Geography
The realm of the "Paropanisade" in
Francesco Berlinghieri 's 1482
Seven Days of Geography .
Paropamisadae is the latinized form of the Greek name Paropamisádai
(Παροπαμισάδαι), used to refer to the inhabitants of the
land of "Paropamisus" (Παροπαμισός, Paropamisós) in the
Hindu Kush . The name derived from the
Old Persian Para-upari-sena
(lit. "Beyond the Raised Land"), which properly referred to the
Peshawar Valley on the other side of the mountains from Persia, with
its major settlements at
Charsadda in what is now
In many Greek and Latin sources, particularly editions of Ptolemy 's
Geography where their realm is included on the 9th Map of Asia, the
names of the people and region are given as PAROPANISADAE and
PAROPANISUS. They also appeared less frequently as Parapamisadae and
Parapamīsus (Παραπάμισος, Parapámisos), Paropamīsii,
the Parsii (Πάρσιοι) in the northwest, the Ambautae
(Ἀμβαῦται) in the east and the Par(g)yetae
(Παρ(γ)υῆται) in the south, who were also found in
Arachosia. The major cities of the land were the city of Ortospana
(Ὀρτοσπάνα) or Carura (Κάρουρα), probably
identifiable with Kabul, Gauzaca (Γαύζακα), probably modern
Ghazni , Capissa (Καπίσσα) in the northeast, and Parsia
(Παρσία), the capital of the Parsii.
* ^ The Paropamisus Mountains were sometimes particularly
restricted to the area of the
Hindu Kush between
Herat in the west and
Chaghcharan in the east.
* ^ Burney MS 111, f. 92v, held by the
British Library .
* ^ Mela ,
De Situ Orbis
De Situ Orbis , Bk. I, Ch. 15, §2.
* ^ Plin. , Nat. Hist. , Bk. VI, Ch. 17, §20.
Strabo , Geog. , Bk. XV, p. 689.
* ^ A B C Short, Charles; et al. (1879), "Paropamisus or
Paropanisus", A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press .
* ^ Physical map of Afghanistan, University of Texas
* ^ Physical map of Afghanistan, www.ezilon.com
* ^ geographic.org
* ^ Ptol. , Geog. , Bk. VI, Ch. 11, §17.
* ^ Versions of Ptolemy\'s 9th regional map of Asia at Wikicommons.
Arrian , Anab. , Bk. V, Ch. 4, §5.
* The Greeks in
Bactria and India by W.W. Tarn, Cambridge University
* Ptolemy\'s section on the Paropanisadae in English translation
* John Watson