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Paradise Lost
Paradise Lost
is an epic poem in blank verse by the 17th-century English poet John Milton
John Milton
(1608–1674). The first version, published in 1667, consisted of ten books with over ten thousand lines of verse. A second edition followed in 1674, arranged into twelve books (in the manner of Virgil's Aeneid) with minor revisions throughout and a note on the versification.[1][2] It is considered by critics to be Milton's major work, and it helped solidify his reputation as one of the greatest English poets of his time.[3] The poem concerns the biblical story of the Fall of Man: the temptation of Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
by the fallen angel Satan
Satan
and their expulsion from the Garden of Eden. Milton's purpose, stated in Book I, is to "justify the ways of God to men".[6]

Contents

1 Composition 2 Structure 3 Synopsis 4 Characters

4.1 Satan 4.2 Adam 4.3 Eve 4.4 The Son of God 4.5 God the Father 4.6 Raphael 4.7 Michael

5 Motifs

5.1 Marriage 5.2 Idolatry

6 Interpretation and criticism 7 Iconography 8 See also 9 Footnotes 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

12.1 Online text 12.2 Other information

Composition[edit]

Gustave Doré, The Heavenly Hosts, c. 1866, illustration to Paradise Lost.

In his introduction to the Penguin edition of Paradise Lost, the Milton scholar John Leonard notes, " John Milton
John Milton
was nearly sixty when he published Paradise Lost
Paradise Lost
in 1667. [The writer] John Aubrey (1626–97) tells us that the poem was begun in about 1658 and finished in about 1663. But parts were almost certainly written earlier, and its roots lie in Milton's earliest youth."[7] Leonard speculates that the English Civil War
English Civil War
interrupted Milton's earliest attempts to start his "epic [poem] that would encompass all space and time."[7] Leonard also notes that Milton "did not at first plan to write a biblical epic."[7] Since epics were typically written about heroic kings and queens (and with pagan gods), Milton originally envisioned his epic to be based on a legendary Saxon or British king like the legend of King Arthur.[8][9]In the 1667 version of Paradise Lost, the poem was divided into ten books. However, in the 1672 edition, Paradise Lost
Paradise Lost
contained twelve books.[10] Having gone totally blind in 1652, Milton wrote Paradise Lost
Paradise Lost
entirely through dictation with the help of amanuenses and friends. He also wrote the epic poem while he was often ill, suffering from gout, and despite the fact that he was suffering emotionally after the early death of his second wife, Katherine Woodcock, in 1658, and the death of their infant daughter. Milton remarried five years later in 1663.[11] Structure[edit] The poem is divided into "books" (ten originally, twelve in Milton's revised edition of 1674). The Arguments (brief summaries) at the head of each book were added in subsequent imprints of the first edition.[12] Synopsis[edit]

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John Martin, Satan
Satan
Presiding at the Infernal Council, c.1823-1827.

Gustave Doré, Depiction of Satan, the central character of John Milton's Paradise Lost
Paradise Lost
c. 1866.

The poem follows the epic tradition of starting in medias res (Latin for in the midst of things), the background story being recounted later. Milton's story has two narrative arcs, one about Satan
Satan
(Lucifer) and the other following Adam
Adam
and Eve. It begins after Satan
Satan
and the other rebel angels have been defeated and banished to Hell, or, as it is also called in the poem, Tartarus. In Pandæmonium, the capital city of Hell, Satan
Satan
employs his rhetorical skill to organize his followers; he is aided by Mammon
Mammon
and Beelzebub. Belial
Belial
and Moloch
Moloch
are also present. At the end of the debate, Satan
Satan
volunteers to corrupt the newly created Earth
Earth
and God's new and most favoured creation, Mankind. He braves the dangers of the Abyss alone in a manner reminiscent of Odysseus
Odysseus
or Aeneas. After an arduous traversal of the Chaos outside Hell, he enters God's new material World, and later the Garden of Eden. At several points in the poem, an Angelic War over Heaven is recounted from different perspectives. Satan's rebellion follows the epic convention of large-scale warfare. The battles between the faithful angels and Satan's forces take place over three days. At the final battle, the Son of God
Son of God
single-handedly defeats the entire legion of angelic rebels and banishes them from Heaven. Following this purge, God creates the World, culminating in his creation of Adam
Adam
and Eve. While God gave Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
total freedom and power to rule over all creation, he gave them one explicit command: not to eat from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil on penalty of death. The story of Adam
Adam
and Eve's temptation and fall is a fundamentally different, new kind of epic: a domestic one. Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
are presented as having a romantic and sexual relationship while still being without sin. They have passions and distinct personalities. Satan, disguised in the form of a serpent, successfully tempts Eve
Eve
to eat from the Tree by preying on her vanity and tricking her with rhetoric. Adam, learning that Eve
Eve
has sinned, knowingly commits the same sin. He declares to Eve
Eve
that since she was made from his flesh, they are bound to one another ‒ if she dies, he must also die. In this manner, Milton portrays Adam
Adam
as a heroic figure, but also as a greater sinner than Eve, as he is aware that what he is doing is wrong. After eating the fruit, Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
have lustful sex. At first, Adam is convinced that Eve
Eve
was right in thinking that eating the fruit would be beneficial. However, they soon fall asleep and have terrible nightmares, and after they awake, they experience guilt and shame for the first time. Realizing that they have committed a terrible act against God, they engage in mutual recrimination. Meanwhile, Satan
Satan
returns triumphantly to Hell, amidst the praise of his fellow fallen angels. He tells them about how their scheme worked and Mankind has fallen, giving them complete dominion over Paradise. As he finishes his speech, however, the fallen angels around him become hideous snakes, and soon enough, Satan
Satan
himself turned into a snake, deprived of limbs and unable to talk. Thus, they share the same punishment, as they shared the same guilt. Eve
Eve
appeals to Adam
Adam
for reconciliation of their actions. Her encouragement enables them to approach God, and sue for grace, bowing on suppliant knee, to receive forgiveness. In a vision shown to him by the angel Michael, Adam
Adam
witnesses everything that will happen to Mankind until the Great Flood. Adam
Adam
is very upset by this vision of the future, so Michael also tells him about Mankind's potential redemption from original sin through Jesus
Jesus
Christ (whom Michael calls "King Messiah"). Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
are cast out of Eden, and Michael says that Adam
Adam
may find "a paradise within thee, happier far". Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
also now have a more distant relationship with God, who is omnipresent but invisible (unlike the tangible Father in the Garden of Eden). Characters[edit] Satan[edit] Satan, formerly called Lucifer, is the first major character introduced in the poem. He was once the most beautiful of all angels, and is a tragic figure who famously declares: "Better to reign in Hell than serve in Heaven." Following his failed rebellion against God, he is cast out from Heaven and condemned to Hell. Satan's desire to rebel against his creator stems from his unwillingness to be subjugated by God and his Son, claiming that angels are "self-begot, self-raised,"[13] and thereby denying God's authority over them as their creator. Satan
Satan
is deeply arrogant, albeit powerful and charismatic.[citation needed] Satan's persuasive powers are evident throughout the book; not only is he cunning and deceptive, but he is also able to rally the fallen angels to continue in the rebellion after their agonizing defeat in the Angelic War. He argues that God rules as a tyrant and that all the angels ought to rule as gods.[14] Though commonly understood to be the antagonizing force in Paradise Lost, Satan
Satan
may be best defined as a tragic or Hellenic hero. According to William McCollom, one quality of the classical tragic hero is that he is not perfectly good and that his defeat is caused by a tragic flaw, as Satan
Satan
causes both the downfall of man and the eternal damnation of his fellow fallen angels despite his dedication to his comrades. In addition, Satan's Hellenic qualities, such as his immense courage and, perhaps, lack of completely defined morals compound his tragic nature.[15] Satan's status as a protagonist in the epic poem is debated. Milton characterizes him as such, but Satan
Satan
lacks several key traits that would otherwise make him the definitive protagonist in the work. One deciding factor that insinuates his role as the protagonist in the story is that most often a protagonist is heavily characterized and far better described than the other characters, and the way the character is written is meant to make him seem more interesting or special to the reader. [16] For that matter, Satan
Satan
is both well described and is depicted as being quite versatile in that he is shown as having the capacity to do evil whilst retaining his characteristic sympathetic qualities and thus it is this complex and relatable nature that makes him a likely candidate for the story's overarching protagonist.[16] By some definitions a protagonist must be able to exist in and of himself or herself and that the secondary characters in the work exist only to further the plot for the protagonist.[17] Because Satan
Satan
does not exist solely for himself, as without God he would not have a role to play in the story, he may not be viewed as the protagonist because of the continual shifts in perspective and relative importance of characters in each book of the work. Satan's existence in the story involves his rebellion against God and his determination to corrupt the beings he creates in order to perpetuate evil so that there can be a discernable balance and justice for both himself and his fallen angels. Therefore, it is more probable that he exists in order to combat God, making his status as the definitive protagonist of the work relative to each book. Following this logic, Satan
Satan
may very well be considered as an antagonist in the poem, whereas God could be considered as the protagonist instead. Satan's status as a traditional hero in the work is similarly up to debate as the term "hero" evokes different meanings depending on the time and the person giving the definition and is thus a matter of contention within the text. According to Aristotle, a hero is someone who is "superhuman, godlike, and divine" but is also human.[18] A hero would have to either be a human with God-like powers or the offspring of God. While Milton gives reason to believe that Satan
Satan
is superhuman, as he was originally an angel, he is anything but human. Therefore, according to Aristotle's definition of a hero alone, Satan
Satan
is not a hero. Torquato Tasso
Torquato Tasso
and Francesco Piccolomini
Francesco Piccolomini
expanded on Aristotle's definition and declared that for someone to be considered heroic one has to be perfectly or overly virtuous.[19] Satan
Satan
repeatedly demonstrates a lack of virtue throughout the story as he intends to tempt God's creations with evil in order to destroy the good God is trying to create. Satan
Satan
goes against God's law and therefore becomes corrupt and lacking of virtue and, as Piccolomini warned, "vice may be mistaken for heroic virtue".[18] Satan
Satan
is very devoted to his cause, although that cause is evil but he strives to spin his sinister aspirations to appear as good ones. Satan
Satan
achieves this end multiple times throughout the text as he riles up his band of fallen angels during his speech by deliberately telling them to do evil to explain God's hypocrisy and again during his entreaty to Eve. He makes his intentions seem pure and positive even when they are rooted in evil and, according to Steadman, this is the chief reason that readers often mistake Satan
Satan
as a hero.[19] Although Satan's army inevitably loses the war against God, Satan achieves a position of power and begins his reign in Hell
Hell
with his band of loyal followers, composed of fallen angels, which is described to be a "third of heaven". Satan's characterization as the leader of a failing cause folds into this as well and is best exemplified through his own quote, "to be weak is to be miserable; Doing or Suffering", as through shared solidarity espoused by empowering rhetoric, Satan
Satan
riles up his comrades in arms and keeps them focused towards their shared goal.[20] Similar to Milton's republican sentiments of overthrowing the King of England for both better representation and parliamentary power, Satan
Satan
argues that his shared rebellion with the fallen angels is an effort to "explain the hypocrisy of God", and in doing so, they will be treated with the respect and acknowledgement that they deserve. As scholar Wayne Rebhorn argues, " Satan
Satan
insists that he and his fellow revolutionaries held their places by right and even leading him to claim that they were self-created and self-sustained" and thus Satan's position in the rebellion is much like that of his own real world creator.[21] Adam[edit]

William Blake, The Temptation and Fall of Eve, 1808 (illustration of Milton's Paradise Lost).

Adam
Adam
is the first human being created by God. Finding himself alone, Adam
Adam
complains and requests a mate from God, who grants his request and creates Eve
Eve
to be Adam's conjugal companion and helpmate. God appraises Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
most of all his creations, and appoints them to rule over all the creatures of the world and to reside in the Garden of Eden. Adam
Adam
is more gregarious than Eve, and yearns for her company. His complete infatuation with Eve, while pure of itself, eventually contributes to his deciding to join her in disobedience to God. Unlike the biblical Adam, before Milton's Adam
Adam
leaves Paradise he is given a glimpse of the future of mankind by the Archangel Michael—including a synopsis of stories from the Old and New Testaments. Eve[edit] Eve
Eve
is the second human created by God, who takes one of Adam's ribs and shapes it into a female form of Adam. Not the traditional model of a good wife, Milton's Eve
Eve
is often unwilling to be submissive towards Adam. She is the more intelligent of the two and more curious about external ideas than her husband. Though happy, she longs for knowledge, specifically for self-knowledge. (Her first act in existence is to turn away from Adam
Adam
to look at and ponder her own reflection.) Eve
Eve
is beautiful and though she loves Adam
Adam
she may feel suffocated by his constant presence. In Book IX, she convinces Adam
Adam
to separate for a time and work in different parts of the Garden. In her solitude, she is tempted by Satan
Satan
to sin against God by eating of the Tree of Knowledge. Soon thereafter, Adam
Adam
follows Eve
Eve
in support of her act. The Son of God[edit] The Son of God
Son of God
is the spirit who will become incarnate as Jesus Christ, though he is never named explicitly because he has not yet entered human form. Milton believed in a subordinationist doctrine of Christology that regarded the Son as secondary to the Father and as God's "great Vice-regent" (5.609). Milton's God in Paradise Lost refers to the Son as "My word, my wisdom, and effectual might" (3.170). The poem is not explicitly anti-trinitarian, but it is consistent with Milton's convictions. The Son is the ultimate hero of the epic and is infinitely powerful—he single-handedly defeats Satan and his followers and drives them into Hell. After their fall, the Son of God tells Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
about God's judgment: He, the Son, volunteers to journey into the World and become a man himself; then he redeems the Fall of Man
Fall of Man
through his own sacrificial death and resurrection. In the final scene, a vision of Salvation through the Son of God
Son of God
is revealed to Adam
Adam
by Michael. Still, the name Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth, and the details of Jesus' story are not depicted in the poem,[22] though they are alluded to when Michael explains that "Joshua, whom the Gentiles Jesus
Jesus
call," prefigures the Son of God, "his name and office bearing" to "quell / The adversarie Serpent, and bring back [...] long wander[e]d man / Safe to eternal Paradise of rest."[23] God the Father[edit] God the Father
God the Father
is the creator of Heaven, Hell, the world, of everyone and everything there is, through the agency of His Son. He is a jealous God and desires glory and praise from all his creations. Milton presents God as all-powerful and all-knowing, as an infinitely great being who cannot be overthrown by even the great army of angels Satan
Satan
incites against him. Milton's stated purpose for the poem is to justify the ways of God to men, so he portrays God as often conversing about his plans and his motives for his actions with the Son of God. The poem shows God creating the world in the way Milton believed it was done, that is, God created Heaven, Earth, Hell, and all the creatures that inhabit these separate planes from part of Himself, not out of nothing.[24] Thus, according to Milton, the ultimate authority of God over all things that happen derives from his being the "author" of all creation. Satan
Satan
tries to justify his rebellion by denying this aspect of God and claiming self-creation, but he admits to himself the truth otherwise, and that God "deserved no such return/ From me, whom He created what I was."[25][26] Raphael[edit] Raphael is the archangel whom God sends to warn Adam
Adam
of Satan's infiltration of Eden and to warn that Satan
Satan
will try to curse them ( Adam
Adam
and Eve). Raphael also discusses at length with the curious Adam some details about the creation and about events that transpired in Heaven. Michael[edit] Michael is a mighty archangel who fought for God in the Angelic War. In the first battle, he wounds Satan
Satan
terribly with a powerful sword that God fashioned to cut through even the substance of angels. After Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
disobey God by eating from the Tree of Knowledge, God sends the angel Michael to visit them in the garden. Before he escorts them out of Paradise, Michael shows them visions of the future that disclose an outline of Bible stories from that of Cain and Abel
Cain and Abel
in Genesis through the story of Jesus
Jesus
Christ in the New Testament. Motifs[edit] Marriage[edit] Milton first presented Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
in Book IV with impartiality. The relationship between Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
is one of "mutual dependence, not a relation of domination or hierarchy." While the author placed Adam above Eve
Eve
in his intellectual knowledge and, in turn, his relation to God, he granted Eve
Eve
the benefit of knowledge through experience. Hermine Van Nuis clarifies, that although there is stringency specified for the roles of male and female, Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
unreservedly accept their designated roles.[27] Rather than viewing these roles as forced upon them, each uses their assignment as an asset in their relationship with each other. These distinctions can be interpreted as Milton's view on the importance of mutuality between husband and wife. When examining the relationship between Adam
Adam
and Eve, some critics apply either an Adam-centered or Eve-centered view of hierarchy and importance to God. David Mikics argues, by contrast, these positions "overstate the independence of the characters' stances, and therefore miss the way in which Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
are entwined with each other".[28] Milton's narrative depicts a relationship where the husband and wife (here, Adam
Adam
and Eve) depend on each other and, through each other's differences, thrive.[28] Still, there are several instances where Adam communicates directly with God while Eve
Eve
must go through Adam
Adam
to God; thus, some have described Adam
Adam
as her guide.[29] Although Milton does not directly mention divorce, critics posit theories on Milton's view of divorce based upon their inferences from the poem and from his tracts on divorce written earlier in his life. Other works by Milton suggest he viewed marriage as an entity separate from the church. Discussing Paradise Lost, Biberman entertains the idea that "marriage is a contract made by both the man and the woman".[30] These ideas imply Milton may have favored that both man and woman have equal access to marriage and to divorce. Idolatry[edit] Milton's 17th-century contemporaries by and large criticised his ideas and considered him as a radical, mostly because of his Protestant views on politics and religion. One of Milton's most controversial arguments centred on his concept of what is idolatrous, which subject is deeply embedded in Paradise Lost. Milton's first criticism of idolatry focused on the constructing of temples and other buildings to serve as places of worship. In Book XI of Paradise Lost, Adam
Adam
tries to atone for his sins by offering to build altars to worship God. In response, the angel Michael explains that Adam
Adam
does not need to build physical objects to experience the presence of God.[31] Joseph Lyle points to this example, explaining "When Milton objects to architecture, it is not a quality inherent in buildings themselves he finds offensive, but rather their tendency to act as convenient loci to which idolatry, over time, will inevitably adhere."[32] Even if the idea is pure in nature, Milton thought it would unavoidably lead to idolatry simply because of the nature of humans. That is, instead of directing their thoughts towards God, humans will turn to erected objects and falsely invest their faith there. While Adam
Adam
attempts to build an altar to God, critics note Eve is similarly guilty of idolatry, but in a different manner. Harding believes Eve's narcissism and obsession with herself constitutes idolatry.[33] Specifically, Harding claims that "... under the serpent's influence, Eve's idolatry and self-deification foreshadow the errors into which her 'Sons' will stray."[33] Much like Adam, Eve falsely places her faith in herself, the Tree of Knowledge, and to some extent the Serpent, all of which do not compare to the ideal nature of God. Milton made his views on idolatry more explicit with the creation of Pandæmonium and his allusion to Solomon's temple. In the beginning of Paradise Lost
Paradise Lost
and throughout the poem, there are several references to the rise and eventual fall of Solomon's temple. Critics elucidate that " Solomon's temple
Solomon's temple
provides an explicit demonstration of how an artefact moves from its genesis in devotional practice to an idolatrous end."[34] This example, out of the many presented, distinctly conveys Milton's views on the dangers of idolatry. Even if one builds a structure in the name of God, the best of intentions can become immoral in idolatry. Further, critics have drawn parallels between both Pandemonium and Saint Peter's Basilica,[citation needed] and the Pantheon. The majority of these similarities revolve around a structural likeness, but as Lyle explains, they play a greater role. By linking Saint Peter's Basilica
Saint Peter's Basilica
and the Pantheon to Pandemonium—an ideally false structure—the two famous buildings take on a false meaning.[35] This comparison best represents Milton's Protestant views, as it rejects both the purely Catholic perspective and the Pagan perspective. In addition to rejecting Catholicism, Milton revolted against the idea of a monarch ruling by divine right. He saw the practice as idolatrous. Barbara Lewalski concludes that the theme of idolatry in Paradise Lost
Paradise Lost
"is an exaggerated version of the idolatry Milton had long associated with the Stuart ideology of divine kingship".[36] In the opinion of Milton, any object, human or non-human, that receives special attention befitting of God, is considered idolatrous. Interpretation and criticism[edit]

The Creation of Man, engraving from the 1688 edition, by John Baptist Medina.

The writer and critic Samuel Johnson
Samuel Johnson
wrote that Paradise Lost
Paradise Lost
shows off "[Milton's] peculiar power to astonish" and that "[Milton] seems to have been well acquainted with his own genius, and to know what it was that Nature had bestowed upon him more bountifully than upon others: the power of displaying the vast, illuminating the splendid, enforcing the awful, darkening the gloomy, and aggravating the dreadful."[37] Milton scholar John Leonard interpreted the "impious war" between Heaven and Hell
Hell
as civil war :[38][page needed]

Paradise Lost
Paradise Lost
is, among other things, a poem about civil war. Satan raises 'impious war in Heav'n' (i 43) by leading a third of the angels in revolt against God. The term 'impious war' implies that civil war is impious. But Milton applauded the English people for having the courage to depose and execute King Charles I. In his poem, however, he takes the side of 'Heav'n's awful Monarch' (iv 960). Critics have long wrestled with the question of why an antimonarchist and defender of regicide should have chosen a subject that obliged him to defend monarchical authority

The editors at the Poetry Foundation argue that Milton's criticism of the English monarchy was being directed specifically at the Stuart monarchy and not at the monarchy system in general.[39] In a similar vein, critic and writer C.S. Lewis
C.S. Lewis
argued that there was no contradiction in Milton's position in the poem since "Milton believed that God was his 'natural superior' and that Charles Stuart was not." Lewis interpreted the poem as a genuine Christian morality tale.[40][page needed] Other critics, like William Empson, view it as a more ambiguous work, with Milton's complex characterization of Satan
Satan
playing a large part in that perceived ambiguity.[40][page needed] Empson argued that "Milton deserves credit for making God wicked, since the God of Christianity is 'a wicked God.'" Leonard places Empson's interpretation "in the [Romantic interpretive] tradition of William Blake
William Blake
and Percy Bysshe Shelley."[38][page needed] Blake famously wrote, "The reason Milton wrote in fetters when he wrote of Angels & God, and at liberty when of Devils & Hell, is because he was a true Poet and of the Devil's party without knowing it."[41] This quotation succinctly represents the way in which the 18th- and 19th-century English Romantic poets viewed Milton. Empson's view is more complex. Leonard points out that "Empson never denies that Satan's plan is wicked. What he does deny is that God is innocent of its wickedness: 'Milton steadily drives home that the inmost counsel of God was the Fortunate Fall of man; however wicked Satan's plan may be, it is God's plan too [since God in Paradise Lost is depicted as being both omniscient and omnipotent].'"[38][page needed] Leonard calls Empson's view "a powerful argument", he notes that this interpretation was challenged by Dennis Danielson in his book Milton's Good God (1982).[38][page needed] Iconography[edit] See also: William Blake's illustrations of Paradise Lost

In Sin, Death and the Devil (1792), James Gillray
James Gillray
caricatured the political battle between Pitt and Thurlow as a scene from Paradise Lost. Pitt is Death and Thurlow Satan, with Queen Charlotte as Sin
Sin
in the middle.

The first illustrations to accompany the text of Paradise Lost
Paradise Lost
were added to the fourth edition of 1688, with one engraving prefacing each book, of which up to eight of the twelve were by Sir John Baptist Medina, one by Bernard Lens II, and perhaps up to four (including Books I and XII, perhaps the most memorable) by another hand.[42] The engraver was Michael Burghers
Michael Burghers
(not 'Burgesse' as given in the Christ's College website). By 1730 the same images had been re-engraved on a smaller scale by Paul Fourdrinier. Some of the most notable illustrators of Paradise Lost
Paradise Lost
included William Blake, Gustave Doré
Gustave Doré
and Henry Fuseli. However, the epic's illustrators also include John Martin, Edward Francis Burney, Richard Westall, Francis Hayman, and many others. Outside of book illustrations, the epic has also inspired other visual works by well-known painters like Salvador Dalí
Salvador Dalí
who executed a set of ten colour engravings in 1974.[43] Milton's achievement in writing Paradise Lost
Paradise Lost
while blind (he dictated to helpers) inspired loosely biographical paintings by both Fuseli[44] and Eugène Delacroix.[45] See also[edit]

Paradise Lost
Paradise Lost
in popular culture John Milton's poetic style Paradise Regained Visio Tnugdali Prince of Darkness (Satan)

Footnotes[edit]

^ Milton, John (1674). Paradise Lost; A Poem in Twelve Books (II ed.). London: S. Simmons. Retrieved 8 January 2017 – via Internet Archive.  ^ "Paradise Lost: Introduction". Dartmouth College. Retrieved 26 March 2010.  ^ Poetry Foundation Bio on Milton ^ John Milton. Paradise Lost, Book I, l. 26. 1667. Hosted by Dartmouth. Accessed 13 December 2013. ^ Milton 1674, 1:26. ^ Milton's original line read "...justifie the wayes of God to men."[4][5] ^ a b c Leonard 2000, p. xii. ^ Leonard 2000, p. xiii. ^ Broadbent 1972, p. 54. ^ Forsythe, Neil (2002). The Satanic Epic. Princeton University.  ^ Abrahm, M.H., Stephen Greenblatt, Eds. The Norton Anthology of English Literature. New York: Norton, 2000. ^ Teskey, Gordon (2005). "Introduction". Paradise Lost: A Norton Critical Edition. New York: Norton. pp. xxvii–xxviii. ISBN 978-0393924282.  ^ Milton 1674, 5:860. ^ Milton 1674, 5:794–802. ^ McCollom, William G. ―The Downfall of the Tragic Hero.‖ College English 19.2 (1957): 51- 56. ^ a b (Taha, Ibrahim. "Heroism In Literature." The American Journal of Semiotics18.1/4 (2002): 107-26. Philosophy Document Center. Web. 12 Nov. 2014) ^ Taha, Ibrahim. "Heroism In Literature." The American Journal of Semiotics18.1/4 (2002): 107-26. Philosophy Document Center. Web. 12 Nov. 2014 ^ a b Steadman, John M. " Heroic
Heroic
Virtue and the Divine Image in Paradise Lost. "Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 22.1/2 (1959): pp. 89 ^ a b Steadman, John M. " Heroic
Heroic
Virtue and the Divine Image in Paradise Lost. "Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 22.1/2 (1959): pp. 90 ^ Milton, John. Paradise Lost. The Norton Anthology of English Literature. 9th ed. Vol. B. New York ; London: W.W. Norton, 2012. 1950. Print. ^ Rebhorn, Wayne A. "The Humanist Tradition and Milton's Satan: The Conservative as Revolutionary". Studies in English Literature, 1500-1900, Vol. 13, No. 1, The English Renaissance (Winter 1973), pp. 81-93. Print. ^ Marshall 1961, p. 17 ^ Milton 1674, 12:310-314 ^ Lehnhof 2008, p. 15. ^ Milton 1674, 4:42–43. ^ Lehnhof 2008, p. 24. ^ Van Nuis 2000, p. 50. ^ a b Mikics 2004, p. 22. ^ https://muse.jhu.edu/article/52299 ^ Biberman 1999, p. 137. ^ Milton 1674, Book 11. ^ Lyle 2000, p. 139. ^ a b Harding 2007, p. 163. ^ Lyle 2000, p. 140. ^ Lyle 2000, p. 147. ^ Lewalski 2003, p. 223. ^ Johnson, Samuel. Lives of the English Poets. New York: Octagon, 1967. ^ a b c d Leonard, John. "Introduction." Paradise Lost. New York: Penguin, 2000. ^ Poetry Foundation bio on Milton ^ a b Leonard, John. "Introduction". Paradise Lost. New York: Penguin, 2000. ^ Blake, William. The Marriage of Heaven and Hell. 1793. ^ Illustrating Paradise Lost
Paradise Lost
Archived 1 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine. from Christ's College, Cambridge, has all twelve on line. See Medina's article for more on the authorship, and all the illustrations, which are also in Commons. ^ Lockport Street Gallery. Retrieved on 2013-12-13. ^ Art Institute of Chicago. Retrieved on 2013-12-13. ^ WikiPaintings. Retrieved on 2013-12-13.

References[edit]

Anderson, G (January 2000), "The Fall of Satan
Satan
in the Thought of St. Ephrem and John Milton", Hugoye: Journal of Syriac Studies, 3 (1), archived from the original on 26 February 2008  Biberman, M (January 1999), "Milton, Marriage, and a Woman's Right to Divorce", SEL: Studies in English Literature, 39 (1): 131–153, doi:10.2307/1556309, JSTOR 1556309  Black, J, ed. (March 2007), "Paradise Lost", The Broadview Anthology of British Literature, A (Concise ed.), Peterborough, Ontario: Broadview Press, pp. 998–1061, ISBN 978-1-55111-868-0, OCLC 75811389  Blake, W. (1793), The Marriage of Heaven and Hell, London . Blayney, B, ed. (1769), The King James Bible, Oxford: Oxford University Press  Bradford, R (July 1992), Paradise Lost
Paradise Lost
(1st ed.), Philadelphia: Open University Press, ISBN 978-0-335-09982-5, OCLC 25050319  Broadbent, John (1972), Paradise Lost: Introduction, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9780521096393  Butler, G (February 1998), "Giants and Fallen Angels in Dante and Milton: The Commedia and the Gigantomachy in Paradise Lost", Modern Philosophy, 95 (3): 352–363  Carter, R. and McRae, J. (2001). The Routledge History of Literature in English: Britain and Ireland. 2 ed. Oxon: Routledge. Carey, J; Fowler, A (1971), The Poems of John Milton, London  Doerksen, D (December 1997), "Let There Be Peace': Eve
Eve
as Redemptive Peacemaker in Paradise Lost, Book X", Milton Quarterly, 32 (4): 124–130, doi:10.1111/j.1094-348X.1997.tb00499.x  Eliot, T.S. (1957), On Poetry and Poets, London: Faber and Faber  Eliot, T. S. (1932), "Dante", Selected Essays, New York: Faber and Faber, OCLC 70714546 . Empson, W (1965), Milton's God (Revised ed.), London  John Milton: A Short Introduction (2002 ed., paperback by Roy C. Flannagan, Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, ISBN 978-0-631-22620-8; 2008 ed., ebook by Roy Flannagan, Massachusetts: Wiley-Blackwell, ISBN 978-0-470-69287-5) Forsyth, N (2003), The Satanic Epic, Princeton: Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-11339-5  Frye, N (1965), The Return of Eden: Five Essays on Milton's Epics, Toronto: University of Toronto Press  Harding, P (January 2007), "Milton's Serpent and the Pagan Birth of Error", SEL: Studies in English Literature, 47 (1): 161–177, doi:10.1353/sel.2007.0003  Hill, G (1905), Lynch, Jack, ed., Samuel Johnson: The Lives of the English Poets, 3 vols, Oxford: Clarendon, OCLC 69137084  Kermode, F, ed. (1960), The Living Milton: Essays by Various Hands, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, ISBN 0-7100-1666-2, OCLC 17518893  Kerrigan, W, ed. (2007), The Complete Poetry and Essential Prose of John Milton, New York: Random House, ISBN 978-0-679-64253-4, OCLC 81940956  Lehnhof, K. (Summer 2004), " Paradise Lost
Paradise Lost
and the Concept of Creation", South Central Review, 21 (2): 15–41, doi:10.1353/scr.2004.0021  Leonard, John (2000), "Introduction", in Milton, John, Paradise Lost, New York: Penguin, ISBN 9780140424393  Lewalski, B. (January 2003), "Milton and Idolatry", SEL: Studies in English Literature, 43 (1): 213–232, doi:10.1353/sel.2003.0008  Lewis, C.S. (1942), A Preface to Paradise Lost, London: Oxford University Press, OCLC 822692  Lyle, J (January 2000), "Architecture and Idolatry
Idolatry
in Paradise Lost", SEL: Studies in English Literature, 40 (1): 139–155, doi:10.2307/1556158, JSTOR 1556158  Marshall, W. H. (January 1961), "Paradise Lost: Felix Culpa and the Problem of Structure", Modern Language Notes, 76 (1): 15–20, doi:10.2307/3040476, JSTOR 3040476  Mikics, D (2004), "Miltonic Marriage and the Challenge to History in Paradise Lost", Texas Studies in Literature and Language, 46 (1): 20–48, doi:10.1353/tsl.2004.0005  Miller, T.C., ed. (1997), The Critical Response to John Milton's "Paradise Lost", Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 978-0-313-28926-2, OCLC 35762631  Milton, J (1674), Paradise Lost
Paradise Lost
(2nd ed.), London: S. Simmons  Rajan, B (1947), Paradise Lost
Paradise Lost
and the Seventeenth Century Reader, London: Chatto & Windus, OCLC 62931344  Ricks, C.B. (1963), Milton's Grand Style, Oxford: Clarendon Press, OCLC 254429  Stone, J.W. (May 1997), ""Man's effeminate s(lack)ness:" Androgyny and the Divided Unity of Adam
Adam
and Eve", Milton Quarterly, 31 (2): 33–42, doi:10.1111/j.1094-348X.1997.tb00491.x  Van Nuis, H (May 2000), "Animated Eve
Eve
Confronting Her Animus: A Jungian Approach to the Division of Labor Debate in Paradise Lost", Milton Quarterly, 34 (2): 48–56, doi:10.1111/j.1094-348X.2000.tb00619.x  Walker, Julia M. (1998), Medusa's Mirrors: Spenser, Shakespeare, Milton, and the Metamorphosis of the Female Self, University of Delaware Press, ISBN 978-0-87413-625-8  Wheat, L (2008), Philip Pullman's His dark materials—a multiple allegory : attacking religious superstition in The lion, the witch, and the wardrobe and Paradise lost, Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, ISBN 978-1-59102-589-4, OCLC 152580912 

Further reading[edit]

Patrides, C. A. Approaches to Paradise Lost: The York Tercentenary Lectures (University of Toronto, 1968) ISBN 0-8020-1577-8 Ryan J. Stark, " Paradise Lost
Paradise Lost
as Incomplete Argument," 1650—1850: Aesthetics, Ideas, and Inquiries in the Early Modern Era (2011): 3–18.

External links[edit]

Find more aboutParadise Lostat's sister projects

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Paradise Lost
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public domain audiobook at LibriVox

Online text[edit]

Paradise Lost
Paradise Lost
XHTML version at Dartmouth's Milton Reading Room Project Gutenberg text version 1 Project Gutenberg text version 2 Paradise Lost
Paradise Lost
PDF/ Ebook
Ebook
version with layout and fonts inspired by 17th century publications. paradiselost.org has the original poetry side-by-side with a translation to plain (prosaic) English

Other information[edit]

darkness visible – comprehensive site for students and others new to Milton: contexts, plot and character summaries, reading suggestions, critical history, gallery of illustrations of Paradise Lost, and much more. By students at Milton's Cambridge college, Christ's College. Selected bibliography at the Milton Reading Room – includes background, biography, criticism. Paradise Lost
Paradise Lost
learning guide, quotes, close readings, thematic analyses, character analyses, teacher resources

v t e

John Milton

Topics

Poetic style Reception history Religion Politics Early life Relationships

Poetry

Poems 1645

On the Morning of Christ's Nativity Upon the Circumcision The Passion Arcades Comus "Lycidas" "L'Allegro" "Il Penseroso"

Paradise Lost Paradise Regained Samson Agonistes Poems 1673

Antiprelatical tracts

Of Reformation Of Prelatical Episcopacy Animadversions The Reason of Church-Government Apology for Smectymnuus

Divorce tracts

Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce Judgement of Martin Bucer Concerning Divorce Tetrachordon Colasterion

Political tracts

Areopagitica The Tenure of Kings and Magistrates Eikonoklastes Defensio pro Populo Anglicano Defensio Secunda A Treatise of Civil Power The Ready and Easy Way

Other writings

Of Education The History of Britain Of True Religion

Individual sonnets

"When I Consider How My Light is Spent" "On the Late Massacre in Piedmont" "Methought I Saw my Late Espoused Saint"

Disputed

De Doctrina Christiana

Family

John Milton
John Milton
(father) Edward Phillips
Edward Phillips
(nephew) John Phillips (nephew)

v t e

John Milton's Paradise Lost

Source

Fall of man

Adaptations

William Blake's illustrations of Paradise Lost
William Blake's illustrations of Paradise Lost
(art) Paradise Lost
Paradise Lost
(opera)

Related

Paradise Lost
Paradise Lost
in popular culture Paradise Regained

Albums

Black Aria (1992) Damnation and a Day (2003) Rattle That Lock
Rattle That Lock
(2015)

Characters

Satan

Prince of Darkness

Adam Eve Son of God God the Father Raphael Michael

Places

Pandæmonium

v t e

Adam
Adam
and Eve

Source

Genesis creation narrative
Genesis creation narrative
in the Book of Genesis Adam Eve

Offspring

Cain and Abel Aclima Seth Awan Azura

Television

"Probe 7, Over and Out" (1963)

Film

Mama's Affair
Mama's Affair
(1921) Good Morning, Eve!
Good Morning, Eve!
(1934) The Broken Jug
The Broken Jug
(1937) The Original Sin
Sin
(1948) The Private Lives of Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
(1960) El pecado de Adán y Eva
El pecado de Adán y Eva
(1969) La Biblia en pasta
La Biblia en pasta
(1984) The Annunciation (1984) Adipapam
Adipapam
(1988) Adam
Adam
(1992) Man's Best Friend (1998) Babs (2000) The Last Eve
Eve
(2005) Year One (2009) The Tragedy of Man
The Tragedy of Man
(2011) Adam
Adam
and Dog (2011) Tropico (2013)

Plays

Le Jeu d' Adam
Adam
(12th century) The Broken Jug
The Broken Jug
(1808) The Tragedy of Man
The Tragedy of Man
(1861) The Creation of the World and Other Business
The Creation of the World and Other Business
(1972)

Musicals

The Apple Tree
The Apple Tree
(1966) Dude (1972) Up from Paradise
Up from Paradise
(1973) Children of Eden
Children of Eden
(1991)

Compositions

The Creation (1798)

structure

La mort d' Adam
Adam
(1809) Ève
Ève
(1875) Genesis Suite
Genesis Suite
(1945) Lilith (2001)

Literature

Apocalypse of Adam Book of Moses Book of Abraham Books of Adam Book of the Penitence of Adam Cave of Treasures "El y Ella" Genesis A
Genesis A
and Genesis B Harrowing of Hell Life of Adam
Adam
and Eve Testament of Adam Testimony of Truth
Testimony of Truth
(3rd century) Conflict of Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
with Satan
Satan
(6th century) "Old Saxon Genesis" (9th century) " Adam
Adam
lay ybounden" (15th century) Paradise Lost
Paradise Lost
(1667) Le Dernier Homme
Le Dernier Homme
(1805) Extracts from Adam's Diary
Extracts from Adam's Diary
(1904) Eve's Diary
Eve's Diary
(1905) The Book of Genesis
Book of Genesis
(2009)

Art

Bernward Doors
Bernward Doors
(1015) Tapestry of Creation
Tapestry of Creation
(11th century) Expulsion from the Garden of Eden
Garden of Eden
(1425) Vienna Diptych
Vienna Diptych
(15th century) The Last Judgment (1482) The Garden of Earthly Delights
The Garden of Earthly Delights
(1504) Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
(1507) Paradise and Hell
Hell
(1510) The Creation of Adam
Adam
(1512) The Haywain Triptych
The Haywain Triptych
(1516) Eve, the Serpent and Death
Eve, the Serpent and Death
(1510s or 1520s) Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
(1528) The Fall of Man
Fall of Man
(1550) Maps of ancient Israel The Garden of Eden
Garden of Eden
with the Fall of Man
Fall of Man
(1617) The Fall of Man
Fall of Man
(1628) The Four Seasons (1660s) The Koren Picture-Bible (1692–1696) The First Mourning
The First Mourning
(1888) Eve
Eve
(1931) Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
(1932) The Serpent Chooses Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
(1958) Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
(1992)

Songs

"Dese Bones G'wine Rise Again" "Adam-ondi-Ahman" (1835) "Forbidden Fruit" (1915) "The Garden of Eden" (1956) "Let's Give Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
Another Chance" (1970) "Man Gave Names to All the Animals" (1979)

Albums

The Cainian Chronicle
The Cainian Chronicle
(1996) Visions of Eden
Visions of Eden
(2006)

Other cultures

Adam–God doctrine Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
(LDS Church) Adam
Adam
in Islam Adam
Adam
in rabbinic literature Al-A'raf Book of Moses Endowment Manu (Hinduism) Mashya and Mashyana Serpent seed Tree of Jiva and Atman Tree of life (Quran) Our Lady of Endor Coven

Geography

Adam-ondi-Ahman Tomb of Eve

Biology

Mitochondrial Eve Y-chromosomal Adam The Real Eve

Story within a story

Doraemon: Nobita's Diary of the Creation of the World Island of Love The Visitors

Games

Demon: The Fallen (2002)

Related theology

Fall of man Original sin Garden of Eden Tree of the knowledge of good and evil Serpents in the Bible Forbidden fruit

Apple Fig leaf

Figs in the Bible Adam's ale Adamic language Rosh Hashanah Camael Shamsiel Tree of life Allegorical interpretations of Genesis

Other

Pre-Adamite Generations of Adam Cave of the Patriarchs "In-A-Gadda-Da-Leela" "Simpsons Bible Stories" Second Time Lucky Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
cylinder seal Timeline of Genesis patriarchs Genealogies of Genesis Carnal knowledge Legend of the Rood

Ystorya Adaf

Snakes for the Divine Ransom theory of atonement

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 314808661 LCCN: n85227530 GND: 4114602-5 SUDOC: 027329607 BNF: cb11939532n (data) NLA: 35354

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