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A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of
democratic Democrat, Democrats, or Democratic may refer to: *A proponent of democracy, or democratic government; a form of government involving rule by the people. *A member of a Democratic Party: **Democratic Party (United States) (D) **Democratic Party (Cy ...

democratic
governance Governance comprises all of the processes of governing – whether undertaken by the government of a state, by a market, or by a network – over a social system (family, tribe, formal or informal organization, a territory or across territories) ...
of a
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, United States * ''Our Sta ...
(or subordinate entity) where the
executive Executive may refer to: Role, title, or function * Executive (government), branch of government that has authority and responsibility for the administration of state bureaucracy * Executive, a senior management role in an organization ** Chief exec ...
derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the
legislature A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. Legislatures form important parts of most governments; in the separation of powers model, they are often contrasted with th ...
, typically a
parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government. Generally, a modern parliament has three functions: representing the electorate, making laws, and overseeing the government via hearings and inquiries. The ...
, and is also held accountable to that parliament. In a parliamentary system, the
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a stateFoakes, pp. 110–11 "he head of statebeing an embodiment of the State itself or representatitve of its international persona." in its unity and legitim ...
is usually a person distinct from the
head of government The head of government is either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, autonomous region, or other government who often presides over a cabinet, a gro ...
. This is in contrast to a
presidential system A presidential system, or single executive system, is a form of government in which a head of government (president) leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch. This head of government is in most cases also the head of ...
, where the head of state often is also the head of government and, most importantly, where the executive does not derive its democratic legitimacy from the legislature. Countries with parliamentary democracies may be
constitutional monarchies A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution. Constitutional monarchies differ from absolute monarchies (in which a monarch holds absolute ...
, where a
monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. for life or until abdication, and therefore the head of state of a monarchy. A monarch may exercise the highest authority and power in t ...
is the head of state while the head of government is almost always a
member of parliament A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the people who live in their constituency. In many countries with bicameral parliaments, this category includes specifically members of the lower house, as upper houses often have a different ...
(such as
Denmark Denmark ( da|Danmark, ), officially the Kingdom of Denmark, da|Kongeriget Danmark, . See also: The unity of the Realm is a Nordic country in Northern Europe. Denmark proper, which is the southernmost of the Scandinavian countries, consists o ...
,
Norway Norway ( nb| ; nn| ; se|Norga; smj|Vuodna; sma|Nöörje), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe whose mainland territory comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. T ...
,
Japan | image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg | alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle | image_coat = Imperial Seal of Japan.svg | alt_coat = Golden circle subdivided ...
,
Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia. The federal constitutional monarchy consists of thirteen states and three federal territories, separated by the South China Sea into two regions, Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo's East Malaysia. Pe ...

Malaysia
,
Sweden Sweden (; sv|Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv|links=no|Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic country in Northern Europe.The United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names states that the country's formal name is the Kingd ...
and the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shortha ...
), or
parliamentary republicThe Parliamentary Republic can refer to: * A republican form of government with a Parliamentary system and a ceremonial head of state or head of state elected by parliament - see Parliamentary republic * The History of Chile during the Parliamentary ...
s, where a mostly ceremonial president is the head of state while the head of government is regularly from the legislature (such as
Ireland Ireland (; ga|Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, and St George's Channel. Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, ...

Ireland
,
Germany ) | image_map = | map_caption = | map_width = 250px | capital = Berlin | coordinates = | largest_city = capital | languages_type = Official language | languages = German | demonym = German | government_type = Federal parliamentary republi ...
,
India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the second-most populous country, the seventh-largest country by land area, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Oce ...

India
,
Italy Italy ( it|Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it|Repubblica Italiana|links=no ), is a country consisting of a continental part, delimited by the Alps, a peninsula and several islands surrounding it. Italy is located in Southern Europ ...
and
Singapore Singapore (), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign island city-state in maritime Southeast Asia. It lies about one degree of latitude () north of the equator, off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, bordering the Straits ...
). In a few parliamentary republics, such as
Botswana Botswana (, also ), officially the Republic of Botswana ( tn|Lefatshe la Botswana|label=Setswana; Kalanga: ''Hango yeBotswana''), is a landlocked country in Southern Africa. Botswana is topographically flat, with up to 70 percent of its terri ...
,
Kiribati Kiribati (), officially the Republic of Kiribati (Gilbertese: ''ibaberikiKiribati''),Kiribati
...
and
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 59 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . South Africa has three capital cities: e ...
, among some others, the head of government is also head of state, but is elected by and is answerable to parliament. In
bicameral Bicameralism is the practice of having a legislature divided into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses, known as a bicameral legislature. Bicameralism is distinguished from unicameralism, in which all members deliberate and vote as a si ...
parliaments, the head of government is generally, though not always, a member of the lower house.
Parliamentarianism Parliamentary sovereignty (also called parliamentary supremacy or legislative supremacy) is a concept in the constitutional law of some parliamentary democracies. It holds that the legislative body has absolute sovereignty and is supreme over all o ...
is the dominant
form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state. In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislature, executive, and judiciary. Government is a ...
in Europe, with 32 of its 50 sovereign states being parliamentarian. It is also common in the
Caribbean The Caribbean (, ; es|Caribe; french: Caraïbes; ht|Karayib; also gcf|label=Antillean Creole|Kawayib; nl|Caraïben; Papiamento: ) is a region of the Americas that comprises the Caribbean Sea, its surrounding coasts, and its islands (some of w ...
, being the form of government of 10 of its 13 island states, and in Oceania. Elsewhere in the world, parliamentary countries are less common, but they are distributed through all continents, most often in former colonies of the
British Empire#REDIRECT British Empire#REDIRECT British Empire {{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
that subscribe to a particular brand of parliamentarianism known as the
Westminster system The Westminster system or Westminster model is a type of parliamentary system of government that incorporates a series of procedures for operating a legislature that was first developed in England, key aspects of which include an executive branc ...
.


History

Since ancient times, when societies were tribal, there were councils or a headman whose decisions were assessed by village elders. Eventually, these councils have slowly evolved into the modern parliamentary system. The first
parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government. Generally, a modern parliament has three functions: representing the electorate, making laws, and overseeing the government via hearings and inquiries. The ...
s date back to Europe in the Middle Ages: specifically in 1188 Alfonso IX, King of Leon (Spain) convened the three states in the
Cortes of León Cortes, Cortés, Cortês, Corts, or Cortès may refer to: Places * Cortes, Navarre, a village in the South border of Navarre, Spain * Cortes de Aragón, Teruel, a municipality in the province of Teruel, Aragón, Spain * Cortes, Bohol, a municipali ...
. An early example of parliamentary government developed in today's Netherlands and Belgium during the
Dutch revolt#REDIRECT Dutch Revolt#REDIRECT Dutch Revolt {{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
(1581), when the sovereign, legislative and executive powers were taken over by the
States General of the Netherlands The States General of the Netherlands ( nl|Staten-Generaal ) is the bicameral legislature of the Netherlands consisting of the Senate () and the House of Representatives (). Both chambers meet at the Binnenhof in The Hague. The States General orig ...
from the monarch,
King Philip II of Spain Philip II ( es|Felipe II; 21 May 152713 September 1598) was King of Spain (1556–1598), King of Portugal (1580–1598, as Philip I, pt|Filipe I), King of Naples and Sicily (both from 1554), and ''jure uxoris'' King of England and Ireland (duri ...
. The modern concept of parliamentary government emerged in the Kingdom of Great Britain between 1707 and 1800 and its contemporary, the Parliamentary System in Sweden between 1721 and 1772. In England,
Simon de Montfort Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester ( – 4 August 1265), later sometimes referred to as Simon V de Montfort to distinguish him from his namesake relatives, was a nobleman of French origin and a member of the English peerage, who led the ...
is remembered as one of the fathers of
representative government Representative democracy, also known as indirect democracy or representative government, is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected persons representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy. Nearly all modern Wester ...
for convening two famous parliaments. The first, in 1258, stripped the king of unlimited authority and the second, in 1265, included ordinary citizens from the towns. Later, in the 17th century, the
Parliament of England The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England, existing from the early 14th century until 1707, when it united with the Parliament of Scotland to become the Parliament of Great Britain after the political union of Eng ...
pioneered some of the ideas and systems of
liberal democracy Liberal democracy, also referred to as Western democracy, is a political ideology and a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of liberalism. It is characterised by elections between multiple distinct ...
culminating in the
Glorious Revolution The Glorious Revolution of November 1688 ( ga|An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar; gd|Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor; cy|Chwyldro Gogoneddus), is also known as the ''Glorieuze Overtocht'' or Glorious Crossing by the Dutch. It refers to the deposition of James ...
and passage of the
Bill of Rights 1689 The Bill of Rights 1689, also known as the Bill of Rights 1688, is a landmark Act in the constitutional law of England that sets out certain basic civil rights and clarifies who would be next to inherit the Crown. It received the Royal Assent on ...
. In the
Kingdom of Great Britain The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called Great Britain,"After the political union of England and Scotland in 1707, the nation's official name became 'Great Britain'", ''The American Pageant, Volume 1'', Cengage Learning (2012) was a so ...
, the monarch, in theory, chaired cabinet and chose ministers. In practice, King
George IGeorge I or 1 may refer to: People * Patriarch George I of Alexandria (fl. 621–631) * George I of Constantinople (d. 686) * George I of Antioch (d. 790) * George I of Abkhazia (ruled 872/3–878/9) * George I of Georgia (d. 1027) * Yuri Dolgorukiy ...
's inability to speak English led the responsibility for chairing cabinet to go to the leading minister, literally the ''
prime A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number greater than 1 that is not a product of two smaller natural numbers. A natural number greater than 1 that is not prime is called a composite number. For example, 5 is prime because the only ways o ...
'' or first minister,
Robert Walpole Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford, (26 August 1676 – 18 March 1745), known between 1725 and 1742 as Sir Robert Walpole, was a British statesman and Whig politician who is generally regarded as the ''de facto'' first prime minister of Great ...
. The gradual democratisation of parliament with the broadening of the voting franchise increased parliament's role in controlling government, and in deciding whom the king could ask to form a government. By the 19th century, the
Great Reform Act The Representation of the People Act 1832 (also known as the 1832 Reform Act, Great Reform Act or First Reform Act) was an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom (indexed as 2 & 3 Will. IV c. 45) that introduced major changes to the electoral s ...
of 1832 led to parliamentary dominance, with its choice ''invariably'' deciding who was prime minister and the complexion of the government. Other countries gradually adopted what came to be called the
Westminster Model The Westminster system or Westminster model is a type of parliamentary system of government that incorporates a series of procedures for operating a legislature that was first developed in England, key aspects of which include an executive branc ...
of government, with an executive answerable to parliament, and exercising, in the name of the head of state, powers nominally vested in the head of state. Hence the use of phrases like ''Her Majesty's government'' or ''His Excellency's government''. Such a system became particularly prevalent in older British dominions, many of which had their constitutions enacted by the British parliament; such as Australia, New Zealand, Canada, the [[Irish Free State and the [[Union of South Africa. Some of these parliaments were reformed from, or were initially developed as distinct from their original British model: the [[Australian Senate, for instance, has since its inception more closely reflected the [[United States Senate|US Senate than the British [[House of Lords; whereas since 1950 there is no upper house in New Zealand. [[Democracy and [[parliamentarism|parliamentarianism became increasingly prevalent in Europe in the years after [[World War I, partially imposed by the democratic victors, the United States, Great Britain and France, on the defeated countries and their successors, notably [[Weimar Germany|Germany's Weimar Republic and the new Austrian Republic. Nineteenth-century [[urbanisation, the [[Industrial Revolution and [[modernism had already fuelled the political left's struggle for democracy and parliamentarianism for a long time. In the radicalised times at the end of World War I, democratic reforms were often seen as a means to counter popular revolutionary currents.


Characteristics

A parliamentary system may be either [[bicameralism|bicameral, with two [[chambers of parliament (or houses) or [[unicameralism|unicameral, with just one parliamentary chamber. A bicameral parliament usually consists of a directly elected [[lower house with the power to determine the executive government, and an [[upper house which may be appointed or elected through a different mechanism from the lower house.


Types

Scholars of democracy such as [[Arend Lijphart distinguish two types of parliamentary democracies: the Westminster and Consensus systems.


Westminster system

[[File:Berlin reichstag CP.jpg|upright=0.9|The [[Reichstag Building in [[Berlin, Germany. The Consensus system is used in most Western European countries. * The
Westminster system The Westminster system or Westminster model is a type of parliamentary system of government that incorporates a series of procedures for operating a legislature that was first developed in England, key aspects of which include an executive branc ...
is usually found in the [[Commonwealth of Nations and countries which were influenced by the British political tradition. These parliaments tend to have a more adversarial style of debate and the [[plenary session of parliament is more important than committees. Some parliaments in this model are elected using a [[plurality voting system ([[first past the post), such as the United Kingdom, Canada, and India, while others use some form of [[proportional representation, such as Ireland and New Zealand. The [[Australian House of Representatives is elected using [[instant-runoff voting, while the [[Australian Senate|Senate is elected using proportional representation through [[single transferable vote. Regardless of which system is used, the voting systems tend to allow the voter to vote for a named candidate rather than a [[closed list.


Consensus system

* The Western European parliamentary model (e.g., Spain, Germany) tends to have a more consensual debating system and usually has semi-circular debating chambers. Consensus systems have more of a tendency to use [[proportional representation with [[open party lists than the Westminster Model legislatures. The committees of these Parliaments tend to be more important than the [[plenary chamber. Some Western European countries' parliaments (e.g., in the [[Parliament of the Netherlands|Netherlands, [[Chamber of Deputies (Luxembourg)|Luxembourg and [[Parliament of Sweden|Sweden) implement the principle of [[dualism (politics)|dualism as a form of [[separation of powers. In countries using this system, Members of Parliament have to resign their place in Parliament upon being appointed (or elected) minister. Ministers in those countries usually actively participate in parliamentary debates, but are not entitled to vote.


Election of the head of government

Implementations of the parliamentary system can also differ as to how the prime minister and government are appointed and whether the government needs the explicit approval of the parliament, rather than just the absence of its disapproval. Some countries such as India also require the prime minister to be a member of the legislature, though in other countries this only exists as a convention. * The head of state appoints a prime minister who will likely have majority support in parliament. While in practice most prime ministers under the
Westminster system The Westminster system or Westminster model is a type of parliamentary system of government that incorporates a series of procedures for operating a legislature that was first developed in England, key aspects of which include an executive branc ...
(including Australia, Canada, India, New Zealand and the United Kingdom) are the leaders of the largest party in parliament, technically the appointment of the prime minister is a prerogative exercised by the monarch, the governor-general, or the president. No parliamentary vote takes place on who is forming a government, but since parliament can immediately defeat the government with a [[motion of no confidence, the head of state is limited by convention to choosing a candidate who can command the confidence of parliament, and thus has little or no influence in the decision. * The head of state appoints a prime minister who must gain a vote of confidence within a set time. Examples: Italy, Thailand. * The head of state appoints the leader of the political party holding a plurality of seats in parliament as prime minister. For example, in Greece, if no party has a majority, the leader of the party with a plurality of seats is given an ''exploratory mandate'' to receive the confidence of the parliament within three days. If this is not possible, then the leader of the party with the second highest seat number is given the ''exploratory mandate''. If this fails, then the leader of the third largest party is given it and so on. * The head of state ''nominates'' a candidate for prime minister who is then submitted to parliament for approval before appointment. Example: Spain, where the King sends a proposal to the [[Congress of Deputies for approval. Also, Germany where under the [[Basic Law of the Federal Republic of Germany|German Basic Law (constitution) the [[Bundestag votes on a candidate nominated by the federal president. In these cases, parliament can choose another candidate who then would be appointed by the head of state. * Parliament ''nominates'' a candidate whom the head of state is constitutionally obliged to appoint as prime minister. Example: Japan, where the [[Emperor of Japan|Emperor appoints the [[Prime Minister of Japan|Prime Minister on the nomination of the [[National Diet. Also, Ireland where the [[President of Ireland appoints the [[Taoiseach on the nomination of [[Dáil Éireann. * A public officeholder (other than the head of state or their representative) ''nominates'' a candidate, who, if approved by parliament, is appointed as prime minister. Example: Under the Swedish [[Instrument of Government (1974), the power to appoint someone to form a government has been moved from the monarch to the Speaker of Parliament and the parliament itself. The speaker nominates a candidate, who is then elected to prime minister (''statsminister'') by the parliament if an absolute majority of the members of parliament does not vote no (i.e. they can be elected even if more members of parliament vote ''No'' than ''Yes).'' * Direct election by popular vote. Example: Israel, 1996–2001, where the prime minister was elected in a general election, with no regard to political affiliation, and whose procedure can also be described as of a [[semi-parliamentary system.


Power of dissolution and call for election

Furthermore, there are variations as to what conditions exist (if any) for the government to have the right to dissolve the parliament: * In some countries, such as Denmark, Malaysia, Australia and New Zealand, the prime minister has the ''de facto'' power to call an election, at will. This was also the case in the United Kingdom until the passage of the [[Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011. In Spain, the prime minister is the only person with the ''de jure'' power to call an election, granted by Article 115 of the [[Constitution of Spain|Constitution. * In Israel, parliament may vote in order to call an election or pass a vote of no confidence against the government. * Other countries only permit an election to be called in the event of a [[vote of no confidence against the government, a supermajority vote in favour of an early election or prolonged deadlock in parliament. These requirements can still be circumvented. For example, in Germany in 2005, [[Gerhard Schröder deliberately allowed his government to lose a confidence motion, in order to call an early election. * In Sweden, the government may call a snap election at will, but the newly elected [[Riksdag is only elected to fill out the previous Riksdag's term. The last time this option was used was in [[1958 Swedish general election|1958. * In [[Greece, a general election is called if the [[Hellenic Parliament|Parliament fails to elect a new [[President of Greece|head of state when his or her term ends. In January 2015, [[2014–2015 Greek presidential election|this constitutional provision was exploited by [[Syriza to [[January 2015 Greek legislative election|trigger a snap election, win it and oust rivals [[New Democracy (Greece)|New Democracy from power. * Norway is unique among parliamentary systems in that the [[Storting always serves the whole of its four-year term. * Since 2011 in the United Kingdom, the [[House of Commons may be dissolved early only by a vote of two-thirds of its members, or if a vote of non-confidence passes and no alternative government is formed in the next fourteen days. The parliamentary system can be contrasted with a
presidential system A presidential system, or single executive system, is a form of government in which a head of government (president) leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch. This head of government is in most cases also the head of ...
which operates under a stricter separation of powers, whereby the executive does not form part of—nor is appointed by—the parliamentary or legislative body. In such a system, parliaments or congresses do not select or dismiss heads of governments, and governments cannot request an early dissolution as may be the case for parliaments. There also exists the [[semi-presidential system that draws on both presidential systems and parliamentary systems by combining a powerful president with an executive responsible to parliament: for example, the [[French Fifth Republic. Parliamentarianism may also apply to [[Regional government|regional and [[local governments. An example is the city of [[Oslo, which has an executive council (Byråd) as a part of the parliamentary system.


Anti-defection law

A few parliamentary democratic nations such as [[Anti-defection law (India)|India, Pakistan, Bangladesh etc. have enacted a law which prohibits floor crossing or switching the party after election process. With this law, the elected representative have to lose their seat in the Parliament House, if they defy the direction of the party in any voting. In the UK Parliament, a member is free to cross over to the other side, without being daunted by any disqualification law. In Canada and Australia, there is no restraint on legislators switching sides.


Advantages

Supporters generally claim three basic advantages for parliamentary systems: * Adaptability * Scrutiny and accountability * Distribution of power


Adaptability

Parliamentary systems like that found in the United Kingdom are widely considered to be more flexible, allowing rapid change in legislation and policy as long as there is a stable majority or coalition in parliament, allowing the government to have 'few legal limits on what it can do' Due to the first-past-the-post 'this system produces the classic "Westminster Model" with the twin virtues of strong but responsive party government'. This electoral system providing a strong majority in the House of Commons, paired with the fused power system results in a particularly powerful Government able to provide change and 'innovate'.


Scrutiny and accountability

The United Kingdom's fused power system is often noted to be advantageous with regards to accountability. The centralised government allows for more transparency as to where decisions originate from, this directly contrasts with the United States' system with former Treasury Secretary [[C. Douglas Dillon saying "the president blames Congress, the Congress blames the president, and the public remains confused and disgusted with government in Washington". Furthermore, ministers of the U.K. cabinet are subject to weekly Question Periods in which their actions/policies are scrutinised, no such regular check on the government exists in the U.S. system.


Distribution of power

Parliamentary government has attractive features for nations that are [[Ethnicity|ethnically, [[Race (classification of human beings)|racially, or [[Ideology|ideologically divided. In a presidential system, all executive power is vested in one person, the president, whereas power is more divided in a parliamentary system with its collegial executive. In the 1989 Lebanese [[Taif Agreement, in order to give [[Islam in Lebanon|Muslims greater political power, Lebanon moved from a [[semi-presidential system with a powerful president to a system more structurally similar to classical parliamentary government. Iraq similarly disdained a presidential system out of fears that such a system would be tantamount to [[Shia Islam|Shiite domination of the large [[Sunni Islam|Sunni minority. Afghanistan's minorities refused to go along with a presidency as strong as the [[Pashtun people|Pashtuns desired. It can be argued that power is more evenly spread out in parliamentary government, as the government and prime minister do not have the power to make unilateral decisions, as the entire government cabinet is answerable and accountable to parliament. Parliamentary systems are less likely to allow celebrity-based politics to fully dominate a society, unlike what often happens in presidential systems, where name-recall and popularity can catapult a celebrity, actor, or popular politician to the presidency despite such candidate's lack of competence and experience. Some scholars like [[Juan Linz, [[Frederick Charles Riggs|Fred Riggs, [[Bruce Ackerman, and [[Robert Dahl have found that parliamentary government is less prone to authoritarian collapse. These scholars point out that since [[World War II, two-thirds of [[Third World countries establishing parliamentary governments successfully made the transition to democracy. By contrast, no Third World presidential system successfully made the transition to democracy without experiencing [[coups and other constitutional breakdowns. A 2001 [[World Bank study found that parliamentary systems are associated with less corruption, which is supported by a separate study that arrived at the same conclusions.


Calling of elections

In his 1867 book ''[[The English Constitution'', [[Walter Bagehot praised parliamentary governments for producing serious debates, for allowing for a change in power without an election, and for allowing elections at any time. Bagehot considered the four-year election rule of the United States to be unnatural, as it can potentially allow a president who has disappointed the public with a dismal performance in the second year of his term to continue on until the end of his four-year term. Under a parliamentary system, a prime minister that has lost support in the middle of his term can be easily replaced by his own peers. Although Bagehot praised parliamentary governments for allowing an election to take place at any time, the lack of a definite election calendar can be abused. Previously under some systems, such as the British, a ruling party could schedule elections when it felt that it was likely to retain power, and so avoid elections at times of unpopularity. (Election timing in the UK, however, is now partly fixed under the [[Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011.) Thus, by a shrewd timing of elections, in a parliamentary system, a party can extend its rule for longer than is feasible in a functioning presidential system. This problem can be alleviated somewhat by setting fixed dates for parliamentary elections, as is the case in several of Australia's state parliaments. In other systems, such as the Dutch and the Belgian, the ruling party or coalition has some flexibility in determining the election date. Conversely, flexibility in the timing of parliamentary elections can avoid periods of legislative gridlock that can occur in a fixed period presidential system. In any case, voters ultimately have the power to choose whether to vote for the ruling party or someone else.


Disadvantages and criticisms

Critics of [[parliamentarianism, namely proponents of anti-parliamentarianism or anti-parliamentarism, generally claim these basic disadvantages for parliamentary systems: * Legislative flip-flopping * Party fragmentation


Legislative flip-flopping

The ability for strong parliamentary governments to 'push' legislation through with the ease of fused power systems such as in the United Kingdom, whilst positive in allowing rapid adaptation when necessary e.g. the nationalisation of services during the world wars, does have its drawbacks. The flip-flopping of legislation back and forth as the majority in parliament changed between the Conservatives and Labour over the period 1940–1980, contesting over the nationalisation and privatisation of the British Steel Industry resulted in major instability for the British steel sector.


Party fragmentation

In R. Kent Weaver's book ''Are Parliamentary Systems Better?'', he writes that an advantage of presidential systems is their ability to allow and accommodate more diverse viewpoints. He states that because "legislators are not compelled to vote against their constituents on matters of local concern, parties can serve as organizational and roll-call cuing vehicles without forcing out dissidents."


Countries


Africa


Americas


Asia


Europe


Oceania


See also

* [[Law reform * [[List of legislatures by country * [[Parliament in the Making * [[Parliamentary leader * [[Rule according to higher law * [[Rule of law


References


External links

{{DEFAULTSORT:Parliamentary System [[Category:Parliamentary procedure [[Category:Liberalism [[Category:Political terminology [[Category:Types of democracy