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The PAROPAMISADAE, also known by other names , were a people who lived in the area of southern Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and northern Pakistan
Pakistan
during classical antiquity . The name was also used to refer to the lands these people inhabited, properly known as PAROPAMISUS.

CONTENTS

* 1 Name * 2 History * 3 Geography and peoples * 4 See also * 5 Notes

* 6 References

* 6.1 Citations * 6.2 Bibliography

* 7 External links

NAME

A map depicting the realm of the "Paropanisadai" from a 15th-century Greek manuscript edition of Ptolemy 's Geography The realm of the "Paropanisade" in Francesco Berlinghieri
Francesco Berlinghieri
's 1482 Seven Days of Geography .

Paropamisadae
Paropamisadae
is the latinized form of the Greek name Paropamisádai (Παροπαμισάδαι), used to refer to the inhabitants of the land of "Paropamisus" (Παροπαμισός, Paropamisós) in the Hindu Kush
Hindu Kush
. The name derived from the Old Persian Para-upari-sena (lit. "Beyond the Raised Land"), which properly referred to the Peshawar Valley on the other side of the mountains from Persia, with its major settlements at Peshawar and Charsadda in what is now Pakistan
Pakistan
's Gandhara district.

In many Greek and Latin sources, particularly editions of Ptolemy 's Geography where their realm is included on the 9th Map of Asia, the names of the people and region are given as PAROPANISADAE and PAROPANISUS. They also appeared less frequently as Parapamisadae and Parapamīsus (Παραπάμισος, Parapámisos), Paropamīsii, the Parsii (Πάρσιοι) in the northwest, the Ambautae (Ἀμβαῦται) in the east and the Par(g)yetae (Παρ(γ)υῆται) in the south, who were also found in Arachosia. The major cities of the land were the city of Ortospana (Ὀρτοσπάνα) or Carura (Κάρουρα), probably identifiable with Kabul, Gauzaca (Γαύζακα), probably modern Ghazni
Ghazni
, Capissa (Καπίσσα) in the northeast, and Parsia (Παρσία), the capital of the Parsii.

SEE ALSO

* Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
kingdom * Greco-Bactrian kingdom

NOTES

* ^ The Paropamisus Mountains were sometimes particularly restricted to the area of the Hindu Kush
Hindu Kush
between Herat in the west and Chaghcharan in the east.

REFERENCES

CITATIONS

* ^ Burney MS 111, f. 92v, held by the British Library
British Library
. * ^ Mela , De Situ Orbis , Bk. I, Ch. 15, §2. * ^ Plin. , Nat. Hist. , Bk. VI, Ch. 17, §20. * ^ Strabo
Strabo
, Geog. , Bk. XV, p. 689. * ^ A B C Short, Charles; et al. (1879), "Paropamisus or Paropanisus", A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press . * ^ Physical map of Afghanistan, University of Texas * ^ Physical map of Afghanistan, www.ezilon.com * ^ geographic.org * ^ Ptol. , Geog. , Bk. VI, Ch. 11, §17. * ^ Versions of Ptolemy\'s 9th regional map of Asia at Wikicommons. * ^ Arrian , Anab. , Bk. V, Ch. 4, §5.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* The Greeks in Bactria
Bactria
and India by W.W. Tarn, Cambridge University Press

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Ptolemy\'s section on the Paropanisadae in English translation * John Watson