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A PARLIAMENTARY REPUBLIC is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament). There are a number of variations of parliamentary republics. Most have a clear differentiation between the head of government and the head of state , with the head of government holding real power, much like constitutional monarchies . Some have combined the roles of head of state and head of government, much like presidential systems , but with a dependency upon parliamentary power.

For the first case mentioned above, the form of executive-branch arrangement is distinct from most other parliamentary and semi-presidential republics that separate the head of state (usually designated as the "president ") from the head of government (usually designated as "prime minister ", "premier " or "chancellor ") and subject the latter to the confidence of parliament and a lenient tenure in office while the head of state lacks dependency and investing either office with the majority of executive power.

CONTENTS

* 1 Powers

* 2 Historical development

* 2.1 British Commonwealth of Nations

* 3 List of modern parliamentary republics * 4 List of former parliamentary republics * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References

POWERS

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In contrast to republics operating under either the presidential system or the semi-presidential system , the head of state usually does not have executive powers as an executive president would, because many of those powers have been granted to a head of government (usually called a prime minister ).

However, in a parliamentary republic with a head of state whose tenure is dependent on parliament, the head of government and head of state can form one office (as in Botswana
Botswana
, the Marshall Islands , Nauru
Nauru
, South Africa
South Africa
and Suriname
Suriname
), but the president is still selected in much the same way as the prime minister is in most Westminster systems . This usually means that they are the leader of the largest party or coalition of parties in parliament.

In some cases, the president can legally have executive powers granted to them to undertake the day-to-day running of government (as in Austria
Austria
and Iceland) but by convention they either do not use these powers or they use them only to give effect to the advice of the parliament or head of government. Some parliamentary republics could therefore be seen as following the semi-presidential system but operating under a parliamentary system.

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT

Typically, parliamentary republics are states that were previously constitutional monarchies with a parliamentary system, with the position of head of state given to a monarch.

Following the defeat of Napoleon III
Napoleon III
in the Franco-Prussian War , France
France
once again became a republic – the French Third Republic
Republic
– in 1870. The President
President
of the Third Republic
Republic
had significantly less executive powers than those of the previous two republics had. The Third Republic
Republic
lasted until the invasion of France
France
by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
in 1940. Following the end of the war, the French Fourth Republic
Republic
was constituted along similar lines in 1946. The Fourth Republic
Republic
saw an era of great economic growth in France
France
and the rebuilding of the nation's social institutions and industry after the war, and played an important part in the development of the process of European integration, which changed the continent permanently. Some attempts were made to strengthen the executive branch of government to prevent the unstable situation that had existed before the war, but the instability remained and the Fourth Republic
Republic
saw frequent changes in government - there were 20 governments in ten years. Additionally, the government proved unable to make effective decisions regarding decolonization. As a result, the Fourth Republic
Republic
collapsed and what some critics considered to be a de facto coup d'état, subsequently legitimized by a referendum on 5 October 1958, led to the establishment of the French Fifth Republic
Republic
in 1959.

Chile
Chile
became the first parliamentary republic in South America following a civil war in 1891. However, following a coup in 1925 this system was replaced by a Presidential one .

BRITISH COMMONWEALTH OF NATIONS

Main article: Commonwealth of Nations

Since the London Declaration of 29 April 1949 (just weeks after Ireland declared itself a republic, and excluded itself from the Commonwealth) republics have been admitted as members of the Commonwealth of Nations.

In the case of many republics in the Commonwealth of Nations , it was common for the Sovereign, formerly represented by a Governor-General , to be replaced by an elected non-executive head of state. This was the case in with South Africa
South Africa
(which left the Commonwealth soon after becoming a republic), Malta
Malta
, Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
, India
India
and Vanuatu . In many of these examples, the last Governor-General became the first president. Such was the case with Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and Pakistan
Pakistan
.

Others became parliamentary republics upon gaining independence.

LIST OF MODERN PARLIAMENTARY REPUBLICS

Main article: List of countries by system of government § Parliamentary republics

COUNTRY FORMERLY PARLIAMENTARY REPUBLIC ADOPTED HEAD OF STATE ELECTED BY CAMERAL STRUCTURE

Albania
Albania
One-party state 1991 Parliament, by majority Unicameral

Austria
Austria
One-party state (as part of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
, see Anschluss ) 1945 Direct election , by second-round system Bicameral

Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Presidential republic 1991 Parliament Unicameral

Bosnia and Herzegovina One-party state (part of Yugoslavia ) 1991 Direct election of collective head of state, by first-past-the-post vote Bicameral

Botswana
Botswana
British protectorate ( Bechuanaland Protectorate ) 1966 Parliament, by majority Unicameral

Bulgaria
Bulgaria
One-party state 1989 Direct election, by second-round system Unicameral

Croatia
Croatia
Semi-presidential republic 2000 Direct election, by second-round system Unicameral

Czech Republic
Republic
One-party state (part of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
) 1993 Direct election, by second-round system (since 2013; previously parliament, by majority) Bicameral

Dominica Associated state of the United Kingdom 1978 Parliament, by majority Unicameral

Estonia
Estonia
One-party state (part of Soviet Union
Soviet Union
) 1991 Parliament, by two-thirds majority Unicameral

Ethiopia
Ethiopia
One-party state 1991 Parliament, by two-thirds majority Bicameral

Fiji
Fiji
Military dictatorship 2014 Parliament, by majority Unicameral

Finland
Finland
Semi-presidential republic 2000 Direct election, by second-round system Unicameral

Germany
Germany
One-party state 1949 Federal Assembly (parliament and state delegates), by absolute majority Bicameral

Greece
Greece
Military dictatorship; constitutional monarchy 1975 Parliament, by majority Unicameral

Hungary
Hungary
One-party state 1990 Parliament, by absolute majority Unicameral

Iceland
Iceland
Constitutional monarchy (part of Denmark
Denmark
) 1944 Direct election, by first-past-the-post vote Unicameral

India
India
Constitutional monarchy (British Dominion
Dominion
) 1950 Parliament and state legislators, by instant-runoff vote Bicameral

Iraq
Iraq
One-party state 2005 Parliament, by two-thirds majority Unicameral

Ireland Constitutional monarchy (British Dominion
Dominion
) 1949 Direct election, by instant-runoff vote Bicameral

Israel
Israel
Protectorate (part of British Mandate of Palestine ) 1948 Parliament, by majority Unicameral

Italy
Italy
Constitutional monarchy 1946 Parliament, by absolute majority Bicameral

Kiribati Protectorate 1979 Direct election, by first-past-the-post vote Unicameral

Kosovo
Kosovo
UN-administered Kosovo
Kosovo
(formally part of Serbia
Serbia
) 2008 Parliament, by two-thirds majority; by a simple majority, at the third ballot, if no candidate achieves the aforementioned majority in the first two ballots Unicameral

Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
Presidential republic 2010 Direct election, by second-round system Unicameral

Latvia
Latvia
One-party state (part of Soviet Union
Soviet Union
) 1991 Parliament Unicameral

Lebanon
Lebanon
Protectorate (French mandate of Lebanon
Lebanon
) 1941 Parliament Unicameral

Macedonia One-party state (part of the Yugoslavia ) 1991 Direct election, by second-round system Unicameral

Malta
Malta
Constitutional monarchy ( Commonwealth realm ) 1974 Parliament, by majority Unicameral

Marshall Islands UN Trust Territory (part of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands ) 1979 Parliament Bicameral

Mauritius
Mauritius
Constitutional monarchy ( Commonwealth realm ) 1992 Parliament, by majority Unicameral

Micronesia UN Trust Territory (Part of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands ) 1986 Parliament, by majority Unicameral

Moldova
Moldova
Semi-presidential republic 2001 Direct election, by second-round system (since 2016; previously by parliament, by three-fifths majority) Unicameral

Montenegro
Montenegro
One-party state (Part of Yugoslavia , and after Serbia
Serbia
and Montenegro
Montenegro
) 1992 Direct election, by second-round system Unicameral

Myanmar
Myanmar
Military dictatorship 2010 Parliament, by an electoral college Bicameral

Nauru
Nauru
Australian Trust Territory 1968 Parliament Unicameral

Nepal
Nepal
Constitutional monarchy 2015 Parliament and state legislators Bicameral

Pakistan
Pakistan
Semi-presidential republic 2010 Parliament and state legislators, by instant-runoff vote Bicameral

San Marino
San Marino
Autocracy (part of the Roman Empire) 301 Parliament Unicameral

Serbia
Serbia
One-party state (part of Yugoslavia , and after Serbia
Serbia
and Montenegro
Montenegro
) 1991 Direct election, by second-round system Unicameral

Singapore
Singapore
State of Malaysia 1965 Direct election (since 1993) Unicameral

Slovakia
Slovakia
One-party state (part of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
) 1993 Direct election, by second-round system (since 1999; previously by parliament) Unicameral

Slovenia
Slovenia
One-party state (part of Yugoslavia) 1991 Direct election, by second-round system Bicameral

Somalia
Somalia
One-party state 2012 Parliament Bicameral

South Africa
South Africa
Constitutional monarchy ( Commonwealth realm ) 1961 Parliament, by majority Bicameral

Suriname
Suriname
Military dictatorship 1987 Parliament, by majority Unicameral

Switzerland
Switzerland
Confederation 1848 Federal Assembly (parliament and canton delegates), by absolute majority Bicameral

Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
Constitutional monarchy ( Commonwealth realm ) 1976 Parliament Bicameral

Turkey
Turkey
One-party state 1923 Direct election (since 2007) Unicameral

Vanuatu
Vanuatu
British–French condominium ( New Hebrides
New Hebrides
) 1980 Parliament and regional council presidents, by majority Unicameral

LIST OF FORMER PARLIAMENTARY REPUBLICS

COUNTRY YEAR BECAME A PARLIAMENTARY REPUBLIC YEAR STATUS CHANGED CHANGED TO STATUS CHANGED DUE TO

First Czechoslovak Republic
Republic
1920 1939 One-party state Munich agreement

Austrian First Republic
Republic
1920 1929 Semi-presidential system Constitutional amendment

Brazil
Brazil
1961 1963 Presidential system Referendum

Burma (present-day Myanmar
Myanmar
) 1948 1962 Military dictatorship 1962 Burmese coup d\'état

Chile
Chile
1891 1925 Presidential system Referendum

French Third Republic
Republic
1870 1940 Presidential system World War II German Occupation

French Fourth Republic
Republic
1946 1958 Semi-presidential system Political instability

Guyana 1970 1980 Presidential system Constitutional amendment

Hungary
Hungary
1946 1949 One-party state Creation of the People\'s Republic
Republic
of Hungary
Hungary

Indonesia
Indonesia
1945 1959 Presidential system Constitutional amendment

Second Republic
Republic
of South Korea
South Korea
1960 1961 Presidential system May 16 coup
May 16 coup

Lithuanian First Republic
Republic
1920 1926 One-party state 1926 Lithuanian coup d\'état

Nigeria
Nigeria
1963 1979 Presidential system Constitutional amendment

Pakistan
Pakistan
1956 1958 Military dictatorship 1958 Pakistani coup d\'état

1973 1978 1977 Pakistani coup d\'état

1988 1999 1999 Pakistani coup d\'état

Polish Second Republic
Republic
1919 1939 One-party state Invasion of Poland
Poland

Portuguese First Republic
Republic
1911 1926 Military dictatorship (which led in 1933 to the Estado Novo One-party state ) May 28 coup

First Philippine Republic
Republic
(Malolos Republic
Republic
) 1899 1901 Military dictatorship (De facto United States Colony ) Capture of Emilio Aguinaldo to the American forces

Republic
Republic
of the Congo 1960 1965 Military dictatorship (De facto One-party state ) 1965 Congolese coup d'état

Russia
Russia
1991 1993 Semi-presidential system Referendum

Rhodesia
Rhodesia
1970 1979 Parliamentary system Creation of Zimbabwe- Rhodesia
Rhodesia

Spanish Republic
Republic
1931 1939 Fascist dictatorship Loss of Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War

Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
1972 1978 Semi-presidential system Constitutional amendment

Syrian Republic
Republic
1930 1958 One-party state Creation of the United Arab Republic
Republic

Syrian Arab Republic
Republic
1961 1963 One-party state 1963 Syrian coup d\'état

Uganda
Uganda
1963 1966 One-party state Suspension of the constitution

Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Rhodesia
Rhodesia
1979 1979 Parliamentary system Reversion to Southern Rhodesia
Rhodesia

Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
1980 1987 Presidential system Constitutional amendment

SEE ALSO

* List of countries by system of government * Parliamentary system * Republic
Republic
* Republicanism * Semi-presidential system

NOTES

* ^ Was, previously, a parliamentary republic between 1971 and 1975. * ^ Estonia
Estonia
was previously a parliamentary republic between 1919 and 1934 when the government was overthrown by a coup d'état. In 1938, Estonia
Estonia
adopted a presidential system and in June 1940 was occupied and annexed by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
. * ^ Formerly a semi-presidential republic, it is now a parliamentary republic according to David Arter, First Chair of Politics at Aberdeen University. In his "Scandinavian Politics Today" (Manchester University Press, revised 2008 ISBN 9780719078538 ), he quotes Nousiainen, Jaakko (June 2001). "From semi-presidentialism to parliamentary government: political and constitutional developments in Finland". Scandinavian Political Studies . Wiley . 24 (2): 95–109. doi :10.1111/1467-9477.00048 . as follows: "There are hardly any grounds for the epithet 'semi-presidential'." Arter's own conclusions are only slightly more nuanced: "The adoption of a new constitution on 1 March 2000 meant that Finland
Finland
was no longer a case of semi-presidential government other than in the minimalist sense of a situation where a popularly elected fixed-term president exists alongside a prime minister and cabinet who are responsible to parliament (Elgie 2004: 317)". According to the Finnish Constitution, the president has no possibility to rule the government without the ministerial approval, and does not have the power to dissolve the parliament under his or her own desire. Finland
Finland
is actually represented by its prime minister, and not by its president, in the Council of the Heads of State and Government of the European Union. The 2012 constitutional amendements reduced the powers of the president even further. * ^ In the case of the former West German states, including former West Berlin , the previous one-party state is Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
, but in the case of the New Länder and former East Berlin it is East Germany . Please note that German reunification took place on 3 October 1990, when the five re-established states of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) joined the Federal Republic
Republic
of Germany, and Berlin was united into a single city-state. Therefore, this date applies to today's Federal Republic
Republic
of Germany
Germany
as a whole, although the area of former East Germany
Germany
was no part of that parliamentary republic until 1990. * ^ Irish head of state from 1936 to 1949 . * ^ Latvia
Latvia
was previously a parliamentary republic between 1921 and 1934 when the then prime minister Kārlis Ulmanis took power in a coup d'état. In June 1940