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1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 _Population without double counting _: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

PARIS (locally ( listen )) is the capital and most populous city of France
France
. It has an area of 105 square kilometres (41 square miles) and a population of 2,229,621 in 2015 within its administrative limits. The city is both a commune and department and forms the centre and headquarters of the Île-de- France
France
, or Paris
Paris
Region, which has an area of 12,012 square kilometres (4,638 square miles) and a population in 2016 of 12,142,802, comprising roughly 18 percent of the population of France. By the 17th century, Paris
Paris
was one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion, science, and the arts, and it retains that position still today. The Paris Region had a GDP
GDP
of €649.6 billion (US $763.4 billion) in 2014, accounting for 30.4 percent of the GDP
GDP
of France. According to official estimates, the Paris Region has the fourth-highest GDP
GDP
in the world and the largest regional GDP
GDP
in the EU .

Around its historical heart, the small Île de la Cité , the City
City
of Paris
Paris
stretches on both sides of the Seine
Seine
River, which divides it into two parts: the Rive Gauche (Left Bank, south) and Rive Droite (Right Bank, north). The city proper is but the core of a built-up area that extends well beyond its administrative limits. Commonly referred to as the _agglomération Parisienne_, and statistically as a _unité urbaine _ (a measure of urban area ), the agglomeration has a 2013 population of 10,601,122, which makes it the largest in the European Union
European Union
. City-influenced commuter activity reaches well beyond even this in a statistical _aire urbaine_ de Paris
Paris
(a measure of metropolitan area ), that had a 2013 population of 12,405,426, a number one-fifth the population of France, and one that makes it, after London
London
, the second largest metropolitan area in the European Union .

In 2016 a new entity was created, the Metropole of Grand Paris , to improve cooperation between the City
City
of Paris
Paris
and the suburbs. It includes the City
City
of Paris
Paris
and all the communes in the departments that surround the city. Grand Paris covers 814 square kilometers and has a population of 7 million.

The city is also a major rail, highway, and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris- Charles de Gaulle (the second busiest airport in Europe
Europe
after London
London
Heathrow Airport with 63.8 million passengers in 2014) and Paris-Orly . Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro , serves 5.23 million passengers daily. It is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro . Notably, Paris Gare du Nord is the busiest railway station in the world outside of Japan
Japan
, with 262 million passengers in 2015.

Paris
Paris
is known especially for its museums and architectural landmarks. The Louvre
Louvre
is the most visited art museum in the world outside of China. The Musée d\'Orsay is noted for its collection of French Impressionist art, and its Pompidou-center Musée National d\'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe. In 2017, the European Commission ranked it as the most "Culturally Vibrant City" in the EU. The central area of the city along the Seine
Seine
River is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site and includes many notable monuments, including Notre Dame Cathedral and Sainte-Chapelle on Île de la Cité, the Grand Palais , Petit Palais and Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
(remnants of Universal Expositions held in Paris) and the Louvre
Louvre
and the adjacent Tuileries Garden . Other notable monuments include the Arc de Triomphe
Arc de Triomphe
just to the west of the centre and the Basilica of Sacré-Cœur in Montmartre . In 2015, Paris
Paris
received 22.2 million visitors, making it one of the world's top tourist destinations. However, in 2016, after a series of terrorist attacks, the number of foreign tourists in Greater Paris
Paris
dropped by 11.5 percent.

The association football club Paris
Paris
Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris. The 80,000-seat Stade de France
France
, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup , is located just north of Paris
Paris
in the neighbouring commune of Saint- Denis
Denis
. Paris
Paris
hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros . Paris
Paris
hosted the Olympic Games in 1900 , 1924 and will host the 2024 Summer Olympics . The 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups , the 2007 Rugby World Cup , and the 1960 , 1984 , and 2016 UEFA European Championships were also held in the city, and every July, the Tour de France
France
bicycle race finishes in the city.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 History

* 2.1 Origins * 2.2 Middle Ages
Middle Ages
to Louis XIV * 2.3 18th and 19th centuries

* 2.4 20th and 21st centuries

* 2.4.1 Terror Attacks

* 3 Geography

* 3.1 Climate

* 4 Administration

* 4.1 City
City
government * 4.2 Métropole du Grand Paris * 4.3 Regional government * 4.4 National government * 4.5 Police force

* 5 Cityscape

* 5.1 Urbanism and architecture * 5.2 Housing * 5.3 Paris
Paris
and its suburbs

* 6 Demographics

* 6.1 Migration * 6.2 Religion

* 7 Economy

* 7.1 Employment * 7.2 Incomes

* 8 Tourism

* 8.1 Monuments and attractions * 8.2 Hotels

* 9 Culture

* 9.1 Painting and sculpture * 9.2 Photography * 9.3 Museums * 9.4 Theatre * 9.5 Literature * 9.6 Music * 9.7 Cinema * 9.8 Restaurants and cuisine * 9.9 Fashion * 9.10 Holidays and festivals

* 10 Education

* 10.1 Libraries

* 11 Religious buildings

* 11.1 Christianity * 11.2 Islam * 11.3 Judaism * 11.4 Buddhism and Hinduism

* 12 Sports

* 13 Infrastructure

* 13.1 Transport

* 13.1.1 Railways * 13.1.2 Métro, RER and tramway * 13.1.3 Air * 13.1.4 Motorways * 13.1.5 Waterways * 13.1.6 Cycling

* 13.2 Electricity * 13.3 Water and sanitation * 13.4 Parks and gardens * 13.5 Cemeteries

* 14 Healthcare * 15 Media

* 16 International relations

* 16.1 Twin towns and partner cities * 16.2 Other relationships

* 17 See also

* 18 References

* 18.1 Notes * 18.2 Footnotes * 18.3 Bibliography

* 19 Further reading * 20 External links

ETYMOLOGY

See Wiktionary for the name of Paris
Paris
in various languages other than English and French. Paris- La Défense

The name "Paris" is derived from its early inhabitants, the Celtic Parisii tribe but the city's name is not related to the Paris
Paris
of Greek mythology .

Paris
Paris
is often referred to as "The City
City
of Light" (_La Ville Lumière_), both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment , and more literally because Paris
Paris
was one of the first European cities to adopt gas street lighting . In the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris
Paris
were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris
Paris
has also been known as _Panam(e)_ (pronounced ) in French slang .

Inhabitants are known in English as "Parisians" and in French as _Parisiens_ ( (_ listen )). They are also pejoratively called Parigots_ ( ( listen )).

HISTORY

Main articles: History of Paris and Timeline of Paris

ORIGINS

The _Parisii _, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones , inhabited the Paris
Paris
area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north-south trade routes crossed the Seine
Seine
on the île de la Cité ; this meeting place of land and water trade routes gradually became a town and an important trading centre. The Parisii traded with many river towns as far away as the Iberian Peninsula, and minted their own coins for that purpose. Gold coins minted by the Parisii (1st century BC)

The Romans conquered the Paris Basin in 52 BC and, after making the island a garrison camp, began extending their settlement in a more permanent way to Paris's Left Bank . The Gallo-Roman town was originally called Lutetia (more fully, _ Lutetia Parisiorum_, "Lutetia of the Parisii"). It became a prosperous city with a forum, baths, temples, theatres, and an amphitheatre .

By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as _Parisius_, a Latin name that would later become _Paris_ in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis
Denis
, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as _ Mons
Mons
Martyrum_ (Latin "Hill of Martyrs"), later " Montmartre ", from where he walked headless to the north of the city; the place where he fell and was buried became an important religious shrine, the Basilica of Saint- Denis
Denis
, and many French Kings are buried there.

Clovis the Frank , the first king of the Merovingian dynasty , made the city his capital from 508. A gradual immigration by the Franks also occurred in Paris
Paris
in the beginning of the Frankish domination of Gaul which created the Parisian Francien dialects. Fortification of the Île-de- France
France
failed to prevent sacking by Vikings in 845 but Paris's strategic importance—with its bridges preventing ships from passing—was established by successful defence in the Siege of Paris (885–86) . In 987 Hugh Capet , Count of Paris (_comte de Paris_), Duke of the Franks
Franks
(_duc des Francs_) was elected King of the Franks (_roi des Francs_). Under the rule of the Capetian kings, Paris gradually became the largest and most prosperous city in France.

MIDDLE AGES TO LOUIS XIV

See also: Paris in the Middle Ages , Paris in the 16th century , and Paris in the 17th century

By the end of the 12th century, Paris
Paris
had become the political, economic, religious, and cultural capital of France. The Palais de la Cité , the royal residence, was located at the western end of the _Île de la Cité_. In 1163, during the reign of Louis VII , Maurice de Sully , bishop of Paris, undertook the construction of the Notre Dame Cathedral at its eastern extremity.

Paris' cultural centre had begun to move to the right bank, after the draining of its former swampland made the land habitable and fit for crops. In 1137, a new city marketplace (where Les Halles is today) replaced the two smaller ones on the Île de la Cité and Place de la Grève (Hotel de Ville). The latter location housed the headquarters of Paris' river trade corporation, an organisation that later became, unofficially (although formally in later years), Paris' first municipal government.

In the late 12th century, Philip Augustus extended the Louvre fortress to defend the city against river invasions from the west, gave the city its first walls between 1190 and 1215, rebuilt its bridges to either side of its central island, and paved its main thoroughfares. In 1190, he transformed Paris' former cathedral school into a student-teacher corporation that would become the University of Paris
Paris
and would draw students from all of Europe. _ The Palais de la Cité and Sainte-Chapelle , viewed from the Left Bank, from the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry _ (month of June) (1410)

During the Hundred Years\' War , Paris
Paris
was occupied by England-friendly Burgundian forces from 1418, before being occupied outright by the English when Henry V of England entered the French capital in 1420; in spite of a 1429 effort by Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc
to liberate the city, it would remain under English occupation until 1436.

In the late 16th-century French Wars of Religion , Paris
Paris
was a Catholic League stronghold, the organisers of the 24 August 1572 St. Bartholomew\'s Day massacre that killed thousands of French Protestants. The conflicts ended when crown-pretendant Henry IV , after converting to Catholicism to gain entry to the capital, entered the city in 1594 to claim the crown of France. This king made several improvements to the capital during his reign: he completed the construction of Paris' first uncovered, sidewalk-doted bridge, the _ Pont Neuf _, built a Louvre
Louvre
extension that connected it the Tuileries Palace , and created the first Paris
Paris
residential square, the _Place Royale_, now Place des Vosges . The king would end his life in the capital, assassinated in a narrow street by Les Halles marketplace in 1610.

During the 17th century, Cardinal Richelieu , chief minister of Louis XIII , was determined to make Paris
Paris
the most beautiful city in Europe. He built five new bridges, a new chapel for the College of Sorbonne , and a palace for himself, the _Palais Cardinal_, which he bequeathed to Louis XIII. After Richelieu's death in 1642, it was the renamed as the Palais-Royal
Palais-Royal
.

Due to the Parisian uprisings during the Fronde civil war, Louis XIV moved his court to a new palace, Versailles , in 1682. Although no longer the capital of France, arts and sciences in the city flourished with the Comédie-Française , the Academy of Painting, and the French Academy of Sciences . To demonstrate that the city was safe from attack, the king had the city walls demolished and replaced with tree-lined boulevards that would become the _Grands Boulevards _ of today. Other marks of his reign were the _Collège des Quatre-Nations _, the _ Place Vendôme _, the _ Place des Victoires _, and _Les Invalides _.

18TH AND 19TH CENTURIES

See also: Paris in the 18th century , Paris
Paris
during the Second Empire , and Haussmann\'s renovation of Paris
Paris

Paris
Paris
grew in population from about 400,000 in 1640 to 650,000 in 1780. A new boulevard, the Champs-Élysées , extended the city west to _Étoile _, while the working-class neighbourhood of the Faubourg Saint-Antoine on the eastern site of the city grew more and more crowded with poor migrant workers from other regions of France.

Paris
Paris
was the centre of an explosion of philosophic and scientific activity known as the Age of Enlightenment . Diderot and d\'Alembert published their _ Encyclopédie _ in 1751–52, and the Montgolfier Brothers launched the first manned flight in a hot-air balloon on 21 November 1783, from the gardens of the Château de la Muette . Paris was the financial capital of continental Europe, the primary European centre of book publishing, fashion and the manufacture of fine furniture and luxury goods.

In the summer of 1789, Paris
Paris
became the centre stage of the French Revolution . On 14 July, a mob seized the arsenal at the Invalides , acquiring thousands of guns, and stormed the Bastille
Bastille
, a symbol of royal authority. The storming of the Bastille
Bastille
on 14 July 1789 marked the beginning of the French Revolution.

The first independent Paris Commune , or city council, met in the _Hôtel de Ville_ and, on 15 July, elected a Mayor , the astronomer Jean Sylvain Bailly .

Louis XVI and the royal family were brought to Paris
Paris
and made prisoners within the Tuileries Palace. In 1793, as the revolution turned more and more radical, the king, queen, and the mayor were guillotined, along with more than 16,000 others (throughout France), during the Reign of Terror . The property of the aristocracy and the church was nationalised , and the city's churches were closed, sold or demolished. A succession of revolutionary factions ruled Paris
Paris
until 9 November 1799 (_coup d'état du 18 brumaire_), when Napoléon Bonaparte seized power as First Consul. The Paris Opera
Paris Opera
was the centrepiece of Napoleon
Napoleon
III's new Paris. The architect, Charles Garnier , described the style simply as " Napoleon
Napoleon
the Third."

The population of Paris
Paris
had dropped by 100,000 during the Revolution, but between 1799 and 1815, it surged with 160,000 new residents, reaching 660,000. Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte replaced the elected government of Paris
Paris
with a prefect reporting only to him. He began erecting monuments to military glory, including the _ Arc de Triomphe
Arc de Triomphe
_, and improved the neglected infrastructure of the city with new fountains, the Canal de l\'Ourcq , Père Lachaise Cemetery and the city's first metal bridge, the _ Pont des Arts _.

During the Restoration , the bridges and squares of Paris
Paris
were returned to their pre-Revolution names, but the July Revolution of 1830 in Paris, (commemorated by the July Column on Place de la Bastille
Bastille
), brought a constitutional monarch, Louis Philippe I , to power. The first railway line to Paris
Paris
opened in 1837, beginning a new period of massive migration from the provinces to the city.

Louis-Philippe was overthrown by a popular uprising in the streets of Paris
Paris
in 1848. His successor, Napoleon
Napoleon
III , and the newly appointed prefect of the Seine, Georges-Eugène Haussmann , launched a gigantic public works project to build wide new boulevards, a new opera house, a central market, new aqueducts, sewers, and parks, including the Bois de Boulogne and Bois de Vincennes . In 1860, Napoleon
Napoleon
III also annexed the surrounding towns and created eight new arrondissements, expanding Paris
Paris
to its current limits. In the 1860s, Paris streets and monuments were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, giving it the name "The City
City
of Light."

During the Franco-Prussian War (1870–1871), Paris
Paris
was besieged by the Prussian army. After months of blockade, hunger, and then bombardment by the Prussians, the city was forced to surrender on 28 January 1871. On 28 March, a revolutionary government called the Paris Commune seized power in Paris. The Commune held power for two months, until it was harshly suppressed by the French army during the "Bloody Week" at the end of May 1871. The Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
, under construction in November 1888, startled Parisians and the world with its modernity.

Late in the 19th century, Paris
Paris
hosted two major international expositions: the 1889 Universal Exposition , was held to mark the centennial of the French Revolution and featured the new Eiffel Tower; and the 1900 Universal Exposition , which gave Paris
Paris
the _Pont Alexandre III _, the _ Grand Palais _, the _ Petit Palais
Petit Palais
_ and the first Paris Métro line. Paris
Paris
became the laboratory of Naturalism ( Émile Zola ) and Symbolism ( Charles Baudelaire and Paul Verlaine ), and of Impressionism in art ( Courbet
Courbet
, Manet
Manet
, Monet , Renoir
Renoir
).

20TH AND 21ST CENTURIES

See also: Paris
Paris
in the _Belle Époque_ , Paris
Paris
during the First World War , Paris between the Wars (1919-1939) , Paris in World War II , and History of Paris (1946-2000)

By 1901, the population of Paris
Paris
had grown to 2,715,000. At the beginning of the century, artists from around the world, including Picasso
Picasso
, Modigliani , and Matisse
Matisse
made Paris
Paris
their home. It was the birthplace of Fauvism , Cubism and abstract art , and authors such as Marcel Proust were exploring new approaches to literature.

During the First World War
First World War
, Paris
Paris
sometimes found itself on the front line; 600 to 1,000 Paris
Paris
taxis played a small but highly important symbolic role in transporting 6,000 soldiers to the front line at the First Battle of the Marne . The city was also bombed by Zeppelins and shelled by German long-range guns . In the years after the war, known as _Les Années Folles _, Paris
Paris
continued to be a mecca for writers, musicians and artists from around the world, including Ernest Hemingway , Igor Stravinsky , James Joyce , Josephine Baker , Sidney Bechet and the surrealist Salvador Dalí .

In the years after the peace conference , the city was also home to growing numbers of students and activists from French colonies and other Asian and African countries, who later became leaders of their countries, such as Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh
, Zhou Enlai
Zhou Enlai
and Léopold Sédar Senghor . General Charles de Gaulle on the Champs-Élysées celebrating the liberation of Paris
Paris
(26 August 1944).

On 14 June 1940, the German army marched into Paris, which had been declared an "open city ". On 16–17 July 1942, following German orders, the French police and gendarmes arrested 12,884 Jews, including 4,115 children, and confined them during five days at the _Vel d\'Hiv_ (_Vélodrome d'Hiver_), from which they were transported by train to the extermination camp at Auschwitz . None of the children came back. On 25 August 1944, the city was liberated by the French 2nd Armoured Division and the 4th Infantry Division of the United States Army . General Charles de Gaulle led a huge and emotional crowd down the Champs Élysées towards Notre Dame de Paris, and made a rousing speech from the Hôtel de Ville .

In the 1950s and the 1960s, Paris
Paris
became one front of the Algerian War for independence; in August 1961, the pro-independence FLN targeted and killed 11 Paris
Paris
policemen, leading to the imposition of a curfew on Muslims of Algeria
Algeria
(who, at that time, were French citizens). On 17 October 1961, an unauthorised but peaceful protest demonstration of Algerians against the curfew led to violent confrontations between the police and demonstrators, in which at least 40 people were killed, including some thrown into the Seine. The anti-independence _ Organisation armée secrète _ (OAS), for their part, carried out a series of bombings in Paris
Paris
throughout 1961 and 1962. The Centre Georges Pompidou , a museum of modern art (1977), put all its internal plumbing and infrastructure on the outside.

In May 1968, protesting students occupied the Sorbonne and put up barricades in the Latin Quarter . Thousands of Parisian blue-collar workers joined the students, and the movement grew into a two-week general strike. Supporters of the government won the June elections by a large majority. The May 1968 events in France
France
resulted in the break-up of the University of Paris into 13 independent campuses.

In 1975, the National Assembly changed the status of Paris
Paris
to that of other French cities and, on 25 March 1977, Jacques Chirac became the first elected mayor of Paris
Paris
since 1793. The Tour Maine-Montparnasse , the tallest building in the city at 57 storeys and 210 metres (689 feet) high, was built between 1969 and 1973. It was highly controversial, and it remains the only building in the centre of the city over 32 storeys high.

The population of Paris
Paris
dropped from 2,850,000 in 1954 to 2,152,000 in 1990, as middle-class families moved to the suburbs. A suburban railway network, the RER (_Réseau Express Régional_), was built to complement the _Métro_, and the _Périphérique_ expressway encircling the city, was completed in 1973.

Most of the postwar's presidents of the Fifth Republic wanted to leave their own monuments in Paris; President Georges Pompidou started the Centre Georges Pompidou (1977), Valéry Giscard d\'Estaing began the Musée d\'Orsay (1986); President François Mitterrand , in power for 14 years, built the Opéra Bastille
Bastille
(1985–1989), the Bibliothèque nationale de France
France
(1996), the Arche de la Défense (1985–1989), and the Louvre
Louvre
Pyramid with its underground courtyard (1983–1989); Jacques Chirac (2006), the Musée du quai Branly . Arc de triomphe 1989

In the early 21st century, the population of Paris
Paris
began to increase slowly again, as more young people moved into the city. It reached 2.25 million in 2011. In March 2001, Bertrand Delanoë became the first socialist mayor of Paris. In 2007, in an effort to reduce car traffic in the city, he introduced the Vélib\' , a system which rents bicycles for the use of local residents and visitors. Bertrand Delanoë also transformed a section of the highway along the left bank of the Seine
Seine
into an urban promenade and park, the _Promenade des Berges de la Seine
Seine
_, which he inaugurated in June 2013.

In 2007, President Nicolas Sarkozy launched the _ Grand Paris _ project, to integrate Paris
Paris
more closely with the towns in the region around it. After many modifications, the new area, named the Metropolis of Grand Paris , with a population of 6.7 million, was created on 1 January 2016.

In 2011, the City
City
of Paris
Paris
and the national government approved the plans for the Grand Paris Express , totalling 205 kilometres (127 miles) of automated metro lines to connect Paris, the innermost three departments around Paris, airports and high-speed rail (TGV) stations, at an estimated cost of €35 billion. The system is scheduled to be completed by 2030.

On 5 April 2014, Anne Hidalgo , a socialist, was elected the first female mayor of Paris.

Terror Attacks

_ A bar near the scene of the November 2015 Paris
Paris
attacks, which left 130 people dead Anti-terrorism demonstration on Place de la République_ after _Charlie Hebdo_ shooting (11 January 2015)

_ This section's TEXT USES MORE WORDS THAN ARE NECESSARY. Please help improve this article by using fewer words whilst keeping the content of the article. (June 2017)_

On 7 January 2015, two French Muslim extremists attacked the Paris headquarters of _Charlie Hebdo _ and killed thirteen people, in an attack claimed by Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula , and on 9 January, a third terrorist, who claimed he was part of ISIS (also called ISIL or 'Daesh'), killed four hostages during an attack at a Jewish grocery store at _ Porte de Vincennes _. On 11 January an estimated 1.5 million people marched in Paris
Paris
–along with international political leaders–to show solidarity against terrorism and in defence of freedom of speech. Ten months later, 13 November 2015, came a series of coordinated terrorist attacks in Paris
Paris
and Saint- Denis
Denis
claimed by the 'Islamic state' organisation ISIL ('Daesh', ISIS); 130 people were killed by gunfire and bombs, and more than 350 were injured.

On 3 February 2017, an attacker tried to stab soldiers guarding the Louvre
Louvre
after he was refused admission with the two bags he was carrying, reportedly saying 'Allahu Akbar', and was shot. Later searches found no explosives in the bags (see Louvre
Louvre
machete attack ). On 18 March 2017, a man held up patrons of a bar in Vitry-sur- Seine
Seine
, then held a gun to the head of a French soldier at Orly Airport , the second-largest airport in the Paris
Paris
metro area, shouting "I am here to die in the name of Allah", and was shot dead by the soldier's comrades (see March 2017 Île-de- France
France
attacks ). On 20 April 2017, a man shot dead French police officer Xavier Jugelé on the Champs-Élysées , and was later shot dead himself (see April 2017 Champs-Élysées attack ). On June 19, 2017, a man rammed his car into a police van on the Champs-Élysées, with a car containing weapons and explosives powerful enough to blow up the car.

GEOGRAPHY

Main article: Topography of Paris Parisian hills and hydrology

Paris
Paris
is located in northern central France. By road, it is 450 kilometres (280 mi) southeast of London, 287 kilometres (178 mi) south of Calais
Calais
, 305 kilometres (190 mi) southwest of Brussels
Brussels
, 774 kilometres (481 mi) north of Marseille
Marseille
, 385 kilometres (239 mi) northeast of Nantes
Nantes
, and 135 kilometres (84 mi) southeast of Rouen
Rouen
. Paris
Paris
is located in the north-bending arc of the river Seine
Seine
and includes two islands, the _ Île Saint-Louis _ and the larger _Île de la Cité _, which form the oldest part of the city.

The river's mouth on the English Channel (_La Manche_) is about 233 mi (375 km) downstream from the city. The city is spread widely on both banks of the river. Overall, the city is relatively flat, and the lowest point is 35 m (115 ft) above sea level . Paris
Paris
has several prominent hills, the highest of which is Montmartre at 130 m (427 ft). Montmartre gained its name from the martyrdom of Saint Denis
Denis
, first bishop of Paris, atop the _ Mons
Mons
Martyrum_, "Martyr's mound", in 250.

Excluding the outlying parks of _ Bois de Boulogne _ and _Bois de Vincennes
Vincennes
_, Paris
Paris
covers an oval measuring about 87 km2 (34 sq mi) in area, enclosed by the 35 km (22 mi) ring road, the Boulevard Périphérique . The city's last major annexation of outlying territories in 1860 not only gave it its modern form but also created the 20 clockwise-spiralling arrondissements (municipal boroughs). From the 1860 area of 78 km2 (30 sq mi), the city limits were expanded marginally to 86.9 km2 (33.6 sq mi) in the 1920s. In 1929, the _Bois de Boulogne_ and _Bois de Vincennes_ forest parks were officially annexed to the city, bringing its area to about 105 km2 (41 sq mi). The metropolitan area of the city is 2,300 km2 (890 sq mi).

CLIMATE

Autumn in Paris
Paris

Paris
Paris
has a typical Western European oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification : _Cfb _) which is affected by the North Atlantic Current . The overall climate throughout the year is mild and moderately wet. Summer days are usually warm and pleasant with average temperatures between 15 and 25 °C (59 and 77 °F), and a fair amount of sunshine. Each year, however, there are a few days when the temperature rises above 32 °C (90 °F). Longer periods of more intense heat sometimes occur, such as the heat wave of 2003 when temperatures exceeded 30 °C (86 °F) for weeks, reached 40 °C (104 °F) on some days and seldom cooled down at night.

Spring and autumn have, on average, mild days and fresh nights but are changing and unstable. Surprisingly warm or cool weather occurs frequently in both seasons. In winter, sunshine is scarce; days are cool, nights cold but generally above freezing with low temperatures around 3 °C (37 °F). Light night frosts are however quite common, but the temperature will dip below −5 °C (23 °F) for only a few days a year. Snow falls every year, but rarely stays on the ground. The city sometimes sees light snow or flurries with or without accumulation.

Paris
Paris
has an average annual precipitation of 652 mm (25.7 in), and experiences light rainfall distributed evenly throughout the year. However the city is known for intermittent abrupt heavy showers. The highest recorded temperature is 40.4 °C (104.7 °F) on 28 July 1947, and the lowest is −23.9 °C (−11.0 °F) on 10 December 1879.

CLIMATE DATA FOR PARIS (PARC MONTSOURIS ), 1981–2010

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 16.1 (61) 21.4 (70.5) 25.7 (78.3) 30.2 (86.4) 34.8 (94.6) 37.6 (99.7) 40.4 (104.7) 39.5 (103.1) 36.2 (97.2) 28.9 (84) 21.6 (70.9) 17.1 (62.8) 40.4 (104.7)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 7.2 (45) 8.3 (46.9) 12.2 (54) 15.6 (60.1) 19.6 (67.3) 22.7 (72.9) 25.2 (77.4) 25.0 (77) 21.1 (70) 16.3 (61.3) 10.8 (51.4) 7.5 (45.5) 16.0 (60.8)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 5.0 (41) 5.6 (42.1) 8.8 (47.8) 11.5 (52.7) 15.3 (59.5) 18.3 (64.9) 20.5 (68.9) 20.4 (68.7) 16.9 (62.4) 13.0 (55.4) 8.3 (46.9) 5.5 (41.9) 12.5 (54.5)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 2.7 (36.9) 2.8 (37) 5.3 (41.5) 7.3 (45.1) 10.9 (51.6) 13.8 (56.8) 15.8 (60.4) 15.7 (60.3) 12.7 (54.9) 9.6 (49.3) 5.8 (42.4) 3.4 (38.1) 8.9 (48)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) −14.6 (5.7) −14.7 (5.5) −9.1 (15.6) −3.5 (25.7) −0.1 (31.8) 3.1 (37.6) 6.0 (42.8) 6.3 (43.3) 1.8 (35.2) −3.8 (25.2) −14.0 (6.8) −23.9 (−11) −23.9 (−11)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 51.0 (2.008) 41.2 (1.622) 47.6 (1.874) 51.8 (2.039) 63.2 (2.488) 49.6 (1.953) 62.3 (2.453) 52.7 (2.075) 47.6 (1.874) 61.5 (2.421) 51.1 (2.012) 57.8 (2.276) 637.4 (25.094)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS 9.9 9.0 10.6 9.3 9.8 8.4 8.1 7.7 7.8 9.6 10.0 10.9 111.1

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 62.5 79.2 128.9 166.0 193.8 202.1 212.2 212.1 167.9 117.8 67.7 51.4 1,661.6

PERCENT POSSIBLE SUNSHINE 22 28 35 39 42 42 43 49 43 35 26 21 35.4

Source #1: Meteo France
France

Source #2: Weather Atlas (percent sunshine)

CLIMATE DATA FOR PARIS

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

AVERAGE ULTRAVIOLET INDEX 1 2 3 4 6 7 7 6 4 3 1 1 3.8

SOURCE: WEATHER ATLAS

ADMINISTRATION

CITY GOVERNMENT

See also: Arrondissements of Paris and List of mayors of Paris The Hôtel de Ville , or city hall, has been at the same site since 1357. Map of the arrondissements of Paris
Paris

For almost all of its long history, except for a few brief periods, Paris
Paris
was governed directly by representatives of the king, emperor, or president of France. The city was not granted municipal autonomy by the National Assembly until 1974. The first modern elected mayor of Paris
Paris
was Jacques Chirac , elected 20 March 1977, becoming the city's first mayor since 1793. The current mayor is Anne Hidalgo , a socialist, elected 5 April 2014.

The mayor of Paris
Paris
is elected indirectly by Paris
Paris
voters; the voters of each arrondissement elect the _ Conseil de Paris _ (Council of Paris), composed of 163 members. Each arrondissement has a number of members depending upon its population, from 10 members for each of the least-populated arrondissements (1st through 9th) to 36 members for the most populated (the 15th). The elected council members select the mayor. Sometimes the candidate who receives the most votes citywide is not selected if the other candidate has won the support of the majority of council members. Mayor Bertrand Delanoë (2001–2014) was elected by only a minority of city voters, but a majority of council members.

Once elected, the council plays a largely passive role in the city government; it meets only once a month. The current council is divided between a coalition of the left of 91 members, including the socialists, communists, greens, and extreme left; and 71 members for the centre right, plus a few members from smaller parties.

Each of Paris's 20 arrondissements has its own town hall and a directly elected council (_conseil d'arrondissement_), which, in turn, elects an arrondissement mayor. The council of each arrondissement is composed of members of the _Conseil de Paris_ and also members who serve only on the council of the arrondissement. The number of deputy mayors in each arrondissement varies depending upon its population. There are a total of 20 arrondissement mayors and 120 deputy mayors.

The budget of the city for 2013 was €7.6 billion, of which €5.4 billion went for city administration, while €2.2 billion went for investment. The largest part of the budget (38 percent) went for public housing and urbanism projects; 15 percent for roads and transport; 8 percent for schools (which are mostly financed by the state budget); 5 percent for parks and gardens; and 4 percent for culture. The main source of income for the city is direct taxes (35 percent), supplemented by a 13-percent real estate tax; 19 percent of the budget comes in a transfer from the national government.

The number of city employees, or agents, grew from 40,000 in 2000 to 73,000 in 2013. The city debt grew from €1.6 billion in 2000 to 3.1 billion in 2012, with a debt of €3.65 billion expected for 2014. As a result of the growing debt, the bond rating of the city was lowered from AAA to AA+ in both 2012 and 2013. In September 2014, Mayor Hidalgo announced that the city would have budget shortfall of €400 million, largely because of a cut in support from the national government. _ Map of the Greater Paris
Paris
Metropolis (Métropole du Grand Paris_) and its 131 communes.

MéTROPOLE DU GRAND PARIS

The _Métropole du Grand Paris _, or simply Grand Paris , formally came into existence on 1 January 2016. It is an administrative structure for co-operation between the City
City
of Paris
Paris
and its nearest suburbs. It includes the City
City
of Paris, plus the communes or towns of the three departments of the inner suburbs ( Hauts-de- Seine
Seine
, Seine-Saint- Denis
Denis
and Val-de-Marne ), plus seven communes in the outer suburbs, including Argenteuil in Val d\' Oise
Oise
and Paray-Vieille-Poste in Essonne , which were added to include the major airports of Paris. The Metropole covers 814 square kilometres (314 square miles) and has a population of 6.945 million persons.

The new structure is administered by a Metropolitan Council of 210 members, not directly elected, but chosen by the councils of the member Communes. By 2020 its basic competencies will include urban planning, housing and protection of the environment. The first president of the metropolitan council, Patrick Ollier , a Republican and the mayor of the town of Rueil-Malmaison , was elected on 22 January 2016. Though the Metropole has a population of nearly seven million persons and accounts for 25 percent of the GDP
GDP
of France, it has a very small budget; just 65 million Euros, compared with eight billion Euros for the City
City
of Paris.

REGIONAL GOVERNMENT

The Region of Île de France
France
, including Paris
Paris
and its surrounding communities, is governed by the Regional Council, which has its headquarters in the 7th arrondissement of Paris. It is composed of 209 members representing the different communes within the region. On December 15, 2015, a list of candidates of the Union of the Right, a coalition of centrist and right-wing parties, led by Valérie Pécresse , narrowly won the regional election, defeating a coalition of Socialists and ecologists. The Socialists had governed the region for seventeen years. The regional council has 121 members from the Union of the Right, 66 from the Union of the Left and 22 from the extreme right National Front.

NATIONAL GOVERNMENT

The Élysée Palace , residence of the French President

As the capital of France, Paris
Paris
is the seat of France's national government . For the executive, the two chief officers each have their own official residences, which also serve as their offices. The President of the French Republic resides at the Élysée Palace in the 8th arrondissement , while the Prime Minister 's seat is at the Hôtel Matignon in the 7th arrondissement . Government ministries are located in various parts of the city; many are located in the 7th arrondissement, near the Matignon.

The two houses of the French Parliament are located on the Left Bank. The upper house, the Senate , meets in the Palais du Luxembourg
Palais du Luxembourg
in the 6th arrondissement , while the more important lower house, the Assemblée Nationale , meets in the Palais Bourbon in the 7th arrondissement. The President of the Senate , the second-highest public official in France
France
(the President of the Republic being the sole superior), resides in the "Petit Luxembourg", a smaller palace annexe to the Palais du Luxembourg. The Palais-Royal, residence of the Conseil d\'État

France's highest courts are located in Paris. The Court of Cassation , the highest court in the judicial order, which reviews criminal and civil cases, is located in the Palais de Justice on the _Île de la Cité_, while the Conseil d\'État , which provides legal advice to the executive and acts as the highest court in the administrative order, judging litigation against public bodies, is located in the Palais-Royal
Palais-Royal
in the 1st arrondissement . The Constitutional Council , an advisory body with ultimate authority on the constitutionality of laws and government decrees, also meets in the Montpensier wing of the Palais Royal.

Paris
Paris
and its region host the headquarters of several international organisations including UNESCO
UNESCO
, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , the International Chamber of Commerce
International Chamber of Commerce
, the Paris Club , the European Space Agency , the International Energy Agency , the _ Organisation internationale de la Francophonie _, the European Union
European Union
Institute for Security Studies , the International Bureau of Weights and Measures , the International Exhibition Bureau , and the International Federation for Human Rights .

Following the motto "Only Paris
Paris
is worthy of Rome; only Rome
Rome
is worthy of Paris"; the only sister city of Paris
Paris
is Rome
Rome
, although Paris
Paris
has partnership agreements with many other cities around the world.

POLICE FORCE

Police officers and police vehicles in Paris
Paris

The security of Paris
Paris
is mainly the responsibility of the Prefecture of Police of Paris
Paris
, a subdivision of the Ministry of the Interior of France. It supervises the units of the National Police who patrol the city and the three neighbouring departments. It is also responsible for providing emergency services, including the Paris Fire Brigade . Its headquarters is on _ Place Louis Lépine _ on the _Île de la Cité_.

There are 30,200 officers under the prefecture, and a fleet of more than 6,000 vehicles, including police cars, motorcycles, fire trucks, boats and helicopters. In addition to traditional police duties, the local police monitors the number of discount sales held by large stores (no more than two a year are allowed) and verify that, during summer holidays, at least one bakery is open in every neighbourhood. The national police has its own special unit for riot control and crowd control and security of public buildings, called the _Compagnies Républicaines de Sécurité _ (_CRS_), a unit formed in 1944 right after the liberation of France. Vans of CRS agents are frequently seen in the centre of the city when there are demonstrations and public events.

The police are supported by the National Gendarmerie , a branch of the French Armed Forces , though their police operations now are supervised by the Ministry of the Interior. The traditional kepis of the _gendarmes_ were replaced in 2002 with caps, and the force modernised, though they still wear kepis for ceremonial occasions.

Crime in Paris
Paris
is similar to that in most large cities. Violent crime is relatively rare in the city centre. Political violence is uncommon, though very large demonstrations may occur in Paris
Paris
and other French cities simultaneously. These demonstrations, usually managed by a strong police presence, can turn confrontational and escalate into violence.

CITYSCAPE

Panorama of Paris
Paris
as seen from the Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
as full 360-degree view (river flowing from north-east to south-west, right to left)

URBANISM AND ARCHITECTURE

See also: Architecture of Paris , Haussmann\'s renovation of Paris
Paris
, and List of tallest buildings and structures in the Paris region _ Camille Pissarro
Camille Pissarro
, Boulevard Montmartre_, 1897, Hermitage Museum

Most French rulers since the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
made a point of leaving their mark on a city that, contrary to many other of the world's capitals, has never been destroyed by catastrophe or war. In modernising its infrastructure through the centuries, Paris
Paris
has preserved even its earliest history in its street map. At its origin, before the Middle Ages, the city was composed around several islands and sandbanks in a bend of the Seine
Seine
; of those, two remain today: the île Saint-Louis , the île de la Cité ; a third one is the 1827 artificially created île aux Cygnes .

Modern Paris
Paris
owes much to its late 19th century Second Empire remodelling by the Baron Haussmann : many of modern Paris's busiest streets, avenues and boulevards today are a result of that city renovation. Paris
Paris
also owes its style to its aligned street-fronts, distinctive cream-grey " Paris stone " building ornamentation, aligned top-floor balconies, and tree-lined boulevards. The high residential population of its city centre makes it much different from most other western global cities.

Paris's urbanism laws have been under strict control since the early 17th century, particularly where street-front alignment, building height and building distribution is concerned. In recent developments, a 1974–2010 building height limitation of 37 metres (121 ft) was raised to 50 m (160 ft) in central areas and 180 metres (590 ft) in some of Paris's peripheral quarters, yet for some of the city's more central quarters, even older building-height laws still remain in effect. The 210 metres (690 ft) Montparnasse tower was both Paris
Paris
and France's tallest building until 1973, but this record has been held by the La Défense quarter Tour First
Tour First
tower in Courbevoie since its 2011 construction.

A new project for La Défense, called Hermitage Plaza , launched in 2009, proposes to build two towers, 85 and 86 stories or 320 metres (1,050 feet) high, which would be the tallest buildings in the European Union
European Union
, just slightly shorter than the Eiffel Tower. They were scheduled for completion in 2019 or 2020, but as of January 2015 construction had not yet begun, and there were questions in the press about the future of the project.

Parisian examples of European architecture date back more than a millennium; including the Romanesque church of the Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés (1014–1163); the early Gothic Architecture of the Basilica of Saint- Denis
Denis
(1144), the Notre Dame Cathedral (1163–1345), the Flamboyant Gothic of Saint Chapelle (1239–1248), the Baroque
Baroque
churches of Saint-Paul-Saint-Louis (1627–1641) and Les Invalides (1670–1708). The 19th century produced the neoclassical church of La Madeleine (1808–1842); the Palais Garnier Opera House (1875); the neo-Byzantine Basilica of Sacré-Cœur (1875–1919), and the exuberant _ Belle Époque _ modernism of the Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
(1889). Striking examples of 20th-century architecture include the Centre Georges Pompidou by Richard Rogers and Renzo Piano (1977), and the Louvre
Louvre
Pyramid by I.M. Pei (1989). Contemporary architecture includes the Musée du Quai Branly by Jean Nouvel (2006) and the new contemporary art museum of the Louis Vuitton Foundation
Louis Vuitton Foundation
by Frank Gehry (2014).

HOUSING

Social housing in Paris
Paris
as of 2012

Paris
Paris
is the fifth most expensive city in the world for luxury housing: €18,499 per square metre (€1,720/sq ft) in 2014. According to a 2012 study for the _ La Tribune _ newspaper, the most expensive street is the quai des Orfèvres in the 1st arrondissement , with an average price of €20,665 per square metre (€1,920/sq ft), against €3,900 per square metre (€360/sq ft) for rue Pajol in the 18th arrondissement .

The total number of residences in the city of Paris
Paris
in 2011 was 1,356,074, up from a former high of 1,334,815 in 2006. Among these, 1,165,541 (85.9 percent) were main residences, 91,835 (6.8 percent) were secondary residences, and the remaining 7.3 percent were empty (down from 9.2 percent in 2006).

Paris
Paris
urban tissue began to fill and overflow its 1860 limits from around the 1920s, and because of its density, it has seen few modern constructions since then. Sixty-two percent of its buildings date from 1949 and before, 20 percent were built between 1949 and 1974, and only 18 percent of the buildings remaining were built after that date.

Two-thirds of the city's 1.3 million residences are studio and two-room apartments. Paris
Paris
averages 1.9 people per residence, a number that has remained constant since the 1980s, but it is much less than Île-de-France's 2.33 person-per-residence average. Only 33 percent of principal residence Parisians own their habitation (against 47 percent for the entire Île-de-France): the major part of the city's population is a rent-paying one.

Social housing represents a little more than 17 percent of the city's total residences, but these are rather unevenly distributed throughout the capital: the vast majority of these are concentrated in a crescent formed by Paris's south-western to northern periphery arrondissements.

In 2012 the Paris
Paris
agglomeration (urban area) counted 28,800 people without a fixed residence, an increase of 84 percent since 2001; it represents 43 percent of the homeless in all of France. Forty-one percent were women, and 29 percent were accompanied by children. Fifty-six percent of the homeless were born outside France, the largest number coming from Africa and Eastern Europe. The city of Paris
Paris
has sixty homeless shelters, called _Centres d'hébergement et de réinsertion sociale_ or CHRS, which are funded by the city and operated by private charities and associations.

PARIS AND ITS SUBURBS

Paris
Paris
and its suburbs seen from the Spot Satellite

Aside from the 20th-century addition of the _Bois de Boulogne_, _Bois de Vincennes_ and Paris
Paris
heliport, Paris's administrative limits have remained unchanged since 1860. The _ Seine
Seine
département_ had been governing Paris
Paris
and its suburbs since its creation in 1790, but the rising suburban population had made it difficult to govern as a unique entity. This problem was 'resolved' when its parent _"District de la région parisienne"_ ( Paris
Paris
region) was reorganised into several new departments from 1968: Paris
Paris
became a department in itself, and the administration of its suburbs was divided between the three departments surrounding it. The Paris
Paris
region was renamed "Île-de-France" in 1977, but the " Paris
Paris
region" name is still commonly used today. Long-intended measures to unite Paris
Paris
with its suburbs began on January 1, 2016, when the _Métropole du Grand Paris _ came into existence.

Paris's disconnect with its suburbs, its lack of suburban transportation, in particular, became all too apparent with the Paris agglomeration's growth. Paul Delouvrier promised to resolve the Paris-suburbs _mésentente_ when he became head of the Paris
Paris
region in 1961: two of his most ambitious projects for the Region were the construction of five suburban _villes nouvelles_ ("new cities") and the RER commuter train network. Many other suburban residential districts (_grands ensembles_) were built between the 1960s and 1970s to provide a low-cost solution for a rapidly expanding population: these districts were socially mixed at first, but few residents actually owned their homes (the growing economy made these accessible to the middle classes only from the 1970s). Their poor construction quality and their haphazard insertion into existing urban growth contributed to their desertion by those able to move elsewhere and their repopulation by those with more limited possibilities.

These areas, _quartiers sensibles_ ("sensitive quarters"), are in northern and eastern Paris, namely around its Goutte d\'Or and Belleville neighbourhoods. To the north of the city, they are grouped mainly in the Seine-Saint- Denis
Denis
department , and to a lesser extreme to the east in the Val-d\' Oise
Oise
department . Other difficult areas are located in the Seine
Seine
valley, in Évry et Corbeil-Essonnes ( Essonne ), in Mureaux , Mantes-la-Jolie ( Yvelines ), and scattered among social housing districts created by Delouvrier's 1961 "ville nouvelle" political initiative.

The Paris
Paris
agglomeration's urban sociology is basically that of 19th century Paris: its fortuned classes are situated in its west and southwest, and its middle-to-lower classes are in its north and east. The remaining areas are mostly middle-class citizenry dotted with islands of fortuned populations located there due to reasons of historical importance, namely Saint-Maur-des-Fossés to the east and Enghien-les-Bains to the north of Paris.

DEMOGRAPHICS

Main article: Demographics of Paris

2012 CENSUS PARIS REGION

COUNTRY/TERRITORY OF BIRTH POPULATION

Metropolitan France
France
9,115,215

Algeria
Algeria
289,826

Portugal
Portugal
241,385

Morocco
Morocco
227,903

Tunisia
Tunisia
109,349

Guadeloupe 80,402

Martinique 76,586

Turkey
Turkey
69,338

China
China
61,806

Mali
Mali
55,466

Italy
Italy
55,057

Côte d\'Ivoire 48,532

Senegal
Senegal
46,365

Spain
Spain
46,359

Democratic Republic of Congo 42,872

Poland
Poland
39,482

OTHER COUNTRIES/TERRITORIES

Romania
Romania
38,865

Cameroon
Cameroon
38,093

Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
36,918

Vietnam
Vietnam
36,084

Haiti
Haiti
33,417

Republic of the Congo
Republic of the Congo
33,223

Cambodia
Cambodia
32,120

Réunion 30,341

Serbia
Serbia
27,317

India
India
24,318

Germany
Germany
22,880

Mauritius
Mauritius
19,903

Lebanon
Lebanon
19,616

United Kingdom
United Kingdom
19,029

Madagascar
Madagascar
18,504

United States
United States
18,117

Russia
Russia
16,493

Pakistan
Pakistan
16,055

Belgium
Belgium
14,942

Other countries and territories 795,871

The population of Paris
Paris
in its administrative city limits was 2,241,346 in January 2014. This makes Paris
Paris
the fifth largest municipality in the European Union, following London
London
, Berlin
Berlin
, Madrid and Rome
Rome
. Eurostat , the statistical agency of the EU, places Paris (6.5 million people) second behind London
London
(8 million) and ahead of Berlin
Berlin
(3.5 million), based on the 2012 populations of what Eurostat calls "urban audit core cities". The Paris
Paris
Urban Area, or "unité urbaine", is a statistical area created by the French statistical agency INSEE
INSEE
to measure the population of built-up areas around the city. It is slightly smaller than the Paris
Paris
Region. According to INSEE, the Paris
Paris
Urban Area had a population of 10,550,350 at the January 2012 census, the most populous in the European Union
European Union
, and third most populous in Europe, behind Istanbul
Istanbul
and Moscow. The Paris Metropolitan Area is the second most populous in the European Union after London
London
with a population of 12,341,418 at the Jan. 2012 census.

The population of Paris
Paris
today is lower than its historical peak of 2.9 million in 1921. The principal reasons were a significant decline in household size, and a dramatic migration of residents to the suburbs between 1962 and 1975. Factors in the migration included de-industrialisation, high rent, the gentrification of many inner quarters, the transformation of living space into offices, and greater affluence among working families. The city's population loss came to an end in the 21st century; the population estimate of July 2004 showed a population increase for the first time since 1954, and the population reached 2,234,000 by 2009. City
City
proper, urban area, and metropolitan area population from 1800 to 2010

According to Eurostat , the EU statistical agency, in 2012 the Commune of Paris
Paris
was the most densely populated city in the European Union, with 21,616 people per square kilometre within the city limits (the NUTS-3 statistical area), ahead of Inner London
London
West, which had 10,374 people per square kilometre. According to the same census, three departments bordering Paris, Hauts-de- Seine
Seine
, Seine-Saint-Denis and Val-de-Marne , had population densities of over ten thousand people per square kilometre, ranking among the ten most densely populated areas of the EU.

MIGRATION

According to the 2012 French census, 586,163 residents of the City
City
of Paris, or 26.2 percent, and 2,782,834 residents of the Paris
Paris
Region (Île-de-France), or 23.4 percent, were born outside of Metropolitan France
France
(the last figure up from 22.4% at the 2007 census).

26,700 of these in the City
City
of Paris
Paris
and 210,159 in the Paris
Paris
Region were people born in Overseas France
France
(more than two-thirds of whom in the French West Indies ) and are therefore not counted as immigrants since they were legally French citizens at birth.

A further 103,648 in the City
City
of Paris
Paris
and in 412,114 in the Paris Region were born in foreign countries with French citizenship at birth. This concerns in particular the many Christians and Jews from North Africa who moved to France
France
and Paris
Paris
after the times of independence and are not counted as immigrants due to their being born French citizens.

The remaining group, people born in foreign countries with no French citizenship at birth, are those defined as immigrants under French law. According to the 2012 census, 135,853 residents of the city of Paris
Paris
were immigrants from Europe
Europe
, 112,369 were immigrants from the Maghreb
Maghreb
, 70,852 from sub-Saharan Africa and Egypt
Egypt
, 5,059 from Turkey , 91,297 from Asia
Asia
(outside Turkey), 38,858 from the Americas
Americas
, and 1,365 from the South Pacific . Note that the immigrants from the Americas
Americas
and the South Pacific in Paris
Paris
are vastly outnumbered by migrants from French overseas regions and territories located in these regions of the world.

In the Paris
Paris
Region, 590,504 residents were immigrants from Europe
Europe
, 627,078 were immigrants from the Maghreb
Maghreb
, 435,339 from sub-Saharan Africa and Egypt
Egypt
, 69,338 from Turkey
Turkey
, 322,330 from Asia
Asia
(outside Turkey), 113,363 from the Americas
Americas
, and 2,261 from the South Pacific . These last two groups of immigrants are again vastly outnumbered by migrants from French overseas regions and territories located in the Americas
Americas
and the South Pacific.

In 2012, there were 8,810 British citizens and 10,019 US citizens living in the City
City
of Paris
Paris
(Ville de Paris), and 20,466 British citizens and 16,408 US citizens living in the entire Paris
Paris
Region (Île-de- France
France
).

RELIGION

The Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
Basilique du Sacré-Cœur

According to a 2011 survey by IFOP , a French public opinion research organisation, 61 percent of residents of the Paris
Paris
Region (Île-de-France) identified themselves as Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
, though just 15 percent said they were practising Catholics, while 46 percent were non-practicing. In the same survey, 7 percent of residents identified themselves as Muslims, 4 percent as Protestants, two percent as Jewish, and 25 percent as without religion. Minaret of the Grand Mosque of Paris
Paris

According to INSEE, the French government statistical office, between 4 and 5 million French residents were born or had at least one parent born in a predominately Muslim country, particularly Algeria
Algeria
, Morocco , and Tunisia
Tunisia
. An IFOP survey in 2008 reported that, of immigrants from these predominantly Muslim countries, 25 percent went to the mosque regularly; 41 percent practised the religion, and 34 percent were believers but did not practice the religion.

In 2012, Dalil Boubakeur , the Rector of the Grand Mosque of Paris and former President of the French Council of the Muslim Faith, estimated that there were 500,000 Muslims in the city of Paris, 1.5 million Muslims in the Île-de- France
France
region, and 4 to 5 million Muslims in France.

The Jewish population of the Paris Region was estimated in 2014 to be 282,000, the largest concentration of Jews in the world outside of Israel
Israel
and the United States.

ECONOMY

Main article: Economy of Paris
Economy of Paris
La Défense , the largest dedicated business district in Europe.

Top companies with world headquarters in the Paris Region for 2016 (ranked by revenues) _with Region and World ranks_

PARIS

CORPORATION

WORLD

1

Total S.A.

24

2

AXA
AXA

33

3

BNP Paribas

39

4

Société Générale

43

5

Carrefour

73

6

Credit Agricole

77

7

EDF

80

8

Engie

89

9

Peugeot
Peugeot

140

10

Groupe BPCE

155

Full table at Economy of Paris
Economy of Paris

_ Financial services
Financial services
firms in green_

Source: Fortune Global 500 (2016)

Median income in Paris
Paris
and its nearest departments (suburbs).

The economy of the City
City
of Paris
Paris
is today is based largely on services and commerce; of the 390,480 enterprises in the city, 80.6 percent are engaged in commerce, transportation, and diverse services, 6.5 percent in construction, and just 3.8 percent in industry. The story is similar in the Paris Region , or Île-de-France. 76.7 percent of enterprises are engaged in commerce and services, and 3.4 percent in industry.

At the 2012 census, 59.5% of jobs in the Paris Region were in market services (12.0% in wholesale and retail trade, 9.7% in professional, scientific, and technical services, 6.5% in information and communication, 6.5% in transportation and warehousing, 5.9% in finance and insurance, 5.8% in administrative and support services, 4.6% in accommodation and food services, and 8.5% in various other market services), 26.9% in non-market services (10.4% in human health and social work activities, 9.6% in public administration and defence, and 6.9% in education), 8.2% in manufacturing and utilities (6.6% in manufacturing and 1.5% in utilities), 5.2% in construction, and 0.2% in agriculture.

The Paris Region had 5.4 million salaried employees in 2010, of whom 2.2 million were concentrated in 39 _pôles d'emplois_ or business districts. The largest of these, in terms of number of employees, is known in French as the QCA, or _quartier central des affaires_; it is in the western part of the City
City
of Paris, in the 2nd, 8th, 9th, 16th, and 18th arrondissements. In 2010, it was the workplace of 500,000 salaried employees, about thirty percent of the salaried employees in Paris
Paris
and ten percent of those in the Île-de-France. The largest sectors of activity in the central business district were finance and insurance (16 percent of employees in the district) and business services (15 percent). The district also includes a large concentration of department stores, shopping areas, hotels and restaurants, as well a government offices and ministries.

The second-largest business district in terms of employment is La Défense , just west of the city, where many companies installed their offices in the 1990s. In 2010, it was the workplace of 144,600 employees, of whom 38 percent worked in finance and insurance, 16 percent in business support services. Two other important districts, Neuilly-sur- Seine
Seine
and Levallois-Perret , are extensions of the Paris business district and of La Défense. Another district, including Boulogne-Billancourt , Issy-les-Moulineaux and the southern part of the 15th arrondissement, is a centre of activity for the media and information technology.

The top ten French companies listed in the Fortune Global 500 for 2015 all have their headquarters in the Paris
Paris
Region; six in the central business district of the City
City
of Paris; and four close to the city in the Hauts-de- Seine
Seine
Department, three in La Défense and one in Boulogne-Billancourt . Some companies, like Société Générale , have offices in both Paris
Paris
and La Défense.

The Paris Region is France's leading region for economic activity, with a 2014 GDP
GDP
of € 649.6 billion (US$773.4 billion). In 2011, its GDP
GDP
ranked second among the regions of Europe
Europe
and its per-capita GDP was the 4th highest in Europe. While the Paris
Paris
region's population accounted for 18.8 percent of metropolitan France
France
in 2011, the Paris region's GDP
GDP
accounted for 30 percent of metropolitan France's GDP. In 2015, it hosts the world headquarters of 29 of the 31 Fortune Global 500 companies located in France.

The Paris Region economy has gradually shifted from industry to high-value-added service industries (finance , IT services, etc.) and high-tech manufacturing (electronics, optics, aerospace, etc.). The Paris
Paris
region's most intense economic activity through the central Hauts-de- Seine
Seine
department and suburban La Défense business district places Paris's economic centre to the west of the city, in a triangle between the _Opéra Garnier_ , _La Défense_ and the _Val de Seine
Seine
_. While the Paris
Paris
economy is dominated by services , and employment in manufacturing sector has declined sharply, the region remains an important manufacturing centre, particularly for aeronautics, automobiles, and "eco" industries.

In the 2017 worldwide cost of living survey by the Economist Intelligence Unit , based on a survey made in September 2016, Paris ranked as the seventh most expensive city in the world, and the second most expensive in Europe, after Zurich.

EMPLOYMENT

Employment by economic sector in the Paris
Paris
area (pétite couronne), with population and unemployment figures (2012)

According to 2012 INSEE
INSEE
figures, 68 percent of employees in the City of Paris
Paris
work in commerce, transportation, and services; 24.4 percent in public administration, health and social services; 4.4 percent in industry, and 0.1 percent in agriculture.

The majority of Paris's salaried employees fill 370,000 businesses services jobs, concentrated in the north-western 8th, 16th and 17th arrondissements. Paris's financial service companies are concentrated in the central-western 8th and 9th arrondissement banking and insurance district. Paris's department store district in the 1st, 6th, 8th and 9th arrondissements employ 10 percent of mostly female Paris
Paris
workers, with 100,000 of these registered in the retail trade. Fourteen percent of Parisians work in hotels and restaurants and other services to individuals. Nineteen percent of Paris
Paris
employees work for the State in either in administration or education. The majority of Paris's healthcare and social workers work at the hospitals and social housing concentrated in the peripheral 13th, 14th, 18th, 19th and 20th arrondissements. Outside Paris, the western Hauts-de- Seine
Seine
department La Défense district specialising in finance, insurance and scientific research district, employs 144,600, and the north-eastern Seine-Saint- Denis
Denis
audiovisual sector has 200 media firms and 10 major film studios.

Paris's manufacturing is mostly focused in its suburbs, and the city itself has only around 75,000 manufacturing workers, most of which are in the textile, clothing, leather goods, and shoe trades. Paris region manufacturing specialises in transportation, mainly automobiles, aircraft and trains, but this is in a sharp decline: Paris
Paris
proper manufacturing jobs dropped by 64 percent between 1990 and 2010, and the Paris
Paris
region lost 48 percent during the same period. Most of this is due to companies relocating outside the Paris
Paris
region. The Paris
Paris
region's 800 aerospace companies employed 100,000. Four hundred automobile industry companies employ another 100,000 workers: many of these are centred in the Yvelines department around the Renault and PSA-Citroen plants (this department alone employs 33,000), but the industry as a whole suffered a major loss with the 2014 closing of a major Aulnay-sous-Bois Citroen assembly plant.

The southern Essonne department specialises in science and technology, and the south-eastern Val-de-Marne , with its wholesale Rungis food market , specialises in food processing and beverages. The Paris
Paris
region's manufacturing decline is quickly being replaced by eco-industries: these employ about 100,000 workers. In 2011, while only 56,927 construction workers worked in Paris
Paris
itself, its metropolitan area employed 246,639, in an activity centred largely around the Seine-Saint- Denis
Denis
(41,378) and Hauts-de- Seine
Seine
(37,303) departments and the new business-park centres appearing there.

INCOMES

The average net household income (after social, pension and health insurance contributions) in Paris
Paris
was €36,085 for 2011. It ranged from €22,095 in the 19th arrondissement to €82,449 in the 7th arrondissement. The median taxable income for 2011 was around €25,000 in Paris
Paris
and €22,200 for _Île-de-France_. Generally speaking, incomes are higher in the Western part of the city and in the western suburbs than in the northern and eastern parts of the urban area. Unemployment
Unemployment
was estimated at 8.2 percent in the city of Paris
Paris
and 8.8 percent in the Île-de- France
France
region in the first trimester of 2015. It ranged from 7.6 percent in the wealthy Essonne department to 13.1 percent in the Seine-Saint- Denis
Denis
department, where many recent immigrants live.

While Paris
Paris
has some of the richest neighbourhoods in France, it also has some of the poorest, mostly on the eastern side of the city. In 2012, 14 percent of households in the city earned less than €977 per month, the official poverty line. Twenty-five percent of residents in the 19th arrondissement lived below the poverty line; 24 percent in the 18th, 22 percent in the 20th and 18 percent in the 10th. In the city's wealthiest neighbourhood, the 7th arrondissement, 7 percent lived below the poverty line; 8 percent in the 6th arrondissement; and 9 percent in the 16th arrondissement.

TOURISM

Tourists from around the world make the Louvre
Louvre
the second-most visited art museum in the world.

Tourism in Paris
Paris
continued to suffer in 2016, after two terrorist attacks in Paris
Paris
in 2015 and an attack in Nice
Nice
in 2016. The number of foreign visitors in Grand Paris ( Paris
Paris
plus the three surrounding departments) dropped by 11.5 percent percent in 2016. The largest drops were in tourists from Japan
Japan
(46.9 percent), Russia
Russia
(35.5 percent), Italy
Italy
(31.9 percent), and China
China
(17.9 percent). The drops were particularly noticeable in the city's museums, especially the Louvre
Louvre
, where 70 percent of the visitors are from abroad. Attendance at the Louvre
Louvre
dropped by 15 percent in 2016: 61 percent fewer Japanese visitors, 47 percent fewer Brazilian visitors, and 31 percent fewer Chinese visitors. Visitors from the United States
United States
were down by 5.7 percent. Similar drops were reported at the Musee d\'Orsay (visitors down by 13 percent from 2015) and the Palace of Versailles
Palace of Versailles
(down by 15 percent).

Greater Paris
Paris
received 36.5 million visitors in 2016, measured by hotel stays. The largest numbers of foreign tourists in 2015, measured by airport arrivals, came from the United States
United States
(1.8 million), the UK (1.08 million), Germany
Germany
(725,000), Italy
Italy
(622,000), and Spain
Spain
(609,000). Arrivals from Russia
Russia
numbered 211,000, while arrivals from the rest of Europe
Europe
numbered 1 million. 746,000 visitors came from China, while 481,000 came from Japan. Arrivals from the Near and Middle East numbered 535,000. Arrivals from the Americas
Americas
outside the US numbered 910,000, 395,000 arrived from Africa, and 1,065,000 arrived from Asia
Asia
and Oceania
Oceania
excluding China
China
and Japan.

In 2016, measured by the MasterCard Global Cities Destination Index, Paris
Paris
was the third busiest airline destination in the world, with 18.03 million visitors, behind Bangkok
Bangkok
(21.47 million) and London (19.88 million). According to the Paris
Paris
Convention and Visitors Bureau, 393,008 workers in Greater Paris, or 12.4 percent of the total workforce, are engaged in tourism-related sectors such as hotels, catering, transport, and leisure.

MONUMENTS AND ATTRACTIONS

PARIS

UNESCO
UNESCO
WORLD HERITAGE SITE

LOCATION Île-de- France
France
, Seine
Seine
, Kingdom of France
France
, France
France

COORDINATES 48°51′24″N 2°21′07″E / 48.856578°N 2.351828°E / 48.856578; 2.351828

AREA 105.4 km2 (1.135×109 sq ft)

CRITERIA i, ii, iv

REFERENCE 600

INSCRIPTION 1991 (15th Session )

WEBSITE www.paris.fr

Location of Paris
Paris

Main articles: Landmarks in Paris , Quarters of Paris , and List of tourist attractions in Paris
Paris
See also: List of most visited museums

The city's top tourist attraction was the Notre Dame Cathedral, which welcomed 12million visitors in 2016 Tourism in Paris, Key Figures 2016, Paris
Paris
Convention and Visitors Bureau The Louvre
Louvre
museum had 7.3 million visitors in 2016, making it the second most visited art museum in the world. After the Louvre, the other top museums in Paris
Paris
in 2016 were the Centre Pompidou (3,3 million visitors), Musée d\'Orsay (3 million visitors), and the National Museum of Natural History
National Museum of Natural History
(1.5 million visitors). Other top sites in 2016 were the Basilique du Sacré-Cœur (10 million visitors), the Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
(5.9 million visitors, visitors), and the Arc de Triomphe
Arc de Triomphe
(1.3 million visitors In the Paris
Paris
region, Disneyland Paris , in Marne-la-Vallée , 32 kilometres (20 miles) east of the centre of Paris, was the most visited tourist attraction in France, with 13.4 million visitors in fiscal year 2016, though this was a drop of ten percent from visitors in fiscal year 2015.

The centre of Paris
Paris
contains the most visited monuments in the city, including the Notre Dame Cathedral and the Louvre
Louvre
as well as the Sainte-Chapelle ; Les Invalides , where the tomb of Napoleon
Napoleon
is located, and the Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
are located on the Left Bank south-west of the centre. The banks of the Seine
Seine
from the Pont de Sully to the Pont d\'Iéna have been listed as a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
since 1991. Other landmarks are laid out east to west along the historical axis of Paris, which runs from the Louvre
Louvre
through the Tuileries Garden , the Luxor Column in the Place de la Concorde , and the Arc de Triomphe , to the Grande Arche of La Défense. The Axe historique , here from Concorde to Grande Arche of La Défense

Several other much-visited landmarks are located in the suburbs of the city; the Basilica of St Denis
Denis
, in Seine-Saint- Denis
Denis
, is the birthplace of the Gothic style of architecture and the royal necropolis of French kings and queens. The Paris
Paris
region hosts three other UNESCO
UNESCO
Heritage sites: the Palace of Versailles
Palace of Versailles
in the west, the Palace of Fontainebleau in the south, and the medieval fairs site of Provins in the east.

HOTELS

As of 2013 the City
City
of Paris
Paris
had 1,570 hotels with 70,034 rooms, of which 55 were rated five-star, mostly belonging to international chains and mostly located close to the centre and the Champs-Élysées. Paris
Paris
has long been famous for its grand hotels. The Hotel Meurice , opened for British travellers in 1817, was one of the first luxury hotels in Paris. The arrival of the railways and the Paris
Paris
Exposition of 1855 brought the first flood of tourists and the first modern grand hotels; the Hôtel du Louvre
Louvre
(now an antiques marketplace) in 1855; the Grand Hotel (now the Intercontinental LeGrand) in 1862; and the Hôtel Continental in 1878. The Hôtel Ritz on Place Vendôme opened in 1898, followed by the Hôtel Crillon in an 18th-century building on the Place de la Concorde in 1909; the Hotel Bristol on the Rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré in 1925; and the Hotel George V in 1928.

In addition to hotels, in July 2017 Paris
Paris
had 65,000 homes registered with Airbnb , the biggest single market for the company. Under French law, renters of these units must pay the Paris
Paris
tourism tax. The company paid the city government 7.3 million Euros in 2016.

CULTURE

PAINTING AND SCULPTURE

Main article: Art in Paris _ Pierre Mignard
Pierre Mignard
, Self-portrait_, between 1670 and 1690, oil on canvas, 235 cm × 188 cm (93 in × 74 in), Louvre
Louvre

For centuries, Paris
Paris
has attracted artists from around the world, who arrive in the city to educate themselves and to seek inspiration from its vast pool of artistic resources and galleries. As a result, Paris has acquired a reputation as the " City
City
of Art". Italian artists were a profound influence on the development of art in Paris
Paris
in the 16th and 17th centuries, particularly in sculpture and reliefs. Painting and sculpture became the pride of the French monarchy and the French royal family commissioned many Parisian artists to adorn their palaces during the French Baroque
Baroque
and Classicism era. Sculptors such as Girardon , Coysevox and Coustou acquired reputations as the finest artists in the royal court in 17th-century France. Pierre Mignard became the first painter to King Louis XIV during this period. In 1648, the _ Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture _ (Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture) was established to accommodate for the dramatic interest in art in the capital. This served as France's top art school until 1793. _ Auguste Renoir
Renoir
, Bal du moulin de la Galette _, 1876, oil on canvas, 131 cm × 175 cm (52 in × 69 in), Musée d\'Orsay

Paris
Paris
was in its artistic prime in the 19th century and early 20th century, when it had a colony of artists established in the city and in art schools associated with some of the finest painters of the times: Édouard Manet
Manet
, Claude Monet
Claude Monet
, Berthe Morisot
Berthe Morisot
, Paul Gauguin
Paul Gauguin
, Pierre-Auguste Renoir
Renoir
and others. The French Revolution and political and social change in France
France
had a profound influence on art in the capital. Paris
Paris
was central to the development of Romanticism in art, with painters such as Gericault . Impressionism , Art Nouveau , Symbolism , Fauvism , Cubism and Art Deco
Art Deco
movements all evolved in Paris. In the late 19th century, many artists in the French provinces and worldwide flocked to Paris
Paris
to exhibit their works in the numerous salons and expositions and make a name for themselves. Artists such as Pablo Picasso
Picasso
, Henri Matisse
Matisse
, Vincent van Gogh
Vincent van Gogh
, Paul Cézanne , Jean Metzinger
Jean Metzinger
, Albert Gleizes , Henri Rousseau
Henri Rousseau
, Marc Chagall , Amedeo Modigliani
Amedeo Modigliani
and many others became associated with Paris. Picasso, living in Montmartre, painted his famous _La Famille de Saltimbanques _ and _Les Demoiselles d\' Avignon
Avignon
_ between 1905 and 1907. Montmartre and Montparnasse became centres for artistic production.

The most prestigious names of French and foreign sculptors, who made their reputation in Paris
Paris
in the modern era, are Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi ( Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
- _Liberty Enlightening the World_), Auguste Rodin
Auguste Rodin
, Camille Claudel , Antoine Bourdelle , Paul Landowski (statue of _Christ the Redeemer_ in Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
) and Aristide Maillol . The Golden Age of the School of Paris ended between the two world wars.

PHOTOGRAPHY

The inventor Nicéphore Niépce produced the first permanent photograph on a polished pewter plate in Paris
Paris
in 1825, and then developed the process with Louis Daguerre . The work of Étienne-Jules Marey in the 1880s contributed considerably to the development of modern photography. Photography came to occupy a central role in Parisian Surrealist activity, in the works of Man Ray and Maurice Tabard . Numerous photographers achieved renown for their photography of Paris, including Eugène Atget , noted for his depictions of street scenes, Robert Doisneau , noted for his playful pictures of people and market scenes (among which _Le baiser de l'hôtel de ville_ has become iconic of the romantic vision of Paris), Marcel Bovis , noted for his night scenes, and others such as Jacques-Henri Lartigue and Cartier-Bresson . Poster art also became an important art form in Paris
Paris
in the late nineteenth century, through the work of Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec , Jules Chéret , Eugène Grasset , Adolphe Willette , Pierre Bonnard , Georges de Feure , Henri-Gabriel Ibels , Gavarni , and Alphonse Mucha
Alphonse Mucha
.

MUSEUMS

Main article: List of museums in Paris The Louvre
Louvre

The Louvre
Louvre
was the world\'s second-most visited art museum in 2016, with 7.3 million visitors. Its treasures include the _ Mona Lisa _ (_La Joconde_) and the Venus de Milo statue. With 3.44 million visitors, the Musée d\'Orsay , in the former Orsay railway station , was the second-most visited museum in the city in 2016 with 3 million visitors. It displays French art of the 19th century, including major collections of the Impressionists and Post- Impressionists . The original building – a railway station – was constructed for the Universal Exhibition of 1900. Starkly apparent with its service-pipe exterior, the Centre Georges Pompidou , the third-most visited art museum in Paris, attracted 3.3 million visitors in 2016. Also known as Beaubourg, it houses the Musée National d\'Art Moderne . The Musée national du Moyen Âge , or Cluny Museum, presents Medieval art , including the famous tapestry cycle of _ The Lady and the Unicorn _. The Guimet Museum , or _Musée national des arts asiatiques_, has one of the largest collections of Asian art in Europe. There are also notable museums devoted to individual artists, including the Picasso Museum the Rodin Museum , and the Musée national Eugène Delacroix .

Paris
Paris
hosts one of the largest science museums in Europe, the Cité des Sciences et de l\'Industrie at La Villette, attracted 2 million visitors in 2015, making it the fourth most popular national museum in the city. The National Museum of Natural History
National Museum of Natural History
, on the Left Bank, attracted 1.88 million visitors in 2015, making it the fifth most popular Parisian national museum. It is famous for its dinosaur artefacts, mineral collections, and its Gallery of Evolution. The military history of France, from the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
to World War II, is vividly presented by displays at the Musée de l\'Armée at Les Invalides , near the tomb of Napoleon. In addition to the national museums, run by the French Ministry of Culture, the City
City
of Paris operates 14 museums, including the Carnavalet Museum on the history of Paris; Musée d\'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris
Paris
; Palais de Tokyo ; the House of Victor Hugo and House of Balzac , and the Catacombs of Paris
Paris
. There are also notable private museums; The Contemporary Art museum of the Louis Vuitton Foundation
Louis Vuitton Foundation
, designed by architect Frank Gehry , opened in October 2014 in the Bois de Boulogne .

THEATRE

The Opéra Bastille
Bastille

The largest opera houses of Paris
Paris
are the 19th-century Opéra Garnier (historical Paris
Paris
Opéra ) and modern Opéra Bastille
Bastille
; the former tends toward the more classic ballets and operas, and the latter provides a mixed repertoire of classic and modern. In middle of the 19th century, there were three other active and competing opera houses: the Opéra-Comique (which still exists), Théâtre-Italien , and Théâtre Lyrique (which in modern times changed its profile and name to Théâtre de la Ville ). Philharmonie de Paris , the modern symphonic concert hall of Paris, opened in January 2015. Another musical landmark is the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées , where the first performances of Diaghilev's Ballets Russes took place in 1913. The Comédie Française (Salle Richelieu)

Theatre traditionally has occupied a large place in Parisian culture, and many of its most popular actors today are also stars of French television. The oldest and most famous Paris
Paris
theatre is the Comédie-Française , founded in 1680. Run by the French government, it performs mostly French classics at the Salle Richelieu in the Palais-Royal
Palais-Royal
at 2 rue de Richelieu, next to the Louvre. of Other famous theatres include the Odéon-Théâtre de l\' Europe
Europe
, next to the Luxembourg
Luxembourg
Gardens, also a state institution and theatrical landmark; the Théâtre Mogador, and the Théâtre de la Gaîté- Montparnasse .

The music hall and cabaret are famous Paris
Paris
institutions. The _Moulin Rouge _ was opened in 1889. It was highly visible because of its large red imitation windmill on its roof, and became the birthplace of the dance known as the French Cancan . It helped make famous the singers Mistinguett and Édith Piaf and the painter Toulouse-Lautrec , who made posters for the venue. In 1911, the dance hall Olympia Paris invented the grand staircase as a settling for its shows, competing with its great rival, the _ Folies Bergère
Folies Bergère
_. Its stars in the 1920s included the American singer and dancer Josephine Baker . Later, Olympia Paris presented Edith Piaf , Marlene Dietrich , Miles Davis
Miles Davis
, Judy Garland
Judy Garland
, and the Grateful Dead . The Casino de Paris presented many famous French singers, including Mistinguett , Maurice Chevalier , and Tino Rossi . Other famous Paris
Paris
music halls include _ Le Lido _, on the Champs-Élysées, opened in 1946; and the Crazy Horse Saloon , featuring strip-tease, dance and magic, opened in 1951. A half dozen music halls exist today in Paris, attended mostly visitors to the city.

LITERATURE

Main article: Writers in Paris Victor Hugo

The first book printed in France, _Epistolae_ ("Letters"), by Gasparinus de Bergamo (Gasparino da Barzizza), was published in Paris in 1470 by the press established by Johann Heynlin . Since then, Paris has been the centre of the French publishing industry, the home of some of the world's best-known writers and poets, and the setting for many classic works of French literature. Almost all the books published in Paris in the Middle Ages were in Latin, rather than French. Paris
Paris
did not become the acknowledged capital of French literature until the 17th century, with authors such as Boileau , Corneille , La Fontaine
La Fontaine
, Molière , Racine , several coming from the provinces, and the foundation of the Académie française . In the 18th century, the literary life of Paris
Paris
revolved around the cafés and salons, and was dominated by Voltaire
Voltaire
, Jean-Jacques Rousseau , Pierre de Marivaux , and Beaumarchais .

During the 19th century, Paris
Paris
was the home and subject for some of France's greatest writers, including Charles Baudelaire , Stéphane Mallarmé , Mérimée , Alfred de Musset , Marcel Proust , Émile Zola , Alexandre Dumas , Gustave Flaubert , Guy de Maupassant and Honoré de Balzac . Victor Hugo's _ The Hunchback of Notre Dame _ inspired the renovation of its setting, the Notre-Dame de Paris . Another of Victor Hugo's works, _ Les Misérables _, written while he was in exile outside France
France
during the Second Empire, described the social change and political turmoil in Paris
Paris
in the early 1830s. One of the most popular of all French writers, Jules Verne , worked at the Theatre Lyrique and the Paris
Paris
stock exchange, while he did research for his stories at the National Library. Jean-Paul Sartre

In the 20th century, the Paris
Paris
literary community was dominated by Colette , André Gide
André Gide
, François Mauriac , André Malraux , Albert Camus , and, after World War II, by Simone de Beauvoir and Jean-Paul Sartre ; Between the wars it was the home of many important expatriate writers, including Ernest Hemingway , Samuel Beckett , and, in the 1970s, Milan Kundera . The winner of the 2014 Nobel Prize in Literature , Patrick Modiano
Patrick Modiano
–who lives in Paris–, based most of his literary work on the depiction of the city during World War II
World War II
and the 1960s–1970s.

Paris
Paris
is a city of books and bookstores. In the 1970s, 80 percent of French-language publishing houses were found in Paris, almost all on the Left Bank in the 5th, 6th and 7th arrondissements. Since that time, because of high prices, some publishers have moved out to the less expensive areas. It is also a city of small bookstores; There are about 150 bookstores in the 5th arrondissement alone, plus another 250 book stalls along the Seine. Small Paris
Paris
bookstores are protected against competition from discount booksellers by French law; books, even e-books, cannot be discounted more than five percent below their publisher's cover price.

MUSIC

Main articles: Music in Paris and History of music in Paris Olympia , a famous music hall

In the late 12th century, a school of polyphony was established at Notre-Dame. Among the Trouvères of northern France, a group of Parisian aristocrats became known for their poetry and songs. Troubadours , from the south of France, were also popular. During the reign of François I , in the Renaissance era , the lute became popular in the French court. The French royal family and courtiers "disported themselves in masques, ballets, allegorical dances, recitals, and opera and comedy", and a national musical printing house was established. In the Baroque-era , noted composers included Jean-Baptiste Lully , Jean-Philippe Rameau
Jean-Philippe Rameau
, and François Couperin . The _Conservatoire de Musique de Paris_ was founded in 1795. By 1870, Paris
Paris
had become an important centre for symphony, ballet and operatic music. Romantic-era composers (in Paris) include Hector Berlioz (_La Symphonie fantastique _), Charles Gounod (_Faust_ ), Camille Saint-Saëns (_ Samson et Delilah _), Léo Delibes (_ Lakmé _) and Jules Massenet (_ Thaïs _), among others. Georges Bizet\'s _ Carmen
Carmen
_ premiered 3 March 1875. _Carmen_ has since become one of the most popular and frequently-performed operas in the classical canon . Among the Impressionist composers who created new works for piano, orchestra, opera, chamber music and other musical forms, stand in particular, Claude Debussy
Claude Debussy
(_ Suite bergamasque _, and its well-known third movement, _Clair de lune_, _La Mer_ , _Pelléas et Mélisande_ ), Erik Satie (_ Gymnopédies _, " Je te veux ", _ Gnossiennes _, _Parade _) and Maurice Ravel (_ Miroirs _, _ Boléro _, _ La valse _, _L\'heure espagnole _). Several foreign-born composers, such as Frédéric Chopin ( Poland
Poland
), Franz Liszt ( Hungary
Hungary
), Jacques Offenbach (Germany ), Niccolò Paganini
Niccolò Paganini
( Italy
Italy
), and Igor Stravinsky ( Russia
Russia
), established themselves or made significant contributions both with their works and their influence in Paris. Charles Aznavour

Bal-musette is a style of French music and dance that first became popular in Paris
Paris
in the 1870s and 1880s; by 1880 Paris
Paris
had some 150 dance halls in the working-class neighbourhoods of the city. Patrons danced the bourrée to the accompaniment of the cabrette (a bellows -blown bagpipe locally called a "musette") and often the vielle à roue (hurdy-gurdy ) in the cafés and bars of the city. Parisian and Italian musicians who played the accordion adopted the style and established themselves in Auvergnat bars especially in the 19th arrondissement, and the romantic sounds of the accordion has since become one of the musical icons of the city. Paris
Paris
became a major centre for jazz and still attracts jazz musicians from all around the world to its clubs and cafés.

Paris
Paris
is the spiritual home of gypsy jazz in particular, and many of the Parisian jazzmen who developed in the first half of the 20th century began by playing Bal-musette in the city. Django Reinhardt rose to fame in Paris, having moved to the 18th arrondissement in a caravan as a young boy, and performed with violinist Stéphane Grappelli and their Quintette du Hot Club de France
France
in the 1930s and 1940s.

Immediately after the War The Saint-Germain-des-Pres quarter and the nearby Saint-Michel quarter became home to many small jazz clubs, mostly found in cellars because of a lack of space; these included the Caveau des Lorientais, the Club Saint-Germain, the Rose Rouge, the Vieux-Colombier, and the most famous, Le Tabou . They introduced Parisians to the music of Claude Luter , Boris Vian , Sydney Bechet , Mezz Mezzrow , and Henri Salvador . Most of the clubs closed by the early 1960s, as musical tastes shifted toward rock and roll.

Some of the finest manouche musicians in the world are found here playing the cafés of the city at night. Some of the more notable jazz venues include the New Morning, Le Sunset, La Chope des Puces and Bouquet du Nord. Several yearly festivals take place in Paris, including the Paris
Paris
Jazz
Jazz
Festival (fr) and the rock festival Rock en Seine
Seine
. The Orchestre de Paris was established in 1967.

On December 19, 2015, Paris
Paris
and other worldwide fans commemorated the 100th anniversary of the birth of Edith Piaf —a French cabaret singer, songwriter and actress who became widely regarded as France's national chanteuse, as well as being one of France's greatest international stars. Other singers—of similar style—include Maurice Chevalier , Charles Aznavour , Yves Montand , and Charles Trenet .

Paris
Paris
has a big hip hop scene. This music became popular during the 1980s. The presence of a large African and Caribbean community helped to its development, it gave a voice, a political and social status for many minorities.

CINEMA

Le Grand Rex
Grand Rex
tower See also: List of films set in Paris

The movie industry was born in Paris
Paris
when Auguste and Louis Lumière projected the first motion picture for a paying audience at the Grand Café on 28 December 1895. Many of Paris's concert/dance halls were transformed into cinemas when the media became popular beginning in the 1930s. Later, most of the largest cinemas were divided into multiple, smaller rooms. Paris's largest cinema room today is in the Grand Rex
Grand Rex
theatre with 2,700 seats. Big multiplex cinemas have been built since the 1990s. UGC Ciné Cité Les Halles with 27 screens, MK2 Bibliothèque with 20 screens and UGC Ciné Cité Bercy with 18 screens are among the largest.

Parisians tend to share the same movie-going trends as many of the world's global cities, with cinemas primarily dominated by Hollywood-generated film entertainment. French cinema comes a close second, with major directors (_réalisateurs_) such as Claude Lelouch , Jean-Luc Godard , and Luc Besson , and the more slapstick/popular genre with director Claude Zidi as an example. European and Asian films are also widely shown and appreciated. On 2 February 2000, Philippe Binant realised the first digital cinema projection in Europe, with the DLP CINEMA technology developed by Texas Instruments , in Paris.

RESTAURANTS AND CUISINE

Dining room of the Vagenende Les Deux Magots café on Boulevard Saint Germain. See also: French cuisine

Since the late 18th century, Paris
Paris
has been famous for its restaurants and _haute cuisine _, food meticulously prepared and artfully presented. A luxury restaurant, La Taverne Anglaise, opened in 1786 in the arcades of the Palais-Royal
Palais-Royal
by Antoine Beauvilliers ; it featured an elegant dining room, an extensive menu, linen tablecloths, a large wine list and well-trained waiters; it became a model for future Paris
Paris
restaurants. The restaurant Le Grand Véfour in the Palais-Royal
Palais-Royal
dates from the same period. The famous Paris restaurants of the 19th century, including the Café de Paris, the Rocher de Cancale, the Café Anglais , Maison Dorée and the Café Riche, were mostly located near the theatres on the Boulevard des Italiens ; they were immortalised in the novels of Balzac and Émile Zola . Several of the best-known restaurants in Paris
Paris
today appeared during the Belle Epoque , including Maxim\'s on Rue Royale, Ledoyen in the gardens of the Champs-Élysées , and the Tour d\'Argent on the Quai de la Tournelle.

Today, thanks to Paris's cosmopolitan population, every French regional cuisine and almost every national cuisine in the world can be found there; the city has more than 9,000 restaurants. The Michelin Guide has been a standard guide to French restaurants since 1900, awarding its highest award, three stars, to the best restaurants in France. In 2015, of the 29 Michelin three-star restaurants in France, nine are located in Paris. These include both restaurants which serve classical French cuisine, such as L\'Ambroisie in the Place des Vosges, and those which serve non-traditional menus, such as L\'Astrance , which combines French and Asian cuisines. Several of France's most famous chefs, including Pierre Gagnaire , Alain Ducasse , Yannick Alléno and Alain Passard , have three-star restaurants in Paris.

In addition to the classical restaurants, Paris
Paris
has several other kinds of traditional eating places. The café arrived in Paris
Paris
in the 17th century, when the beverage was first brought from Turkey, and by the 18th century Parisian cafés were centres of the city's political and cultural life. The Café Procope on the Left Bank dates from this period. In the 20th century, the cafés of the Left Bank, especially Café de la Rotonde and Le Dôme Café in Montparnasse and Café de Flore and Les Deux Magots on Boulevard Saint Germain, all still in business, were important meeting places for painters, writers and philosophers. A BISTRO is a type of eating place loosely defined as a neighbourhood restaurant with a modest decor and prices and a regular clientele and a congenial atmosphere. Its name is said to have come in 1814 from the Russian soldiers who occupied the city; "bistro" means "quickly" in Russian , and they wanted their meals served rapidly so they could get back their encampment. Real bistros are increasingly rare in Paris, due to rising costs, competition from cheaper ethnic restaurants, and different eating habits of Parisian diners. A BRASSERIE originally was a tavern located next to a brewery, which served beer and food at any hour. Beginning with the Paris
Paris
Exposition of 1867; it became a popular kind of restaurant which featured beer and other beverages served by young women in the national costume associated with the beverage, particular German costumes for beer. Now brasseries, like cafés, serve food and drinks throughout the day.

FASHION

Main article: French fashion Magdalena Frackowiak
Magdalena Frackowiak
at Paris Fashion Week (Fall 2011)

Paris
Paris
has been an international capital of high fashion since the 19th century, particularly in the domain of haute couture , clothing hand-made to order for private clients. It is home of some of the largest fashion houses in the world, including Dior and Chanel
Chanel
, and of many well-known fashion designers, including Karl Lagerfeld , Jean-Paul Gaultier , Christophe Josse , and Christian Lacroix . Paris Fashion Week , held in January and July in the Carrousel du Louvre
Louvre
and other city locations, is among the top four events of the international fashion calendar, along with the fashion weeks in Milan, London
London
and New York. Paris
Paris
is also the home of the world's largest cosmetics company, L\'Oréal , and three of the five top global makers of luxury fashion accessories; Louis Vuitton
Louis Vuitton
, Hermés , and Cartier .

HOLIDAYS AND FESTIVALS

French Republican Guard on Bastille
Bastille
Day

Bastille
Bastille
Day , a celebration of the storming of the Bastille
Bastille
in 1789, the biggest festival in the city, is a military parade taking place every year on 14 July on the Champs-Élysées , from the Arc de Triomphe to Place de la Concorde . It includes a flypast over the Champs Élysées by the _Patrouille de France
France
_, a parade of military units and equipment, and a display of fireworks in the evening, the most spectacular being the one at the Eiffel Tower.

Other yearly festivals are _ Paris-Plages _, a festive event that lasts from mid-July to mid-August when the Right Bank of the Seine
Seine
is converted into a temporary beach with sand, deck chairs and palm trees; _Journées du Patrimoine_, _ Fête de la Musique _, _Techno Parade_, _ Nuit Blanche _, _Cinéma au clair de lune_, _Printemps des rues_, _Festival d'automne_ and _Fête des jardins._ _Carnaval de Paris_ , one of the oldest festivals in Paris, dates back to the Middle Ages.

EDUCATION

Main article: Education in Paris The Lycée Louis-le-Grand The former main building of the University of Paris is now used by classes from Paris-Sorbonne University and other autonomous campuses

Paris
Paris
is the département with the highest proportion of highly educated people. In 2009, around 40 percent of Parisians held a _licence _-level diploma or higher, the highest proportion in France, while 13 percent have no diploma, the third lowest percentage in France.

Education in Paris and the Île-de- France
France
region employs approximately 330,000 people, 170,000 of whom are teachers and professors teaching approximately 2.9 million children and students in around 9,000 primary, secondary, and higher education schools and institutions.

The University of Paris , founded in the 12th century, is often called the Sorbonne after one of its original medieval colleges. It was broken up into thirteen autonomous universities in 1970, following the student demonstrations in 1968. Most of the campuses today are in the Latin Quarter where the old university was located, while others are scattered around the city and the suburbs.

The Paris
Paris
region hosts France's highest concentration of the _grandes écoles _ – 55 specialised centres of higher-education outside the public university structure. The prestigious public universities are usually considered _grands établissements _. Most of the _grandes écoles_ were relocated to the suburbs of Paris
Paris
in the 1960s and 1970s, in new campuses much larger than the old campuses within the crowded city of Paris, though the École Normale Supérieure has remained on rue d'Ulm in the 5th arrondissement . There are a high number of engineering schools, led by the Paris
Paris
Institute of Technology which comprises several colleges such as _École Polytechnique _, _École des Mines _, _Agro ParisTech _, _Télécom Paris
Paris
_, _Arts et Métiers _, and _École des Ponts et Chaussées _. There are also many business schools, including HEC , INSEAD , ESSEC , and ESCP Europe
Europe
. The administrative school such as ENA has been relocated to Strasbourg
Strasbourg
, the political science school Sciences-Po is still located in Paris's 7th arrondissement and the most prestigious university of economics and finance, Paris-Dauphine , is located in Paris's 16th. The Parisian school of journalism CELSA department of the Paris-Sorbonne University is located in Neuilly-sur-Seine. Paris is also home to several of France's most famous high-schools such as Lycée Louis-le-Grand , Lycée Henri-IV , Lycée Janson de Sailly and Lycée Condorcet. The National Institute of Sport and Physical Education , located in the 12th arrondissement, is both a physical education institute and high-level training centre for elite athletes.

LIBRARIES

Main article: Libraries in Paris Sainte-Geneviève Library

The _Bibliothèque nationale de France
France
_ (BnF) operates public libraries in Paris, among them the François Mitterrand Library, Richelieu Library, Louvois, Opéra Library, and Arsenal Library . There are three public libraries in the 4th arrondissement. The Forney Library , in the Marais district, is dedicated to the decorative arts; the Arsenal Library occupies a former military building, and has a large collection on French literature; and the Bibliothèque historique de la ville de Paris
Paris
, also in Le Marais, contains the Paris
Paris
historical research service. The Sainte-Geneviève Library is in 5th arrondissement; designed by Henri Labrouste and built in the mid-1800s, it contains a rare book and manuscript division. Bibliothèque Mazarine , in the 6th arrondissement, is the oldest public library in France. The Médiathèque Musicale Mahler in the 8th arrondissement opened in 1986 and contains collections related to music. The François Mitterrand Library (nicknamed _Très Grande Bibliothèque_) in the 13th arrondissement was completed in 1994 to a design of Dominique Perrault and contains four glass towers.

There are several academic libraries and archives in Paris. The Sorbonne Library in the 5th arrondissement is the largest university library in Paris. In addition to the Sorbonne location, there are branches in Malesherbes, Clignancourt-Championnet, Michelet-Institut d'Art et d'Archéologie, Serpente-Maison de la Recherche, and Institut des Etudes Ibériques. Other academic libraries include Interuniversity Pharmaceutical Library, Leonardo da Vinci University Library, Paris
Paris
School of Mines Library, and the René Descartes University Library.

RELIGIOUS BUILDINGS

Main article: List of religious buildings in Paris

CHRISTIANITY

Main article: List of churches in Paris The Cathedral of Notre-Dame de Paris is the seat of the Archdiocese of Paris.

Like the rest of France, Paris
Paris
has been predominantly Roman Catholic since the early Middle Ages, though religious attendance is now low. A majority of Parisians are still nominally Roman Catholic. According to 2011 statistics, there are 106 parishes and curates in the city, plus separate parishes for Spanish, Polish and Portuguese Catholics. There are an additional 10 Eastern Orthodox parishes, and bishops for the Armenian and Ukrainian Orthodox Churches. In addition there are eighty male religious orders and 140 female religious orders in the city, as well as 110 Catholic schools with 75,000 students.

The principal Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
church in Paris
Paris
is the Cathedral of Notre-Dame de Paris , the seat of the Archbishop of Paris. There are two officially recognised pilgrimage sites in Paris: the Basilique du Sacré-Cœur de Montmartre and the Chapel of Our Lady of the Miraculous Medal . Cardinal André Vingt-Trois became the Archbishop of Paris
Paris
in March 2005.

Almost all Protestant denominations are represented in Paris, with 74 evangelical churches from various denominations, including 21 parishes of the United Protestant Church of France
France
and two parishes of the Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter-Day Saints . There are several important churches for the English-speaking community: the American Church in Paris , founded in 1814, was the first American church outside the United States; the current church was finished in 1931. The Saint George's Anglican Church in the 16th arrondissement is the principal Anglican church in the city.

ISLAM

The Grand Mosque of Paris
Grand Mosque of Paris
(1926) is the oldest mosque in France.

The Grand Mosque of Paris
Grand Mosque of Paris
, the oldest mosque in Paris, was dedicated in 1926. It was funded by the French government and built to honour the 38,000 soldiers from Algeria, Tunisia
Tunisia
and Morocco
Morocco
who died fighting for France
France
in the First World War
First World War
.

In 2011 there were nineteen large mosques within the city limits of Paris, all except the Grand Mosque located in the outer arrondissements of the city, as well as hundreds of small prayer rooms. The number of mosques doubled between 1991 and 2011.

JUDAISM

During the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, Paris
Paris
was a centre of Jewish learning with famous Talmudic scholars, such as Yechiel of Paris who took part in the Disputation of Paris between Christian and Jewish intellectuals. The Parisian Jewish community was victim of persecution , alternating expulsions and returns, until France
France
became the first country in Europe
Europe
to emancipate its Jewish population during the French Revolution . Although 75% of the Jewish population in France
France
survived the Holocaust during World War II
World War II
, half the city's Jewish population perished in Nazi concentration camps, while some others fled abroad. A large migration of North Africa Sephardic Jews settled Paris
Paris
in the 1960s, and represent most of the Paris
Paris
Jewish community today. There are currently 83 synagogues in the city; The Marais -quarter Agoudas Hakehilos Synagogue , built in 1913 by architect Hector Guimard , is a Paris
Paris
landmark.

BUDDHISM AND HINDUISM

The Pagode de Vincennes Buddhist
Buddhist
temple, near Lake Daumesnil in the Bois de Vincennes , is the former Cameroon
Cameroon
pavilion from the 1931 Paris Colonial Exposition . It hosts several different schools of Buddhism, and does not have a single leader. It shelters the biggest Buddha statue in Europe, more than nine metres (30 feet) high. There are two other small temples located in the Asian community in the 13th arrondissement. A Hindu
Hindu
temple, dedicated to Ganesh
Ganesh
, on Rue Pajol in the 18th arrondissement, opened in 1985.

SPORTS

Stade de France
France

Paris's most popular sport clubs are the association football club Paris Saint-Germain F.C. and the rugby union club Stade Français . The 80,000-seat Stade de France
France
, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup , is located just north of Paris
Paris
in the commune of Saint- Denis
Denis
. It is used for football, rugby union and track and field athletics. It hosts the French national football team for friendlies and major tournaments qualifiers, annually hosts the French national rugby team 's home matches of the Six Nations Championship , and hosts several important matches of the Stade Français rugby team. In addition to Paris Saint-Germain FC, the city has a number of other professional and amateur football clubs: Paris FC , Red Star , RCF Paris and Stade Français Paris
Paris
. 2010 Tour de France, Champs Élysées

Paris
Paris
hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics and will host the 2024 Summer Olympics and Paralympic Games .

The city also hosted the finals of the 1938 FIFA World Cup (at the Stade Olympique de Colombes ), as well as the 1998 FIFA World Cup and the 2007 Rugby World Cup Final (both at the Stade de France). Two UEFA Champions League Finals in the current century have also been played in the Stade de France: the 2000 and 2006 editions. Paris
Paris
has most recently been the host for UEFA Euro 2016 at the Parc des Princes
Parc des Princes
.

The final stage of the most famous bicycle racing in the world, Tour de France
France
, always finishes in Paris. Since 1975, the race has finished on the Champs-Elysées .

Tennis
Tennis
is another popular sport in Paris
Paris
and throughout France; the French Open , held every year on the red clay of the Roland Garros National Tennis
Tennis
Centre, is one of the four Grand Slam events of the world professional tennis tour. The 17,000-seat Bercy Arena (officially named _AccorHotels Arena_ and formerly known as the _Palais Omnisports de Paris-Bercy_) is the venue for the annual Paris Masters ATP Tour tennis tournament and has been a frequent site of national and international tournaments in basketball, boxing, cycling, handball, ice hockey, show jumping and other sports. The Bercy Arena also hosted the 2017 IIHF World Ice Hockey Championship , together with Cologne
Cologne
, Germany. The final stages of the FIBA EuroBasket 1999 were also played at the Palais Omnisports de Paris-Bercy.

The basketball team Paris-Levallois Basket play at the 4,000 capacity Stade Pierre de Coubertin .

INFRASTRUCTURE

TRANSPORT

Main article: Transport in Paris See also: List of railway stations in Paris
Paris
The Gare du Nord railway station is the busiest in Europe
Europe

Paris
Paris
is a major rail, highway, and air transport hub. The Syndicat des transports d\'Île-de- France
France
(STIF), formerly _Syndicat des transports parisiens_ (STP), oversees the transit network in the region. The syndicate coordinates public transport and contracts it out to the RATP (operating 347 bus lines, the Métro , eight tramway lines, and sections of the RER), the SNCF (operating suburban rails, one tramway line and the other sections of the RER) and the Optile consortium of private operators managing 1,176 bus lines.

Railways

See also: List of railway stations in Paris

A central hub of the national rail network, Paris's six major railway stations ( Gare du Nord , Gare de l\'Est , Gare de Lyon , Gare d\'Austerlitz , Gare Montparnasse , Gare Saint-Lazare ) and a minor one ( Gare de Bercy ) are connected to three networks: the TGV
TGV
serving four high-speed rail lines, the normal speed Corail trains, and the suburban rails ( Transilien ).

Métro, RER And Tramway

The Paris Métro is the busiest subway network in the European Union

Since the inauguration of its first line in 1900, Paris's _Métro _ subway network has grown to become the city's most widely used local transport system; today it carries about 5.23 million passengers daily through 16 lines, 303 stations (385 stops) and 220 km (136.7 mi) of rails. Superimposed on this is a 'regional express network', the RER, whose five lines (A, B, C, D, and E), 257 stops and 587 km (365 mi) of rails connect Paris
Paris
to more distant parts of the urban area.

Over €26.5 billion will be invested over the next 15 years to extend the Métro network into the suburbs, with notably the Grand Paris
Paris
Express project.

In addition, the Paris
Paris
region is served by a light rail network of nine lines, the tramway: Line T1 runs from Asnières- Gennevilliers to Noisy-le-Sec, line T2 runs from Pont de Bezons to Porte de Versailles, line T3a runs from Pont du Garigliano to Porte de Vincennes, line T3b runs from Porte de Vincennes to Porte de la Chapelle, line T5 runs from Saint- Denis
Denis
to Garges-Sarcelles, line T6 runs from Châtillon to Viroflay, line T7 runs from Villejuif to Athis-Mons, line T8 runs from Saint- Denis
Denis
to Épinay-sur- Seine
Seine
and Villetaneuse, all of which are operated by the _ Régie Autonome des Transports Parisiens _, and line T4 runs from Bondy RER to Aulnay-sous-Bois, which is operated by the state rail carrier SNCF. Five new light rail lines are currently in various stages of development.

Air

Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport is the busiest airport in continental Europe
Europe
.

Paris
Paris
is a major international air transport hub with the 5th busiest airport system in the world . The city is served by three commercial international airports: Paris- Charles de Gaulle , Paris-Orly and Beauvais-Tillé . Together these three airports recorded traffic of 96.5 million passengers in 2014. There is also one general aviation airport, Paris-Le Bourget , historically the oldest Parisian airport and closest to the city centre, which is now used only for private business flights and air shows.

Orly Airport, located in the southern suburbs of Paris, replaced Le Bourget as the principal airport of Paris
Paris
from the 1950s to the 1980s. Charles de Gaulle Airport, located on the edge of the northern suburbs of Paris, opened to commercial traffic in 1974 and became the busiest Parisian airport in 1993. Today it is the 4th busiest airport in the world by international traffic and is the hub for the nation's flag carrier Air France
France
. Beauvais-Tillé Airport, located 69 kilometres (43 miles) north of Paris's city centre, is used by charter airlines and low-cost carriers such as Ryanair .

In 2014 the main domestic and international destinations served by the three commercial airports of Paris
Paris
were the following:

Busiest destinations from Paris airports (CDG , ORY , BVA ) in 2014

DOMESTIC DESTINATIONS PASSENGERS

Toulouse
Toulouse
3,158,331

Nice
Nice
2,865,602

Bordeaux 1,539,478

Marseille
Marseille
1,502,196

Pointe-à-Pitre 1,191,437

Saint- Denis
Denis
(Réunion) 1,108,964

Fort-de- France
France
1,055,770

OTHER DOMESTIC DESTINATIONS

Montpellier 807,482

Biarritz 684,578

Lyon
Lyon
613,395

INTERNATIONAL DESTINATIONS PASSENGERS

Italy
Italy
7,881,497

Spain
Spain
7,193,481

United States
United States
6,495,677

Germany
Germany
4,685,313

United Kingdom
United Kingdom
4,177,519

Morocco
Morocco
3,148,479

Portugal
Portugal
3,018,446

Algeria
Algeria
2,351,402

China
China
2,141,527

OTHER INTERNATIONAL DESTINATIONS

Switzerland
Switzerland
1,727,169

Domestically, air travel between Paris
Paris
and some of France's largest cities such as Lyon
Lyon
, Marseille
Marseille
, or Strasbourg
Strasbourg
has been in a large measure replaced by high-speed rail due to the opening of several high-speed TGV
TGV
rail lines from the 1980s. For example, after the LGV Méditerranée opened in 2001, air traffic between Paris
Paris
and Marseille declined from 2,976,793 passengers in 2000 to 1,502,196 passengers in 2014. After the LGV Est opened in 2007, air traffic between Paris
Paris
and Strasbourg
Strasbourg
declined from 1,006,327 passengers in 2006 to 157,207 passengers in 2014.

Internationally, air traffic has increased markedly in recent years between Paris
Paris
and the Gulf airports , the emerging nations of Africa, Russia, Turkey, Portugal, Italy, and mainland China
China
, whereas noticeable decline has been recorded between Paris
Paris
and the British Isles , Egypt, Tunisia, and Japan.

Motorways

Ring roads of Paris
Paris

The city is also the most important hub of France's motorway network, and is surrounded by three orbital freeways: the Périphérique , which follows the approximate path of 19th-century fortifications around Paris, the A86 motorway in the inner suburbs, and finally the Francilienne
Francilienne
motorway in the outer suburbs. Paris
Paris
has an extensive road network with over 2,000 km (1,243 mi) of highways and motorways.

Waterways

The Paris
Paris
region is the most active water transport area in France, with most of the cargo handled by Ports of Paris
Paris
in facilities located around Paris. The Loire, Rhine, Rhone, Meuse, and Scheldt rivers can be reached by canals connecting with the Seine, which include the Canal Saint-Martin , Canal Saint-Denis, and the Canal de l'Ourcq.

Cycling

Vélib\' at Place de la Bastille
Bastille

There are 440 km (270 mi) of cycle paths and routes in Paris. These include _piste cyclable_ (bike lanes separated from other traffic by physical barriers such as a kerb) and _bande cyclable_ (a bicycle lane denoted by a painted path on the road). Some 29 km (18 mi) of specially marked bus lanes are free to be used by cyclists, with a protective barrier protecting against encroachments from vehicles. Cyclists have also been given the right to ride in both directions on certain one-way streets. Paris
Paris
offers a bike sharing system called Vélib\' with more than 20,000 public bicycles distributed at 1,800 parking stations, which can be rented for short and medium distances including one way trips.

ELECTRICITY

Paris
Paris
is provided in electricity through a 'periphery' grid fed by multiple sources.As of 2012 , around 50% of electricity generated in the Île-de- France
France
comes from cogeneration energy plants located near the outer limits of the region ; other energy sources include the Nogent nuclear power plant (35%), trash incineration (9% – with cogeneration plants, these provide the city in heat as well), methane gas (5%), hydraulics (1%), solar power (0.1%) and a negligible amount of wind power (0.034 GWh). A quarter of Paris's district heating is to come from a plant in Saint-Ouen , burning a 50/50-mix of coal and 140,000 tonnes of wood pellets from USA per year.

WATER AND SANITATION

A view of the Seine, the Île de la Cité and a Bateau Mouche

Paris
Paris
in its early history had only the Seine
Seine
and Bièvre rivers for water. From 1809, the Canal de l\'Ourcq provided Paris
Paris
with water from less-polluted rivers to the north-east of the capital. From 1857, the civil engineer Eugène Belgrand , under Napoleon
Napoleon
III , oversaw the construction of a series of new aqueducts that brought water from locations all around the city to several reservoirs built atop the Capital's highest points of elevation. From then on, the new reservoir system became Paris's principal source of drinking water, and the remains of the old system, pumped into lower levels of the same reservoirs, were from then on used for the cleaning of Paris's streets. This system is still a major part of Paris's modern water-supply network. Today Paris
Paris
has more than 2,400 km (1,491 mi) of underground passageways dedicated to the evacuation of Paris's liquid wastes.

In 1982, Mayor Chirac introduced the motorcycle-mounted Motocrotte to remove dog faeces from Paris
Paris
streets. The project was abandoned in 2002 for a new and better enforced local law, under the terms of which dog owners can be fined up to €500 for not removing their dog faeces. The air pollution in Paris, from the point of view of particulate matter (PM10), is the highest in France
France
with 38 µg/m³.

PARKS AND GARDENS

Main articles: List of parks and gardens in Paris and History of Parks and Gardens of Paris
Paris
_ The lawns of the Parc des Buttes-Chaumont _ on a sunny day

Paris
Paris
today has more than 421 municipal parks and gardens, covering more than 3,000 hectares and containing more than 250,000 trees. Two of Paris's oldest and most famous gardens are the Tuileries Garden , created in 1564 for the Tuileries Palace , and redone by André Le Nôtre between 1664 and 1672, and the Luxembourg Garden , for the Luxembourg Palace
Luxembourg Palace
, built for Marie de\' Medici in 1612, which today houses the French Senate . The _ Jardin des Plantes _ was the first botanical garden in Paris, created in 1626 by Louis XIII's doctor Guy de La Brosse for the cultivation of medicinal plants.

Between 1853 and 1870, the Emperor Napoleon
Napoleon
III and the city's first director of parks and gardens, Jean-Charles Alphand , created the _ Bois de Boulogne _, the _ Bois de Vincennes _, _ Parc Montsouris
Parc Montsouris
_ and the _ Parc des Buttes-Chaumont _, located at the four points of the compass around the city, as well as many smaller parks, squares and gardens in the Paris's quarters. Since 1977, the city has created 166 new parks, most notably the _ Parc de la Villette _ (1987), _Parc André Citroën _ (1992), and _ Parc de Bercy _ (1997). One of the newest parks, the _Promenade des Berges de la Seine
Seine
_ (2013), built on a former highway on the Left Bank of the Seine
Seine
between the _Pont de l'Alma_ and the _Musée d\'Orsay _, has floating gardens and gives a view of the city's landmarks.

CEMETERIES

The Paris
Paris
Catacombs hold the remains of approximately 6 million people

In Paris's Roman era, its main cemetery was located to the outskirts of the Left Bank settlement, but this changed with the rise of Catholicism, where most every inner-city church had adjoining burial grounds for use by their parishes. With Paris's growth many of these, particularly the city's largest cemetery, _les Innocents_ , were filled to overflowing, creating quite unsanitary conditions for the capital. When inner-city burials were condemned from 1786, the contents of all Paris's parish cemeteries were transferred to a renovated section of Paris\'s stone mines outside the "Porte d'Enfer" city gate, today place Denfert-Rochereau in the 14th arrondissement. The process of moving bones from _Cimetière des Innocents_ to the catacombs took place between 1786 and 1814; part of the network of tunnels and remains can be visited today on the official tour of the catacombs.

After a tentative creation of several smaller suburban cemeteries, the Prefect Nicholas Frochot under Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte provided a more definitive solution in the creation of three massive Parisian cemeteries outside the city limits. Open from 1804, these were the cemeteries of Père Lachaise , Montmartre , Montparnasse , and later Passy ; these cemeteries became inner-city once again when Paris annexed all neighbouring communes to the inside of its much larger ring of suburban fortifications in 1860. New suburban cemeteries were created in the early 20th century: The largest of these are the _Cimetière parisien de Saint-Ouen_ , the _Cimetière parisien de Pantin
Pantin
_ (also known as _ Cimetière parisien de Pantin - Bobigny _), the _Cimetière parisien d'Ivry _, and the _Cimetière parisien de Bagneux _. Some of the most famous people in the world are buried in Parisian cemeteries.

HEALTHCARE

The Hôtel-Dieu de Paris, the oldest hospital in the city

Health care and emergency medical service in the city of Paris
Paris
and its suburbs are provided by the _Assistance publique – Hôpitaux de Paris
Paris
(AP-HP)_, a public hospital system that employs more than 90,000 people (including practitioners, support personnel, and administrators) in 44 hospitals. It is the largest hospital system in Europe. It provides health care, teaching, research, prevention, education and emergency medical service in 52 branches of medicine. The hospitals receive more than 5.8 million annual patient visits.

One of the most notable hospitals is the Hôtel-Dieu , founded in 651, the oldest hospital in the city. Other hospitals include Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital (one of the largest in Europe), Hôpital Cochin , Hôpital Bichat, Hôpital Européen Georges-Pompidou , Bicêtre Hospital , Beaujon Hospital , the Curie Institute , Lariboisière Hospital , Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital , Hôpital Saint-Louis , Hôpital de la Charité and the American Hospital of Paris
Paris
.

MEDIA

Agence France-Presse Headquarters in Paris
Paris

Paris
Paris
and its close suburbs is home to numerous newspapers, magazines and publications including _ Le Monde _, _ Le Figaro _, _ Libération _, _ Le Nouvel Observateur
Le Nouvel Observateur
_, _ Le Canard enchaîné _, _ La Croix
La Croix
_, _ Pariscope _, _ Le Parisien (in_ _Saint-Ouen _), _Les Échos _, _Paris Match (Neuilly-sur- Seine
Seine
)_, _Réseaux "> Column dedicated to Paris near the Baths of Diocletian in Rome
Rome
.

Paris
Paris
is since April 9, 1956 exclusively and reciprocally twinned only with:

* _ Rome
Rome
, Italy, 1956

(in French) Seule Paris
Paris
est digne de Rome; seule Rome
Rome
est digne de Paris._ (in Italian) _Solo Parigi è degna di Roma; solo Roma è degna di Parigi._ "Only Paris
Paris
is worthy of Rome; only Rome
Rome
is worthy of Paris."

OTHER RELATIONSHIPS

Paris
Paris
has agreements of friendship and co-operation with:

* Algiers
Algiers
, 2003 * Amman
Amman
, 1987 * Athens
Athens
, 2000 * Beijing
Beijing
, 1997 * Beirut
Beirut
, 1992 * Berlin
Berlin
, 1987 * Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
, 1999 * Casablanca
Casablanca
, 2004 * Cairo
Cairo
, 1985 * Chicago
Chicago
, 1996 * Copenhagen
Copenhagen
, 2005 * Geneva
Geneva
, 2002 * Jakarta
Jakarta
, 1995 * Kyoto
Kyoto
, 1958 * Lisbon
Lisbon
, 1998 * London
London
, 2001 * Madrid
Madrid
, 2000 * Mexico
Mexico
City
City
, 1999 * Montreal
Montreal
, 2006 * Moscow
Moscow
, 1992 * New York City
City
, 2007 * Porto Alegre
Porto Alegre
, 2001 * Prague
Prague
, 1997 * Rabat , 2004 * Riyadh
Riyadh
, 1997 * Quebec City
City
, 2003 * Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
, 1997 * Sana\'a , 1987 * San Francisco
San Francisco
, 1996 * Santiago
Santiago
, 1997 * São Paulo , 2004 * Seoul
Seoul
, 1991 * Sofia
Sofia
, 1998 * Sydney
Sydney
, 1998 * Tbilisi
Tbilisi
, 1997 * Tehran
Tehran
, 2004 * Tokyo
Tokyo
, 1982 * Tunis
Tunis
, 2004 * Warsaw
Warsaw
, 1999 * Washington, D.C. , 2000 * Yerevan
Yerevan
, 1998

SEE ALSO

* Paris
Paris
portal * France
France
portal * European Union
European Union
portal

* C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group * International Exposition of Modern Industrial and Decorative Arts held in Paris
Paris
in 1925 * Megacity * Outline of France
France

REFERENCES

NOTES

* ^ The word was most likely created by Parisians of the lower popular class who spoke *argot*, then *parigot* was used in a provocative manner outside the Parisian region and throughout France to mean Parisians in general.

FOOTNOTES

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Fashion: A Cultural History_. Berg. ISBN 978-1-85973-973-0 . * Sutherland, Cara (2003). _The Statue of Liberty_. Barnes & Noble Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7607-3890-0 . * Tallett, Frank; Atkin, Nicholas (1991). _Religion, Society and Politics in France
France
Since 1789_. Continuum. ISBN 978-1-85285-057-9 . * Tellier, Luc-Normand (2009). _Urban World History: An Economic and Geographical Perspective_. PUQ. ISBN 978-2-7605-2209-1 . * Tomas, François; Blanc, Jean-Noël; Bonilla, Mario; IERP (2003). _Les grands ensembles: une histoire qui continue_. Université de Saint-Étienne. p. 237. ISBN 978-2-86272-260-3 . * Jacques (de Vitry); Jacobus de Vitriaco; John Frederick Hinnebusch (1972). _The Historia Occidentalis of Jacques de Vitry_. Saint-Paul. GGKEY:R8CJPKJJK4D. * Weingardt, Richard (2009). _Circles in the Sky: The Life and Times of George Ferris_. ASCE Publications. ISBN 978-0-7844-1010-3 . * Whaley, Joachim (2012). _Mirrors of Mortality (Routledge Revivals): Social Studies in the History of Death_. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-81060-2 . * Woolley, Reginald Maxwell (1915). _Coronation Rites_. Cambridge University Press. * Yarri, Monique (2008). _Rethinking the French City: Architecture, Dwelling, and Display After 1968_. Editions Rodopi B.V., Amsterdam, New York, NY, 2008. p. 407. ISBN 978-90-420-2500-4 . * Zarka, Yves Charles; Taussig, Sylvie; Fleury, Cynthia (2004). "Les contours d'une population susceptible d'être musulmane d'après la filiation". _L\'Islam en France_. Presses universitaires de France. ISBN 978-2-13-053723-6 .

FURTHER READING

Main article: Bibliography of Paris

* Vincent Cronin (1989). _ Paris
Paris
on the Eve, 1900–1914_. New York: Harper Collins . ISBN 0-312-04876-9 . * Vincent Cronin (1994). _Paris: City
City
of Light, 1919–1939_. New York: Harper Collins. ISBN 0-00-215191-X . * Jean Favier (23 April 1997). _Paris_ (in French). Fayard . ISBN 2-213-59874-6 . * Jacques Hillairet (22 April 2005). _Connaissance du Vieux Paris_ (in French). Rivages. ISBN 2-86930-648-2 . * Colin Jones (2004). _Paris: The Biography of a City_. New York: Penguin Viking . ISBN 0-670-03393-6 . * Bernard Marchand (1993). _Paris, histoire d'une ville : XIXe-XXe siècle_ (in French). Paris: Le Seuil. ISBN 978-2-02-012864-3 . * Rosemary Wakeman (2009). _The Heroic City: Paris, 1945–1958_. University of Chicago
Chicago
Press. ISBN 978-0-226-87023-6 .

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