Parliamentary procedure is the body of ethics
, and customs
governing meetings and other operations of club
s, legislative bodies
, and other deliberative assemblies
In the United Kingdom
, New Zealand
, South Africa
and other English-speaking countries it is often called ''chairmanship'', ''chairing'', the ''law of meetings'', ''procedure at meetings'' or the ''conduct of meetings''. In the United States, parliamentary procedure is also referred to as ''parliamentary law'', ''parliamentary practice'', ''legislative procedure'' or ''rules of order''.
At its heart is the rule of the majority
with respect for the minority. Its object is to allow deliberation
upon questions of interest to the organization and to arrive at the sense or the will of the assembly upon these questions. Self-governing
organizations follow parliamentary procedure to debate
and reach group decisions—usually by vote
—with the least possible friction.
Rules of order consist of rules written by the body itself (often referred to as bylaws
), but also usually supplemented by a published parliamentary authority
adopted by the body. Typically, national, state
/provincial and other full-scale legislative assemblies
have extensive internally written rules of order, whereas non-legislative bodies write and adopt a limited set of specific rules
as the need arises.
The term gets its name from its use in the parliamentary system
In the 16th and 17th century, there were rules of order in the early parliaments of England
In the 1560s Sir Thomas Smyth began the process of writing down accepted procedures and published a book about them for the House of Commons
Early rules included
* One subject should be discussed at a time (adopted 1581)
* Personal attacks are to be avoided in debate (1604)
* Debate must be limited to the merits of the question (1610)
* Division of a question when some seem to be for one part but not the other (1640)
The Westminster parliamentary procedures
are followed in several Commonwealth
countries, including the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, India, and South Africa.
In Canada, for example, the House of Commons uses ''House of Commons Procedure and Practice'' as its primary procedural authority. Others include Arthur Beauchesne
's ''Parliamentary Rules and Forms of the House of Commons of Canada'', Sir John George Bourinot's ''Parliamentary Procedure and Practice in the Dominion of Canada''
, and Erskine May
's ''The Law, Privileges, Proceedings and Usage of Parliament'' from Britain.
The rules of the United States Congress
were developed from the parliamentary procedures used in Britain. The American parliamentary procedures are followed in many nations, including Indonesia
, the Philippines
and South Korea
The procedures of the Diet of Japan
have moved away from the British parliamentary model. In Occupied Japan
, there were efforts to bring Japanese parliamentary procedures more in line with American congressional practices. In Japan, informal negotiations are more important than formal procedures.
Written codes of rules govern in Italy
the life of the Houses of the Parliament
: the Constitutional Court
is judge on the limits beyond which these regulations cannot go, exceeding the parliamentary or political function (judgement n. 120 of 2014), and on their bad application when a law is passed through.
Parliamentary authority usage patterns
Parliamentary procedure is based on the principles of allowing the majority to make decisions effectively and efficiently (majority rule
), while ensuring fairness towards the minority and giving each member or delegate the right to voice an opinion.
determines the will of the assembly. While each assembly may create their own set of rules, these sets tend to be more alike than different. A common practice is to adopt a standard reference book on parliamentary procedure and modify it through special rules of order
that supersede the adopted authority.
A parliamentary structure conducts business through motions
, which cause actions. Members bring business before the assembly by introducing main motion
s, or dispose of this business through subsidiary motion
s and incidental motion
s. Parliamentary procedure also allows for rules in regards to nomination, voting, disciplinary action, appeals, dues, and the drafting of organization charter
s, and bylaws
Organizations and civic groups
The most common procedural authority in use in the United States is ''Robert's Rules of Order
''. Other authorities include ''The Standard Code of Parliamentary Procedure
'' (used by some medical and library organizations)
and ''Demeter's Manual of Parliamentary Law and Procedure
A common text in use in the UK, particularly within trade unions
, is Lord Citrine's ''ABC of Chairmanship
In English-speaking Canada, popular authorities include Kerr & King's ''Procedures for Meeting and Organizations''. The Conservative Party of Canada
uses ''Wainberg's Society meetings including rules of order'' to run its internal affairs.
In French-speaking Canada, commonly used rules of order for ordinary societies include Victor Morin's ''Procédures des assemblées délibérantes
'' (commonly known as the ''Code Morin'') and the ''Code CSN
Legislative assemblies in all countries, because of their nature, tend to have a specialized set of rules that differ from parliamentary procedure used by clubs and organizations.
In the United Kingdom, Thomas Erskine May
's ''Treatise on the Law, Privileges, Proceedings and Usage of Parliament
'' (often referred to simply as ''Erskine May'') is the accepted authority on the powers and procedures of the Westminster parliament
. There are also the Standing Orders for each House.
Of the 99 state legislative chambers
in the United States (two for each state
, which has a unicameral
legislature), ''Mason's Manual of Legislative Procedure
'' governs parliamentary procedures in 70; ''Jefferson's Manual
'' governs 13, and ''Robert's Rules of Order
'' governs four. The United States Senate
follows the Standing Rules of the United States Senate
, while the United States House of Representatives
follows ''Jefferson's Manual
''Mason's Manual'', originally written by constitutional scholar and former California Senate
staff member Paul Mason
in 1935, and since his death revised and published by the National Conference of State Legislatures
(NCSL), governs legislative procedures in instances where the state constitution
, state statutes
, and the chamber's rules are silent.
[National Conference of State Legislatures web site]
According to the NCSL, [ one of the many reasons that most state legislatures use ''Mason's Manual'' instead of ''Robert's Rules of Order'' is that ''Robert's Rules'' applies best to private organizations and civic groups that do not meet in daily public sessions. ''Mason's Manual'', however, is geared specifically toward state legislative bodies.
In the United States, individuals who are proficient in parliamentary procedure are called parliamentarians (in other English-speaking countries with parliamentary forms of government, "parliamentarian" refers to a member of Parliament).
Several organizations offer certification programs for parliamentarians, including the National Association of Parliamentarians and American Institute of Parliamentarians. Agriculture teachers who coach teams in the National FFA Organization (formerly Future Farmers of America) parliamentary procedure contest can earn the title Accredited Parliamentarian (AP). Parliamentarians perform an important role in many meetings, including counseling organizations on parliamentary law, holding elections, or writing amendments to the constitution and bylaws of an organization.
* Group decision-making
* Lawmaking procedure in India
* Parliamentary procedure in the corporate world
The Official Robert's Rules of Order Web Site
National Conference of State Legislatures: Using Mason's Manual of Legislative Procedure
National Association of Parliamentarians (parliamentarians.org)
American Institute of Parliamentarians (aipparl.org)