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A PARLIAMENTARY SYSTEM is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament , and is also held accountable to that parliament. In a parliamentary system, the head of state is usually a different person from the head of government . This is in contrast to a presidential system , where the head of state often is also the head of government and, most importantly, the executive branch does not derive its democratic legitimacy from the legislature.

Countries with parliamentary systems may be constitutional monarchies , where a monarch is the head of state while the head of government is almost always a member of parliament (such as the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, Denmark
Denmark
, Sweden
Sweden
and Japan
Japan
), or parliamentary republics , where a mostly ceremonial president is the head of state while the head of government is regularly from the legislature (such as Ireland , Germany
Germany
, India
India
and Italy
Italy
). In a few parliamentary republics, such as Botswana
Botswana
, South Africa
South Africa
, and Suriname
Suriname
, among some others , the head of government is also head of state, but is elected by and is answerable to parliament. In bicameral parliaments, the head of government is generally, though not always, a member of the lower house.

Parliamentarism
Parliamentarism
is the dominant form of government in Europe
Europe
, with 32 of its 50 sovereign states being parliamentarian. It is also common in the Caribbean
Caribbean
, being the form of government of 10 of its 13 island states, and in Oceania
Oceania
. Elsewhere in the world, parliamentary countries are less common, but they are distributed through all continents, most often in former British Empire colonies.

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Characteristics * 3 Advantages and disadvantages

* 4 Countries

* 4.1 Africa * 4.2 Americas "> The modern concept of parliamentary government emerged in the Kingdom of Great Britain between 1707–1800 and its contemporary, the Parliamentary System in Sweden
Sweden
between 1721–1772 .

In England, Simon de Montfort is remembered as one of the fathers of representative government for holding two famous parliaments. The first , in 1258, stripped the King of unlimited authority and the second, in 1265, included ordinary citizens from the towns . Later, in the 17th century, the Parliament
Parliament
of England pioneered some of the ideas and systems of liberal democracy culminating in the Glorious Revolution and passage of the Bill of Rights 1689 .

In the Kingdom of Great Britain , the monarch, in theory, chaired cabinet and chose ministers. In practice, King George I 's inability to speak English led the responsibility for chairing cabinet to go to the leading minister, literally the prime or first minister, Robert Walpole . The gradual democratisation of parliament with the broadening of the voting franchise increased parliament's role in controlling government, and in deciding who the king could ask to form a government. By the nineteenth century, the Great Reform Act of 1832 led to parliamentary dominance, with its choice invariably deciding who was prime minister and the complexion of the government.

Other countries gradually adopted what came to be called the Westminster Model of government, with an executive answerable to parliament, but exercising powers nominally vested in the head of state, in the name of the head of state. Hence the use of phrases like Her Majesty's government or His Excellency's government. Such a system became particularly prevalent in older British dominions, many of whom had their constitutions enacted by the British parliament; examples include Australia
Australia
, New Zealand
New Zealand
, Canada
Canada
, the Irish Free State and the Union of South Africa
South Africa
. Some of these parliaments evolved, were reformed from, or were initially developed as distinct from their original British model: the Australian Senate
Australian Senate
, for instance, has since its inception more closely reflected the US Senate than the British House of Lords
House of Lords
; whereas since 1950 there is no upper house in New Zealand.

Democracy
Democracy
and parliamentarism became increasingly prevalent in Europe in the years after World War I
World War I
, partially imposed by the democratic victors, Great Britain and France, on the defeated countries and their successors, notably Germany\'s Weimar Republic
Republic
and the new Austrian Republic
Republic
. Nineteenth century urbanisation , industrial revolution and, modernism had already fueled the political left's struggle for democracy and parliamentarism for a long time. In the radicalised times at the end of World War I, democratic reforms were often seen as a means to counter popular revolutionary currents.

CHARACTERISTICS

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Further information: Parliamentary procedure

A parliamentary system may be either bicameral , with two chambers of parliament (or houses) or unicameral , with just one parliamentary chamber. In the case of a bicameral parliament, this is usually characterised by an elected lower house that has the power to determine the executive government and an upper house which may be appointed or elected through a different mechanism from the lower house.

Scholars of democracy such as Arend Lijphart distinguish two types of parliamentary democracies: the Westminster and Consensus systems. The Palace of Westminster
Palace of Westminster
in London
London
, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. The Westminster system originates from the British Houses of Parliament
Parliament
. The Reichstag Building in Berlin
Berlin
, Germany
Germany
. The Consensus system is used in most of Western European countries.

* The Westminster system is usually found in the Commonwealth of Nations and countries which were influenced by the British political tradition. These parliaments tend to have a more adversarial style of debate and the plenary session of parliament is more important than committees. Some parliaments in this model are elected using a plurality voting system (first past the post ), such as the United Kingdom , Canada
Canada
, and India
India
, while others use proportional representation , such as Ireland and New Zealand
New Zealand
. The Australian House of Representatives is elected using instant-runoff voting , while the Senate is elected using proportional representation through single transferable vote . Regardless of which system is used, the voting systems tend to allow the voter to vote for a named candidate rather than a closed list . * The Western European parliamentary model (e.g. Spain
Spain
, Germany
Germany
) tends to have a more consensual debating system, and usually has semi-circular debating chambers. Consensus systems have more of a tendency to use proportional representation with open party lists than the Westminster Model legislatures. The committees of these Parliaments tend to be more important than the plenary chamber . Some West European countries' parliaments (e.g. in the Netherlands
Netherlands
and Sweden
Sweden
) implement the principle of dualism as a form of separation of powers. In countries using this system, Members of Parliament
Parliament
have to resign their place in Parliament
Parliament
upon being appointed (or elected) minister. Ministers in those countries usually actively participate in parliamentary debates, but are not entitled to vote.

Implementations of the parliamentary system can also differ on the manner of how the prime minister and government are appointed and as to whether the government needs the explicit approval of the parliament, rather than just the absence of its disapproval. Some countries such as India
India
also require the prime minister to be a member of the legislature, though in other countries this only exists as a convention.

* THE HEAD OF STATE APPOINTS A PRIME MINISTER WHO WILL LIKELY HAVE MAJORITY SUPPORT IN PARLIAMENT. While in practice most prime ministers under the Westminster system (including Australia
Australia
, Canada
Canada
, India
India
, New Zealand
New Zealand
and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
) are the leaders of the largest party in parliament, technically the appointment of the prime minister is a prerogative exercised by the monarch, the governor-general, or the president. No parliamentary vote takes place on who is forming a government, but since parliament can immediately defeat the government with a motion of no confidence , the head of state is limited by convention to choosing a candidate who can command the confidence of parliament, and thus has little or no influence in the decision. * THE HEAD OF STATE APPOINTS A PRIME MINISTER WHO MUST GAIN A VOTE OF CONFIDENCE WITHIN A SET TIME. Examples: Italy
Italy
, Thailand
Thailand
. * THE HEAD OF STATE APPOINTS THE LEADER OF THE POLITICAL PARTY HOLDING A PLURALITY OF SEATS IN PARLIAMENT AS PRIME MINISTER. For example, in Greece
Greece
if no party has a majority, the leader of the party with a plurality of seats is given an exploratory mandate to receive the confidence of the parliament within three days. If this is not possible, then the leader of the party with the second highest seat number is given the exploratory mandate. If this fails, then the leader of the third largest party is given it and so on. * THE HEAD OF STATE NOMINATES A CANDIDATE FOR PRIME MINISTER WHO IS THEN SUBMITTED TO PARLIAMENT FOR APPROVAL BEFORE APPOINTMENT. Example: Spain
Spain
, where the King sends a nomination to parliament for approval. Also, Germany
Germany
where under the German Basic Law (constitution) the Bundestag
Bundestag
votes on a candidate nominated by the federal president. In these cases, parliament can choose another candidate who then would be appointed by the head of state. * PARLIAMENT NOMINATES A CANDIDATE WHOM THE HEAD OF STATE IS CONSTITUTIONALLY OBLIGED TO APPOINT AS PRIME MINISTER. Example: Japan , where the Emperor appoints the Prime Minister on the nomination of the Diet . Also, Ireland where the President
President
of Ireland appoints the Taoiseach on the nomination of the Dáil . * A PUBLIC OFFICEHOLDER (OTHER THAN THE HEAD OF STATE OR THEIR REPRESENTATIVE) NOMINATES A CANDIDATE, WHO, IF APPROVED BY PARLIAMENT, IS APPOINTED AS PRIME MINISTER. Example: Under the Swedish Instrument of Government
Government
(1974) , the power to appoint someone to form a government has been moved from the monarch to the Speaker of Parliament
Parliament
and the parliament itself. The speaker nominates a candidate, who is then elected to prime minister (statsminister) by the parliament if an absolute majority of the members of parliament does not vote no (i.e. he can be elected even if more members of parliament vote No than Yes). * DIRECT ELECTION BY POPULAR VOTE. Example: Israel
Israel
, 1996–2001, where the prime minister was elected in a general election, with no regard to political affiliation, and whose procedure can also be described as of a semi-parliamentary system .

Furthermore, there are variations as to what conditions exist (if any) for the government to have the right to dissolve the parliament:

* In some countries, such as Denmark
Denmark
, Malaysia
Malaysia
, Australia
Australia
and New Zealand , the prime minister has the de facto power to call an election, at will. This was also the case in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
until the passage of the Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011
Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011
. * In Israel
Israel
, parliament may vote in order to call an election or pass a vote of no confidence against the government. * Other countries only permit an election to be called in the event of a vote of no confidence against the government, a supermajority vote in favour of an early election or prolonged deadlock in parliament. These requirements can still be circumvented. For example, in Germany
Germany
in 2005, Gerhard Schröder
Gerhard Schröder
deliberately allowed his government to lose a confidence motion, in order to call an early election. * In Sweden
Sweden
, the government may call a snap election at will, but the newly elected Riksdag
Riksdag
is only elected to fill out the previous Riksdag's term. The last time this option was used was in 1958 . * Norway
Norway
is unique among parliamentary systems in that the Storting always serves the whole of its four-year term.

The parliamentary system can be contrasted with a presidential system which operates under a stricter separation of powers, whereby the executive does not form part of, nor is appointed by, the parliamentary or legislative body. In such a system, parliaments or congresses do not select or dismiss heads of governments, and governments cannot request an early dissolution as may be the case for parliaments. There also exists the semi-presidential system that draws on both presidential systems and parliamentary systems by combining a powerful president with an executive responsible to parliament, as for example the French Fifth Republic
Republic
.

Parliamentarism
Parliamentarism
may also apply to regional and local governments . An example is the city of Oslo
Oslo
, which has an executive council (Byråd) as a part of the parliamentary system.

A few parliamentary democratic nations such as India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, have enacted an anti-defection law, which prohibits a member of the legislature from switching to another party after being elected. With this law, elected representatives lose their seats in parliament if they vote contrary to the directions of their party.

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

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One of the commonly attributed advantages to parliamentary systems is that it is faster and easier to pass legislation, as the executive branch is formed by the direct or indirect support of the legislative branch and often includes members of the legislature. Thus the executive (as the majority party or coalition of parties in the legislature) has a majority of the votes, and can pass legislation at will. In a presidential system, the executive is often chosen independently from the legislature. If the executive and the majority of the legislature are from different political parties , then stalemate can occur. Thus the executive might not be able to implement its legislative proposals. An executive in any system (be it parliamentary, presidential or semi-presidential) is chiefly voted into office on the basis of his or her party's platform/manifesto, and the same is also true of the legislature.

In addition to quicker legislative action, parliamentary government has attractive features for nations that are ethnically , racially , or ideologically divided. In a presidential system, all executive power is vested in one person: the president. In a parliamentary system, with a collegial executive, power is more divided. In the 1989 Lebanese Taif Agreement , in order to give Muslims greater political power, Lebanon
Lebanon
moved from a semi-presidential system with a strong president to a system more structurally similar to classical parliamentary government. Iraq
Iraq
similarly disdained a presidential system out of fears that such a system would be tantamount to Shiite domination; Afghanistan
Afghanistan
's minorities refused to go along with a presidency as strong as the Pashtuns desired.

It can also be argued that power is more evenly spread out in parliamentary government. The prime minister is seldom as important as a ruling president.

In his 1867 book The English Constitution
The English Constitution
, Walter Bagehot praised parliamentary government for producing serious debates, for allowing change in power without an election, and for allowing elections at any time. Bagehot considered the four-year election rule of the United States to be unnatural.

Some scholars like Juan Linz , Fred Riggs , Bruce Ackerman , and Robert Dahl
Robert Dahl
claim that parliamentary government is less prone to authoritarian collapse. These scholars point out that since World War II , two-thirds of Third World countries establishing parliamentary governments successfully made the transition to democracy. By contrast, no Third World presidential system successfully made the transition to democracy without experiencing coups and other constitutional breakdowns.

A recent World Bank study found that parliamentary systems are associated with less corruption.

Some constituencies may have a popular local candidate under an unpopular leader (or the reverse), forcing a difficult choice on the electorate. Mixed-member proportional representation
Mixed-member proportional representation
(where voters cast two ballots) can make this choice easier by allowing voters to cast one vote for the local candidate but also cast a second vote for another party.

Although Bagehot praised parliamentary government for allowing an election to take place at any time, the lack of a definite election calendar can be abused. Previously under some systems, such as the British, a ruling party could schedule elections when it felt that it was likely to retain power, and so avoid elections at times of unpopularity. ( Election
Election
timing in the UK, however, is now partly fixed under the Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011
Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011
.) Thus, by wise timing of elections, in a parliamentary system a party can extend its rule for longer than is feasible in a functioning presidential system. This problem can be alleviated somewhat by setting fixed dates for parliamentary elections, as is the case in several of Australia's state parliaments. In other systems, such as the Dutch and the Belgian, the ruling party or coalition has some flexibility in determining the election date. Conversely, flexibility in the timing of parliamentary elections can avoid periods of legislative gridlock that can occur in a fixed period presidential system.

Critics of the Westminster parliamentary system point out that people with significant popular support in the community are prevented from becoming prime minister if they cannot get elected to parliament since there is no option to "run for prime minister" as one can run for president under a presidential system. Additionally, prime ministers may lose their positions if they lose their seats in parliament, even though they may still be popular nationally. Supporters of parliamentary government respond by saying that as members of parliament, prime ministers are elected first to represent their electoral constituents and if they lose their support then consequently they are no longer entitled to be prime minister.

COUNTRIES

Statue of President
President
Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
of South Africa
South Africa
in Parliament Square , London
London
Main article: List of countries by system of government § Parliamentary systems

AFRICA

COUNTRY CONNECTION BETWEEN LEGISLATIVE AND EXECUTIVE BRANCH

Botswana
Botswana
Parliament
Parliament
of Botswana
Botswana
elects the President
President
who appoints the Cabinet

Ethiopia
Ethiopia
Federal Parliamentary Assembly appoints the Council of Ministers

Mauritius
Mauritius
National Assembly appoints the Cabinet of Mauritius
Mauritius

Somalia
Somalia
Federal Parliament
Parliament
of Somalia
Somalia
elects the President
President
who appoints the Prime Minister

South Africa
South Africa
Parliament
Parliament
of South Africa
South Africa
elects the President
President
who appoints the Cabinet

AMERICAS "> Parliament
Parliament
of Canada
Canada

COUNTRY CONNECTION BETWEEN LEGISLATIVE AND EXECUTIVE BRANCH

Antigua and Barbuda
Antigua and Barbuda
Leader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the House of Representatives of Antigua and Barbuda
Antigua and Barbuda
is appointed Prime Minister of Antigua and Barbuda
Antigua and Barbuda
by the Governor-General of Antigua and Barbuda , who then appoints the Cabinet of Antigua and Barbuda
Antigua and Barbuda
on the advice of the Prime Minister

Bahamas, The Leader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the House of Assembly of the Bahamas is appointed Prime Minister of the Bahamas by the Governor-General of the Bahamas
Governor-General of the Bahamas
, who then appoints the Cabinet of the Bahamas on the advice of the Prime Minister

Barbados
Barbados
Leader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the House of Assembly of Barbados
Barbados
is appointed Prime Minister of Barbados
Barbados
by the Governor-General of Barbados
Barbados
, who then appoints the Cabinet of Barbados
Barbados
on the advice of the Prime Minister

Belize
Belize
Leader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the House of Representatives of Belize
Belize
is appointed Prime Minister of Belize
Belize
by the Governor-General of Belize
Belize
, who then appoints the Cabinet of Belize
Belize
on the advice of the Prime Minister

Canada
Canada
Leader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the House of Commons of Canada
Canada
is appointed Prime Minister of Canada by the Governor
Governor
General of Canada
Canada
, who then appoints the Cabinet of Canada
Canada
on the advice of the Prime Minister

Dominica
Dominica
Parliament
Parliament
approves the Cabinet of Dominica
Dominica

Grenada
Grenada
Leader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the House of Representatives of Grenada
Grenada
is appointed Prime Minister of Grenada
Grenada
by the Governor-General of Grenada
Grenada
, who then appoints the Cabinet of Grenada
Grenada
on the advice of the Prime Minister

Jamaica
Jamaica
Leader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the House of Representatives of Jamaica
Jamaica
is appointed Prime Minister of Jamaica
Jamaica
by the Governor-General of Jamaica
Jamaica
, who then appoints the Cabinet of Jamaica
Jamaica
on the advice of the Prime Minister

Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Leader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the National Assembly of Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Kitts and Nevis
is appointed Prime Minister of Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Kitts and Nevis
by the Governor-General of Saint Kitts and Nevis , who then appoints the Cabinet of Saint Kitts and Nevis on the advice of the Prime Minister

Saint Lucia
Saint Lucia
Leader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the House of Assembly of Saint Lucia
Saint Lucia
is appointed Prime Minister of Saint Lucia
Saint Lucia
by the Governor-General of Saint Lucia
Saint Lucia
, who then appoints the Cabinet of Saint Lucia
Saint Lucia
on the advice of the Prime Minister

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Leader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the House of Assembly of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
is appointed Prime Minister of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
by the Governor-General of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
, who then appoints the Cabinet of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
on the advice of the Prime Minister

Suriname
Suriname
National Assembly elects the President
President
, who appoints the Cabinet of Suriname
Suriname

Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
Parliament
Parliament
of Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
approves the Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago

ASIA

Sansad Bhavan
Sansad Bhavan
, parliament building of India, India
India
Council of Representatives of Iraq
Iraq
Knesset of Israel
Israel
in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Parliament
Parliament
of Malaysia
Malaysia
Jatiyo Sangshad Bhaban of Bangladesh
Bangladesh

COUNTRY CONNECTION BETWEEN LEGISLATIVE AND EXECUTIVE BRANCH

Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Jatiyo Sangshad approves the Cabinet of Bangladesh
Bangladesh

Bhutan
Bhutan
Parliament
Parliament
of Bhutan
Bhutan
approves the Lhengye Zhungtshog
Lhengye Zhungtshog

Cambodia
Cambodia
Parliament
Parliament
of Cambodia
Cambodia
approves the Council of Ministers

India
India
President
President
of India
India
appoints the leader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the Lok Sabha as Prime Minister of India
India
, who then forms the Cabinet of India
India

Iraq
Iraq
Council of Representatives approves the Cabinet of Iraq
Iraq

Israel
Israel
Leader of the political party with the most Knesset seats in the governing coalition is appointed Prime Minister of Israel
Israel
by the President
President
of Israel
Israel
. The Prime Minister then appoints the Cabinet of Israel
Israel
.

Japan
Japan
National Diet nominates the Prime Minister who appoints the Cabinet of Japan
Japan

Kuwait
Kuwait
National Assembly approves the Crown Prince who appoints the Prime Minister who appoints the Cabinet of Kuwait
Kuwait

Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
Supreme Council approves the Cabinet of Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan

Lebanon
Lebanon
Parliament
Parliament
of Lebanon
Lebanon
approves the Cabinet of Lebanon
Lebanon

Malaysia
Malaysia
Parliament
Parliament
of Malaysia
Malaysia
appoints the Cabinet of Malaysia
Malaysia

Myanmar
Myanmar
Assembly of the Union
Assembly of the Union
, by an electoral college , elects the President
President
who forms the Cabinet of Myanmar
Myanmar

Nepal
Nepal
Parliament
Parliament
of Nepal
Nepal
elects the Prime Minister who, by turn, appoints the Cabinet of Nepal
Nepal

Pakistan
Pakistan
Parliament
Parliament
of Pakistan
Pakistan
appoints the Cabinet of Pakistan
Pakistan

Singapore
Singapore
Parliament
Parliament
of Singapore
Singapore
approves the Cabinet of Singapore
Singapore

Thailand
Thailand
House of Representatives appoints the Prime Minister who appoints the Cabinet of Thailand
Thailand

EUROPE

The administrative building of the Albanian Parliament
Parliament

COUNTRY CONNECTION BETWEEN LEGISLATIVE AND EXECUTIVE BRANCH

Albania
Albania
Parliament
Parliament
of Albania
Albania
approves the Cabinet of Albania
Albania

Austria
Austria
National Council can dismiss the Cabinet of Austria
Austria
through a motion of no confidence

Belgium
Belgium
Federal Parliament
Parliament
approves the Cabinet of Belgium
Belgium

Bulgaria
Bulgaria
National Assembly appoints the Council of Ministers of Bulgaria
Bulgaria

Croatia
Croatia
Croatian Parliament
Parliament
approves President
President
of Government
Government
and the Cabinet nominated by him/her.

Czech Republic
Republic
President
President
of the Czech Republic
Republic
appoints the leader of the largest party or coalition in the Chamber of Deputies of the Parliament
Parliament
as Prime Minister, who forms the Cabinet . The Prime Minister must gain vote of confidence by the Chamber of Deputies .

Denmark
Denmark
The Monarch
Monarch
appoints, based on recommendations from the leaders of the parties in Folketinget , the cabinet leader who is most likely to successfully assemble a Cabinet which will not be disapproved by a majority in Folketinget .

Estonia
Estonia
Riigikogu
Riigikogu
elects the Prime Minister candidate nominated by the President
President
of the Republic
Republic
(normally this candidate is the leader of the parliamentary coalition of parties). The Government
Government
of the Republic
Republic
of Estonia
Estonia
is later appointed by the President
President
of the Republic
Republic
under proposal of the approved Prime Minister candidate. The Riigikogu
Riigikogu
may remove the Prime Minister and any other member of the government through a motion of no confidence.

Finland
Finland
Parliament
Parliament
of Finland
Finland
appoints the Cabinet of Finland
Finland

Germany
Germany
Bundestag
Bundestag
elects the Federal Chancellor
Chancellor
(after nomination from the President
President
of Germany
Germany
), who forms the Cabinet

Greece
Greece
Hellenic Parliament
Parliament
approves the Cabinet of Greece
Greece

Hungary
Hungary
National Assembly approves the Cabinet of Hungary
Hungary

Iceland
Iceland
The President
President
of Iceland
Iceland
appoints and discharges the Cabinet of Iceland
Iceland
. Ministers can not even resign without being discharged by presidential decree .

Ireland Dáil Éireann nominates the Taoiseach , who is then appointed by the President
President
of Ireland

Italy
Italy
Italian Parliament
Parliament
grants and revokes its confidence in the Cabinet of Italy
Italy
, appointed by the President
President
of Italy
Italy

Kosovo
Kosovo
Assembly of Kosovo
Kosovo
appoints the Government
Government
of Kosovo
Kosovo

Latvia
Latvia
Saeima
Saeima
appoints the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic
Republic
of Latvia
Latvia

Luxembourg
Luxembourg
Chamber of Deputies appoints the Cabinet of Luxembourg
Luxembourg

Macedonia Assembly approves the Government
Government
of Macedonia

Malta
Malta
House of Representatives appoints the Cabinet of Malta
Malta

Moldova
Moldova
Parliament
Parliament
of Moldova
Moldova
appoints the Cabinet of Moldova
Moldova

Montenegro
Montenegro
Parliament
Parliament
of Montenegro
Montenegro
appoints the Government
Government
of Montenegro
Montenegro

Netherlands
Netherlands
Second Chamber of the Staten-Generaal National Council can dismiss the Cabinet of the Netherlands
Netherlands
through a motion of no confidence

Norway
Norway
The Monarch
Monarch
appoints the MP leading the largest party or coalition in Stortinget
Stortinget
as Prime Minister , who forms the Cabinet

Serbia
Serbia
National Assembly appoints the Government
Government
of Serbia
Serbia

Slovakia
Slovakia
National Council approves the Government
Government
of Slovakia
Slovakia

Slovenia
Slovenia
National Assembly appoints the Government
Government
of Slovenia
Slovenia

Spain
Spain
The Congress of Deputies elects the President
President
of the Government
Government
, who forms the Cabinet

Sweden
Sweden
The Riksdag
Riksdag
elects the Prime Minister , who in turn appoints the other members of the Government
Government

Switzerland
Switzerland
A United Federal Assembly elects the members of the Swiss Federal Council

Turkey
Turkey
Grand National Assembly approves the Cabinet of Turkey
Turkey

United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The Monarch
Monarch
appoints the MP leading the largest party or coalition in the House of Commons as Prime Minister , who forms the Cabinet

PACIFIC

Parliament
Parliament
of Australia
Australia
Parliament
Parliament
of New Zealand
New Zealand
National Parliament
Parliament
of Papua New Guinea

COUNTRY CONNECTION BETWEEN LEGISLATIVE AND EXECUTIVE BRANCH

Australia
Australia
Leader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the Australian House of Representatives
Australian House of Representatives
is appointed Prime Minister of Australia
Australia
by the Governor-General of Australia
Australia
, who then appoints the Cabinet of Australia
Australia
on the advice of the Prime Minister

New Zealand
New Zealand
Leader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the New Zealand
New Zealand
Parliament
Parliament
is appointed Prime Minister of New Zealand by the Governor-General of New Zealand
New Zealand
, who then appoints the Cabinet of New Zealand
New Zealand
on the advice of the Prime Minister

Papua New Guinea Leader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the National Parliament
Parliament
is appointed Prime Minister of Papua New Guinea by the Governor-General of Papua New Guinea , who then appoints the Cabinet of Papua New Guinea on the advice of the Prime Minister

Samoa
Samoa
Legislative Assembly appoints the Cabinet of Samoa
Samoa

Vanuatu
Vanuatu
Parliament
Parliament
of Vanuatu
Vanuatu
appoints the Cabinet of Vanuatu
Vanuatu

SEE ALSO

* Parliamentary republic * Semi-parliamentary system
Semi-parliamentary system
* Semi-presidential system * Presidential system * List of countries by system of government
List of countries by system of government
* List of legislatures by country * Parliament
Parliament
in the Making * Parliamentary leader * Rule according to higher law * Rule of law * Law reform

REFERENCES

* ^ "The Decreta of León of 1188 - The oldest documentary manifestation of the European parliamentary system". UNESCO Memory of the World. 2013. Retrieved 21 May 2016. * ^ John Keane: The Life and Death of Democracy, London
London
2009, 169-176. * ^ Jobson, Adrian (2012). The First English Revolution: Simon de Montfort, Henry III and the Barons\' War. Bloomsbury. pp. 173–4. ISBN 978-1-84725-226-5 . * ^ "Simon de Montfort: The turning point for democracy that gets overlooked". BBC. 19 January 2015. Retrieved 19 January 2015 ; "The January Parliament
Parliament
and how it defined Britain". The Telegraph. 20 January 2015. Retrieved 28 January 2015. * ^ Norgate, Kate (1894). "Montfort, Simon of (1208?-1265)". In Lee, Sidney . Dictionary of National Biography . 38. London: Smith, Elder & Co. * ^ Kopstein, Jeffrey; Lichbach, Mark; Hanson, Stephen E., eds. (2014). Comparative Politics: Interests, Identities, and Institutions in a Changing Global Order (4, revised ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 37–9. ISBN 1139991388 . Britain pioneered the system of liberal democracy that has now spread in one form or another to most of the world's countries * ^ "Constitutionalism: America & Beyond". Bureau of International Information Programs (IIP), U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 30 October 2014. The earliest, and perhaps greatest, victory for liberalism was achieved in England. The rising commercial class that had supported the Tudor monarchy in the 16th century led the revolutionary battle in the 17th, and succeeded in establishing the supremacy of Parliament
Parliament
and, eventually, of the House of Commons. What emerged as the distinctive feature of modern constitutionalism was not the insistence on the idea that the king is subject to law (although this concept is an essential attribute of all constitutionalism). This notion was already well established in the Middle Ages. What was distinctive was the establishment of effective means of political control whereby the rule of law might be enforced. Modern constitutionalism was born with the political requirement that representative government depended upon the consent of citizen subjects.... However, as can be seen through provisions in the 1689 Bill of Rights, the English Revolution was fought not just to protect the rights of property (in the narrow sense) but to establish those liberties which liberals believed essential to human dignity and moral worth. The "rights of man" enumerated in the English Bill of Rights gradually were proclaimed beyond the boundaries of England, notably in the American Declaration of Independence of 1776 and in the French Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789. * ^ Dr Andrew Blick and Professor George Jones — No 10 guest historian series, Prime Ministers and No. 10 (1 January 2012). "The Institution of Prime Minister". Government
Government
of the United Kingdom: History of Government
Government
Blog. Retrieved 15 April 2016. * ^ Carter, Byrum E. (2015) . "The Historical Development of the Office of Prime Minister". Office of the Prime Minister. Princeton University Press. ISBN 9781400878260 . * ^ Lijphart, Arend (1999). Patterns of democracy. New Haven: Yale University Press. * ^ Julian Go (2007). "A Globalizing Constitutionalism?, Views from the Postcolony, 1945-2000". In Arjomand, Saïd Amir. Constitutionalism and political reconstruction. Brill. pp. 92–94. ISBN 9004151745 . * ^ "How the Westminster Parliamentary System was exported around the World". University of Cambridge. 2 December 2013. Retrieved 16 December 2013. * ^ Seidle, F. Leslie; Docherty, David C. (2003). Reforming parliamentary democracy. McGill-Queen's University Press. p. 3. ISBN 9780773525085 . * ^ Duverger, Maurice (September 1996). "Les monarchies républicaines" (PDF). Pouvoirs, revue française d’études constitutionnelles et politiques (in French). No. 78. Paris: Éditions du Seuil. pp. 107–120. ISBN 2-02-030123-7 . ISSN 0152-0768 . Retrieved 10 September 2016. * ^ Frosini, Justin Orlando (2008). Ferrari, Giuseppe Franco, ed. Forms of State and Forms of Government. Giuffrè Editore. pp. 54–55. ISBN 9788814143885 . Retrieved 13 November 2016 – via Google Books .

* ^ "ANTI-DEFECTION LAW: A DEATH KNELL FOR PARLIAMENTARY DISSENT?" (PDF). NUJS Law Review. Mar 2012. Retrieved 15 May 2016. * ^ T. St. John N. Bates (1986), "Parliament, Policy
Policy
and Delegated Power" (PDF), Statute Law Review, Oxford: Oxford University Press * ^ Lederman, Daniel; Loayza, Norman; Soares, Rodrigo. "Accountability and Corruption: Political Institutions Matter"

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