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Papiamento
Papiamento
(English: /ˌpɑːpiəˈmɛntoʊ, ˌpæp-/)[4] or Papiamentu (English: /-ˈmɛntuː/) is a Portuguese-based creole language spoken in the Dutch West Indies. It is the most-widely spoken language on the Caribbean
Caribbean
ABC islands, having official status in Aruba and Curaçao. The language is also recognized in Bonaire
Bonaire
by the Dutch government.[2] Papiamento
Papiamento
is based largely on Portuguese language
Portuguese language
with some elements of grammar and vocabulary deriving from African languages, a strong influence from Spanish,[5] and some vocabulary from Indigenous American languages, as well as English, and Dutch.[6] There is some degree of mutual intelligibility with both Portuguese and Spanish.[7]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Local development theory 1.2 European and African origin theory 1.3 Linguistic and historical ties with Upper Guinea Portuguese Creole 1.4 Present status

2 Distribution and dialects 3 Phonology

3.1 Vowels and diphthongs 3.2 Stress and tone

4 Lexicon

4.1 Vocabulary 4.2 Dictionaries 4.3 Grammar

5 Writing system 6 Examples

6.1 Phrase samples 6.2 Expressions

7 Comparison of vocabularies 8 See also 9 References 10 Bibliography 11 External links and further reading

History[edit]

Burial site and monument to Doctor Moises Frumencio da Costa Gomez, first prime minister of the Netherlands
Netherlands
Antilles, with a message enscribed in Papiamento: "No hasi ku otro loke bo no ke pa otro hasi ku bo", roughly meaning: "Do unto others as you would have others do unto you.”

The precise historical origins of Papiamento
Papiamento
have not been established. Historical constraints, core vocabulary and grammatical features that Papiamento
Papiamento
shares with Cape Verdean Creole
Cape Verdean Creole
suggest that the basic ingredients are Portuguese,[8] and that other influences occurred at a later time (17th and 18th centuries, respectively). Its parent language is Iberian for sure, but scholars dispute whether Papiamento
Papiamento
is derived from Portuguese or from Spanish. A summary of the century-long debate on Papiamento's origins is provided in Jacobs (2009a).[9] The name of the language itself comes from papia, pap(e)o or pap(e)ar ("to chat", "to talk"), a word present in Portuguese (um papo, "a chat") and colloquial Spanish; compare with Papiá Kristang ("Christian talk"), a Portuguese-based creole
Portuguese-based creole
of Malaysia
Malaysia
and Singapore, alternate term for Macanese Patois
Macanese Patois
called Papia Cristam di Macau ("Christian speech of Macau"), and the Cape Verdean Creole
Cape Verdean Creole
word papiâ ("to talk"), or elsewhere in the Caribbean
Caribbean
(Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Cuba) papear[10]—"to talk excessively" (and without sense) or "to stutter" (but also, "to eat" or "food". Castilian Spanish
Castilian Spanish
papeo,[11] Portuguese papar is a children's term for "to eat"). Spain claimed dominion over the islands in the 15th century, but made little use of them after the Spanish defeat to the Netherlands
Netherlands
as a result of Eighty Years' War. Portuguese merchants had been trading extensively in the West Indies, and with the Union with Castille, this trade extended to the Castillian West Indies, as the Spanish kings favoured the free movement of people. In 1634, the Dutch West India Company (WIC) took possession of the islands, deporting most of the small remaining Arawak and Spanish population to the continent, and turned them into the hub of the Dutch slave trade between Africa and the Caribbean. The first evidence of widespread use of Papiamento
Papiamento
in Aruba
Aruba
can be seen through the Curaçao
Curaçao
official documents in the early 18th century. In the 19th century, most materials in the islands were written in Papiamento
Papiamento
including Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
schoolbooks and hymnals. The first Papiamento
Papiamento
newspaper was published in 1871 and titled Civilisado (The Civilized). Civilizado (stress on /za/) is Spanish and Portuguese for "civilized" but can also be understood as having a suppressed final "r" from the word civilizador (stress on /do/) ("civilizer"). An outline of the competing theories is provided below. Local development theory[edit]

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There are various local development theories. One such theory proposes that Papiamento
Papiamento
developed in the Caribbean
Caribbean
from an original Portuguese-African pidgin used for communication between African slaves and Portuguese slavetraders, with later Dutch and Spanish (and even some Arawak) influences. Another theory is that Papiamento
Papiamento
first evolved from the use in this region since 1499 of 'lenguas' and the first Repopulation of the ABC islands by the Spanish by the Cédula real decreed in November 1525, in which Juan Martinez de Ampués, factor of Española, had been granted the right to repopulate the depopulated Islas inútiles of Oroba, Islas de los Gigantes and Buon Aire. Columbus took ten natives back to Europe precisely so that they could acquire knowledge of the Spanish language
Spanish language
and culture, a policy he maintained throughout future voyages. On his return to America, Columbus was accompanied by two interpreters ('lenguas', literally, 'tongues'), Alonso de Cáceres and a young boy from Guanahani (the Bahamas) who was given the name Diego Colón. Subsequent expeditions followed the same pattern. In 1499 Alonso de Ojeda, Juan de la Cosa and Amerigo Vespuccio took captives to serve as lenguas. Ojeda actually married his native interpreter and guide, Isabel.[12] The evolution of Papiamento
Papiamento
continued under the Dutch Colonization under the influence of the 16th century 'Dutch'/European/Native American (ABC islands) and 'Portuguese'/Native American (Brazilian) languages with the second Repopulation of these ABC islands under Peter Stuyvesant, who arrived here from the ex-Dutch Brazilian colonies. The Judaeo-Portuguese population of the ABC islands increased substantially after 1654, when the Portuguese recovered the Dutch-held territories in Northeast Brazil – causing most of the Portuguese-speaking Jews and their Portuguese-speaking Dutch allies and Dutch-speaking Portuguese Brazilian allies in those lands to flee from religious persecution. The precise role of Sephardic Jews in the early development is unclear, but it is certain[citation needed] that Jews played a prominent role in the later development of Papiamento. Many early residents of Curaçao
Curaçao
were Sephardic Jews either from Portugal, Spain, or Portuguese Brazil. Therefore, it can be assumed[citation needed] that Judaeo-Spanish
Judaeo-Spanish
was brought to the island of Curaçao, where it gradually spread to other parts of the community. As the Jewish community became the prime merchants and traders in the area, business and everyday trading was conducted in Papiamento
Papiamento
with some Ladino influences. While various nations owned the island and official languages changed with ownership, Papiamento became the constant language of the residents. When Netherlands
Netherlands
opened economic ties with Spanish colonies in what are now Venezuela and Colombia in the 18th century [13] that the students on Curaçao, Aruba, and Bonaire
Bonaire
were taught predominantly in Spanish, Spanish began to influence the creole language.[5][6] Influence of English dates to the early 19th century, when the British took Curaçao, Aruba, and Bonaire
Bonaire
until after Dutch rule resumed in 1815.[13] Because of this, during the 18th and 19th centuries, Spanish, English, and French were very important languages for the colonial elites, who for the most part did not use the Dutch language. Since there was a continuous Latinization process (Hoetink, 1987), even the elite Dutch-Protestant settlers eventually served better in Spanish than in Dutch. A wealth of local Spanish-language publications in the nineteenth century testify to this. It has recently been discovered that a small group on the Venezuelan Paraguaná peninsula speaks a variant of Papiamento. Some researchers claim that the Papiamentu that originated in Curaçao via Venezuela ended up on Aruba
Aruba
and that that is why the Aruban dialect of Papiamento
Papiamento
sounds more like Spanish in terms of sound and vocabulary. European and African origin theory[edit] Peter Stuyvesant's appointment to the ABC islands followed his service in Brazil. He brought Indians, soldiers, etc. from Brazil to Curaçao as well as to New Netherland. In Stuyvesant's Resolution Book, document #4b in the Curaçao
Curaçao
Papers presents the multi-ethnic makeup of the garrison and the use of local Indians as cowboys: "... whereas the number of Indians, together with those of Aruba
Aruba
and Bonnairo, have increased here by half, and we have learned that they frequently ride ..." They communicated with each other in 'Papiamento' a language originating when the first Europeans began to arrive on these islands under Ojeda, Juan de Ampues, Bejarano and mixing with the natives. Stuyvesant also took some Esopus Indians captives in New Netherland and brought them as slaves to Curaçao. There was little Dutch government activity in the management of DWI because during the period 1568–1648, they were actively fighting for their independence and were not in a position to manage their colonies. A more recent theory holds that the origins of Papiamento
Papiamento
lie in the Afro-Portuguese creoles that arose almost a century earlier, in the west coast of Africa and in the Portuguese Cape Verde
Portuguese Cape Verde
islands. From the 16th to the late 17th century, most of the slaves taken to the Caribbean
Caribbean
came from Portuguese trading posts ("factories") in those regions. Around those ports there developed several Portuguese-African pidgins and creoles, such as Guinea-Bissau Creole, Mina, Cape Verdean Creole, Angolar, and Guene. The latter bears strong resemblances to Papiamento. According to this theory, Papiamento
Papiamento
was derived from those pre-existing pidgins/creoles, especially Guene, which were brought to the ABC islands by slaves and/or traders from Cape Verde and West Africa.[14] Some specifically claim that the Afro-Portuguese mother language of Papiamento
Papiamento
arose from a mixture of the Mina pidgin/creole (a mixture of Cape Verdean pidgin/creole with Twi) and the Angolar creole (derived from languages of Angola and Congo). Proponents of this theory of Papiamento
Papiamento
contend that it can easily be compared and linked with other Portuguese creoles, especially the African ones (namely Forro, Guinea-Bissau Creole, and the Cape Verdean Creole). For instance, compare mi ("I" in Cape Verdean Creole
Cape Verdean Creole
and Papiamento) or bo (meaning you in both creoles). Mi is from the Portuguese mim (pronounced [mĩ]) "me", and bo is from Portuguese vós "you".[15] The use of "b" instead of "v" is very common in the African Portuguese Creoles (probably deriving from the pronunciation of Portuguese settlers in Africa, numerous from Northern Portugal). However, because of the similarities between Portuguese and Spanish, it can also be argued that these two words derive from Spanish "mi" and "vos" (usually pronounced bos). Papiamento
Papiamento
is, in some degree, intelligible with Cape Verdean creoles and could be explained by the immigration of Portuguese Sephardic Jews from Cape Verde to these Caribbean
Caribbean
islands, although this same fact could also be used by dissenters to explain a later Portuguese influence on an already existing Spanish-based creole.[16] Another comparison is the use of the verb ta and taba ta from vernacular Portuguese tá (an aphesis of estar, "to be" or está, "it is") with verbs where Portuguese does and with others where it does not use it: "Mi ta + verb" or "Mi taba ta + verb", also the rule in the São Vicente Creole and other Barlavento Cape Verdean Creoles. These issues can also be seen in other Portuguese Creoles (Martinus 1996; see also Fouse 2002 and McWhorter 2000), but some are also found in colloquial Spanish. Linguistic and historical ties with Upper Guinea Portuguese Creole[edit] Current research on the origins of Papiamento
Papiamento
focuses specifically on the linguistic and historical relationships between Papiamento
Papiamento
and Upper Guinea Portuguese Creole as spoken on the Santiago island of Cape Verde and in Guinea-Bissau and Casamance. Elaborating on comparisons done by Martinus (1996) and Quint (2000),[17] Jacobs (2008,[18] 2009a, 2009b[19]) defends the hypothesis that Papiamento
Papiamento
is a relexified offshoot of an early Upper Guinea Portuguese Creole variety, transferred from Senegambia to Curaçao
Curaçao
in the second half of the 17th century, a period in which the Dutch controlled the harbour of Gorée, just below the tip of the Cape Verde Peninsula. On Curaçao, this variety underwent internal changes as well as contact-induced changes at all levels of the grammar (though particularly in the lexicon) due to contact with Spanish and, to a lesser extent, Dutch as well as with a variety of Kwa and Bantu languages. These changes notwithstanding, the morpho-syntactic framework of Papiamento
Papiamento
is still remarkably close to that of the Upper Guinea Creoles of Cape Verde and Guinea-Bissau/Casamance. Present status[edit] Many Papiamento
Papiamento
speakers are multilingual and are also able to speak Dutch, English and Spanish. Papiamento
Papiamento
has been an official language of Aruba
Aruba
since May, 2003.[20] In the former Netherlands
Netherlands
Antilles (which at the time comprised Bonaire, Curaçao, Saba, Sint Eustatius and Sint Maarten) Papiamento
Papiamento
was made an official language on March 7, 2007.[21] After its dissolution, the language's official status was confirmed in the newly formed Caribbean Netherlands
Caribbean Netherlands
(part of the Netherlands
Netherlands
proper, and compromising Bonaire, Saba
Saba
and Sint Eustatius),[22] until January 1, 2011; since then, Bonaire
Bonaire
is the only portion of the Caribbean Netherlands
Caribbean Netherlands
in which it is recognized.[2] Papiamento
Papiamento
is also spoken elsewhere in the Netherlands, particularly on Saba
Saba
and Sint Eustatius, and on St. Maarten, by immigrants from Aruba, Bonaire
Bonaire
and Curaçao. Venezuelan Spanish
Venezuelan Spanish
and American English
American English
are constant influences today. Code-switching and lexical borrowing between Papiamento, Spanish, Dutch and English among native speakers is common. This is perceived as a threat to the further development of Papiamento
Papiamento
due to a language ideology that is committed to preserving the authentic African or Creole "feel" of Papiamento. Distribution and dialects[edit] Papiamento
Papiamento
has two main dialects, one in Aruba
Aruba
and one in Bonaire
Bonaire
and Curaçao, with lexical and intonational differences.[23] There are also minor differences between Curaçao
Curaçao
and Bonaire. Spoken (Aruban) Papiamento
Papiamento
sounds much more like Spanish. The most apparent difference between the two dialects is given away in the name difference. Whereas Bonaire
Bonaire
and Curaçao
Curaçao
opted for a phonology-based spelling, Aruba
Aruba
uses an etymology-based spelling. Many words in Aruba end with "o" while that same word ends with "u" in Bonaire
Bonaire
and Curaçao. And even in Curaçao, the use of the u-ending is still more pronounced among the Sephardic Jewish population. Similarly, there is also a difference between the usage of "k" in Bonaire
Bonaire
and Curaçao
Curaçao
and "c" in Aruba. For example:

English Papiamento Papiamentu Portuguese Spanish

Stick Palo Palu Pau Palo

House Cas Kas Casa Casa

Knife Cuchiu Kuchu Faca Cuchillo

Phonology[edit] Vowels and diphthongs[edit] Most Papiamento
Papiamento
vowels are based on Ibero-Romance vowels, but some are also based on Dutch vowels like : ee /eː/, ui /œy/, ie /i/, oe /u/, ij/ei /ɛi/, oo /oː/, and aa /aː/.[citation needed] Papiamento
Papiamento
has the following nine vowels.[24] The orthography (writing system) of Curaçao
Curaçao
has one symbol for each vowel.

IPA Curaçao
Curaçao
orthography Aruba
Aruba
orthography

a a in kana a in cana (= walk)

e e in sker, nechi e in scheur (= to rip, Dutch: scheuren)

ɛ è in skèr, nèchi e in sker (= scissors, Dutch: schaar)

i i in chikí i in chikito (= small)

o o in bonchi, doló o in dolor (= pain)

ɔ ò in bònchi, dòler o in dollar (= currency)

u u in kunuku u in cunucu (= farm)

ø ù in brùg u in brug (= bridge, Dutch: brug)

y ü in hür uu in huur (= rent, Dutch: huur)

There are dialects that exist in the island itself. An example is the Aruban word, "dolor" ("pain"), which is the same in Curaçao's version, but written differently. The R is silent in certain parts of the island. It is also written without the R.

In addition to the vowels listed above, schwa also occurs in Papiamento. The letter e is pronounced as schwa in the final unstressed syllables of words such as agradabel and komader.[25] Other vowels in unstressed syllables can become somewhat centralized (schwa-like) in rapid casual speech. Stress and tone[edit] Polysyllabic words that end in vowels are stressed on the next-to-last syllable; most words ending in consonants are stressed on the final syllable. There are exceptions. When a word deviates from these rules, the stressed vowel should be indicated by an acute accent mark. The accent marks are often omitted in casual writing.[26] Papiamento
Papiamento
words have distinct tone patterns. According to recent linguistic research, there are two classes of words: those that typically have rising pitch on the stressed syllable, and those that typically have falling pitch on the stressed syllable.[27] The latter category includes most of the two-syllable verbs in the language. Any given word's tone contours may change depending on discursive factors such as whether the sentence is affirmative, interrogative, or imperative.[28] Altering tone in Papiamento
Papiamento
can distinguish meaning and grammatical function: compare noun 'para' (PA-ra: bird) with verb 'para' (pa-RA:stand or stop)[clarification needed] Independently from tone, stress can also be altered: compare 'pa-ra' (stand or stop) with 'pa-ra' (stopped or standing). Papiamento/u uses prosodic accent. Tone (with stress) is largely dependent on the grammatical function of the word in sentence. Compare:

word(s) meaning grammatical functions stress pattern accent pattern

kini-kini falcon noun substantive ki-ni-ki-ni kini-KI-ni (low-x-high-x)

divi-divi Caesalpinia coriaria
Caesalpinia coriaria
tree noun substantive di-vi-di-vi divi-DI-vi (low-x-high-x)

blanku blanku "snowwhite" (emphatic doubling) adjective blan-ku blan-ku BLAN-ku blanku (high-x-low-x)

palu haltu tree+high 'tall tree' noun substantive+adjective pa-lu hal-tu PA-lu haltu (high-x-low-x)

poko-poko slow/calm adverb po-ko po-ko PO-ko poko (high-x-low-x)

bira ront turn+round (to) turn around verb+adverb bi-ra ront bira RONT (low-x-high-x)

masha bon very+good adverb+adjective masha bon masha BON (low-x-high)

The following are the grammatical rules of Papiamento
Papiamento
intonation: -Verbs usually have rising tone; a following adverb receives high intonation (ex. 'bira RONT:' turn around). -Nouns (substantives) and adjectives usually have falling tone, a following adjective receives low intonation (ex. 'PA-lu haltu:' tall tree). -In words of more than three syllables, grammatical tone or accent will fall on the last stressed syllable. The first stressed syllable receives the opposite tone for contrast: compare noun 'kini-kini' (kini-KI-ni): falcon with adverb 'poko-poko' (PO-ko-poko): slowly. -An adverb has rising tone, so a following adjective receives high tone (ex. 'masha BON' very good). !!! – The adverbs 'bon' (good) and 'mal' (bad), even though they are adjectives, in grammar will always have adverbial, rising tone character (ex. 'bon ha-SI:' well-done). They will always behave like adverbs, even when they qualify nouns (ex. 'bon DI-a:' good day). They behave like adverbs even when doubled for emphasis ('bon-BON:' very good). (Note: in all above examples, primary stress remains on the second word, while secondary stress remains on the first word, independently of tone changes. It is thus more accurate to transcribe 'PA-lu hal-tu' and 'bira RONT', with bold typing indicating stress and CAPITAL LETTERS indicating high tone syllables. Unstressed syllables' tone is dependent on contact syllables.) -The particle of negation 'no' always receives rising tone: the following verb is inevitably raised in pitch: compare 'mi ta PA-pia' (I speak) and 'mi no TA PA-pia' (I do not speak). This negating pitch-raise is crucial and is retained even after contraction of the particle in informal speech: 'mi'n TA papia' ("I don't speak") It is theorized that the unusual presence of both stress and tone in Papiamento
Papiamento
is an inheritance of African languages (which use tone) and Portuguese (which has stress) Lexicon[edit] Vocabulary[edit] Most of the vocabulary is derived from Spanish and Portuguese and most of the time the real origin is unknown due to the great similarity between the two Iberian languages and the adaptations required by Papiamento. A list of 207 basic Papiamento
Papiamento
words can be found in the standard Swadesh list.[29] Linguistic studies have shown that roughly two thirds of the words in Papiamento's present vocabulary are of Iberian origin, a quarter are of Dutch origin, some of Native American origin, and the rest come from other tongues. A recent study by Buurt & Joubert inventoried several hundred words of indigenous Arawak origins.[30] Examples of words of Iberian and Roman, Latin origin, which are impossible to label as either Portuguese or Spanish:

por fabor/sea asina di = please – Spanish/Portuguese, por favor señora = mrs, madam – Spanish, señora; Portuguese, senhora; kuá? = which? Spanish, ¿Cuál?; Portuguese, Qual?; Kuantu? = how much? – Spanish, ¿Cuánto?; Portuguese, Quanto?;

While the presence of word-final /u/ can easily be traced to Portuguese, the diphthongization of some vowels is characteristic of Spanish. The use of /b/ (rather than /v/) is difficult to interpret; although the two are separate phonemes in standard Portuguese, they merge in the dialects of northern Portugal, just like they do in Spanish. Also, a sound-shift could have occurred in the direction of Spanish, whose influence on Papiamento
Papiamento
came later than that of Portuguese. Other words can have dual origin, and certainly dual influence. For instance: subrino (nephew): sobrinho in Portuguese, sobrino in Spanish. The pronunciation of "o" as /u/ is traceable to Portuguese, while the use of "n" instead of "nh" (IPA /ɲ/) in the ending "-no", relates to Spanish. Portuguese origin words:

barbulètè = butterfly – Portuguese, borboleta; sapatu = shoe – Spanish, zapato; Portuguese, sapato; kachó = dog – Spanish, cachorro (puppy); Portuguese, cachorro (dog or puppy); bisiña = neighbour – Spanish, vecino, vecina; Portuguese, vizinho, vizinha; galiña = chicken (hen) – Spanish, gallina; Portuguese, galinha; gai = rooster – Spanish, gallo; Portuguese, galo

The Papiamento
Papiamento
name for one of the ABC islands, Kòrsou, is derived from Portuguese word curaçao (Spanish, curación) Spanish origin words:

siudat (siudatnan) = city – Spanish, ciudad; Portuguese, cidade sombre/sinkuri = hat – Spanish, sombrero; Portuguese, chapéu karson = trousers – Spanish, pantalón or calzón; Portuguese, calção hòmber = man – Spanish, hombre; Portuguese, homem

Dutch origin words:

apel = apple – Dutch, appel blou = blue – Dutch, blauw buki = book – Dutch, boek lesa = to read – Dutch, lezen

English origin words;

bèk = back bòter = bottle

Italian origin words:

kushina = kitchen – Italian cucina; Spanish cocina; Portuguese cozinha lanterna/latern = lantern – Italian lanterna; Spanish linterna; Portuguese, lanterna

Native American words:

orkan = hurricane – Taino, hurakan; Carib, yuracan, hyoracan; Dutch, orkaan

African origin words: Dictionaries[edit]

"GUIA para los españoles hablar papiamento y viceversa: Para que los de Curazao puedan hablar espanol … (1876)

Author: N. N.; Publisher: Impr. del Comercio; Year: 1876 Possible copyright status: NOT_IN_COPYRIGHT; Language: Spanish Digitizing sponsor: Google Book from the collections of: Harvard University Collection: americana Notes: Cover-title: Guia-manual para que los españoles puedan hablar y comprender el papiamento ó patois de Curazao y vice-versa … [31]

Gerrit P Jansen en de Bastiaan Gaay Fortman, Diccionario Papiamento-Holandes, Curaçaosch Genootschap der Wetenschappen, 1945 Mansur, Jossy M. (1991) Dictionary English-Papiamento Papiamento-English. Oranjestad: Edicionnan Clasico Diario Tip Marugg Dikshonario Erotiko; a dictionary of all words with an erotic meaning used in Papiamento. Betty Ratzlaff (2008) Papiamento-Ingles, Dikshonario Bilingual e di dos edishon. Bonaire: St. Jong Bonaire Websters online Papiamento – English Dictionary

Grammar[edit]

E. R. Goilo (2000) Papiamento
Papiamento
Textbook. Oranjestad: De Wit Stores N.V.

Writing system[edit] Main article: Papiamento
Papiamento
orthography There are two orthographies: a more phonetic one in Bonaire
Bonaire
and Curaçao, and an etymological spelling used in Aruba. Examples[edit] Phrase samples[edit] NOTE: These examples are from Curaçao
Curaçao
Papiamento
Papiamento
and not from Aruban Papiamento.

Kon ta bai? or Kon ta k'e bida?: "How are you?" or "How is life?", Portuguese, Como vai?/Como está a vida?, Spanish ¿Cómo te va? ¿Cómo te va la vida? Por fabor/ Sea asina di: "Please" Portuguese/Spanish por favor Danki: "Thank you" Dutch, Dank je Ainda no: "Not yet" Portuguese Ainda não Mi (ta) stima bo: "I love you" Portuguese Eu (te) estimo (você) / Eu amo-te Laga nos ban sali!/ban sali: "Let's go out!", Spanish ¡Salgamos! Kòrda skirbi mi bèk mas lihé posibel!: "Remember to write me back as soon as possible!" Portuguese: Recorde-se de me escrever assim que for possível. Bo mama ta mashá bunita: "Your mother is very beautiful" Portuguese Tua/Sua mãe é muito bonita.

Expressions[edit]

Hopi scuma, tiki chuculati ("A lot of foam, little chocolate"): too good to be true. Eynan e porco su rabo ta krul ("That is where the pig's tail curls"): that is where the problem lies. Sopi pura ta sali salo ("Quick soup turns salty"): good things take time.

Comparison of vocabularies[edit] This section provides a comparison of the vocabularies of Portuguese, Papiamento
Papiamento
and the Portuguese creoles of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde. Spanish and Galician are also shown for contrast.

English Portuguese Bonaire
Bonaire
and Curaçao Aruba Guinea-Bissau Cape Verdean* ** Spanish Galician

Welcome Bem-vindo Bon biní Bon Bini Bô bim drito Bem-vindo*** Bienvenido Benvido

Good morning Bom dia Bon dia Bon dia Bon dia Bon dia Buenos días Bo dia

Thank you Obrigado / Obrigada Danki Danki Obrigadu Obrigadu Gracias Grazas

How are you? Como [é que] [tu] vais / [você] vai? Como está? Como estás? Kon ta bai? Con ta bay? Kumá ku bo na bai? Kumo bu sta? ¿Cómo estás? ¿Cómo te va? Como che vai?

Very good Muito bom Mashá bon Masha bon Mutu bon Mutu bon Muy bueno, Muy bien Moi ben

I am fine Eu estou bem/(bom) Mi ta bon Mi ta bon N' sta bon N sta bon (Yo) Estoy bien (Eu) estou ben

I, I am Eu, eu sou Mi, Mi ta Ami ta, Mi ta N', Mi i N, Mi e Yo, yo soy Eu, son eu

Have a nice day Passa/Passe/Tenha um bom dia Pasa un bon dia Pasa un bon dia Pasa un bon dia Pasa un bon dia Pasa/Pase/Tenga un buen día Pasa un bo dia

See you later Até logo / Até depois Te aweró/ Te despues Te aworo, Te despues N' ta odjá-u dipus N ta odjâ-u dipôs, Te lógu Te veo después/ Hasta luego Véxote despois/ Até logo

Food Comida / Vianda Kuminda Cuminda Bianda Kumida Comida Comida

Bread Pão Pan Pan Pon Pon Pan Pan

Juice Sumo (not common in Brazil) / Suco Djus Juice Sumu Sumu Zumo (common in Spain) / Jugo (common in Latin America) Zume

I like Curaçao Eu gosto de Curaçao Mi gusta Kòrsou Mi gusta Corsou, Mi gusta Korsou N' gosta di Curaçao N gosta di Curaçao Me gusta Curazao Gústame Curaçao/ Curaçao
Curaçao
gústame/Gostame Curaçao/Gosto de Curaçao

* Santiago Creole variant ** Writing system
Writing system
used in this example: ALUPEC ***Portuguese expression used in creole. See also[edit]

Afro-Latin American Creole language Joceline Clemencia Linguistics Palenquero Portuguese-based creole
Portuguese-based creole
languages Spanish-based creole languages

References[edit]

^ Papiamento
Papiamento
at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) ^ a b c Papiamento
Papiamento
can be used in relations with the Dutch government. "Invoeringswet openbare lichamen Bonaire, Sint Eustatius
Sint Eustatius
en Saba" (in Dutch). wetten.nl. Retrieved 2011-01-01.  ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Papiamento". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ Wells, John C. (2008), Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.), Longman, ISBN 978-1-4058-8118-0  ^ a b "Papiamentu language". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2018-02-24.  ^ a b Romero, Simon (2010-07-05). "Willemstad Journal: A Language Thrives in Its Caribbean
Caribbean
Home". The New York Times.  ^ Lang, George (2000). Entwisted Tongues: Comparative Creole Literatures. Rodopi. ISBN 9042007370.  ^ E.F. Martinus (1996) "The kiss of a slave. Papiamentu's West-African connections". (Unpublished PhD dissertation, University of Amsterdam) http://www.worldcat.org/title/kiss-of-a-slave-papiamentus-west-african-connections/oclc/43441602 ^ Jacobs, Bart (2009a) "The Upper Guinea Origins of Papiamento: Linguistic and Historical Evidence". Diachronica 26:3, 319–379 ^ Papear. Diccionario de la Real Academia Española. ^ Papeo. Diccionario de la Real Academia Española. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on January 24, 2011. Retrieved June 24, 2015.  ^ a b Dede pikiña ku su bisiña: Papiamentu-Nederlands en de onverwerkt verleden tijd. van Putte, Florimon., 1999. Zutphen: de Walburg Pers ^ Baptista, Marlyse (2009). On the development of nominal and verbal morphology in four lusophone creoles (seminar presentation given 6 November 2009, University of Pittsburgh).  ^ E.F. Martinus (1996) A Kiss of the Slave: Papiamento
Papiamento
and its West African Connections ^ McWorter (2002) The Missing Spanish Creoles. Berkeley: University of California Press http://www.ucpress.edu/books/pages/8709/8709.ch2.pdf ^ Quint, Nicolas (2000) Le Cap Verdien: Origines et Devenir d’une Langue Métisse. Paris: L’Harmattan ^ Jacobs, Bart (2008) "Papiamento: A diachronic analysis of its core morphology". Phrasis 2, 59–82 ^ Jacobs, Bart (2009b) "The origins of Old Portuguese features in Papiamento". In: Nicholas Faraclas, Ronald Severing, Christa Weijer & Liesbeth Echteld (eds.), Leeward voices: Fresh perspectives on Papiamento
Papiamento
and the literatures and cultures of the ABC Islands, 11–38. Curaçao: FPI/UNA ^ Migge, Bettina; Léglise, Isabelle; Bartens, Angela (2010). Creoles in Education: An Appraisal of Current Programs and Projects. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. p. 268. ISBN 978-90-272-5258-6.  ^ "Nieuwsbrief 070313 – Papiaments officieel erkend". Nieuws.leidenuniv.nl. Retrieved 2011-11-21.  ^ "Tijdelijke wet officiële talen BES" (in Dutch). wetten.nl. Retrieved 2010-10-24. Artikel 2: De officiële talen zijn het Engels, het Nederlands en het Papiamento. (English: Article 2: The official languages are English, Dutch and Papiamento)  ^ Kook, H., & Narain, G. (1993). Papiamento. In G. Extra & L. Verhoeven (eds.), Community Languages in the Netherlands
Netherlands
(pp. 69–91). Amsterdam: Swets & Zeitlinger. ^ Philippe Maurer. Die Verschriftung des Papiamento, in Zum Stand der Kodifizierung romanischer Kleinsprachen. Gunter Narr Verlag, 1990 ^ Mario Dijkhoff. Ortografija di Papiamento. Münster, 1984. ^ E.R. Goilo (1994) Papiamento
Papiamento
Textbook, ninth edition. Oranjestad-Aruba: De Wit Stores NV ^ Bert Remijsen and Vincent J. van Heuven (2005) "Stress, tone and discourse prominence in the Curaçao
Curaçao
dialect of Papiamento" in: Phonology 22:205–235 ^ Raúl Römer (1991) Studies in Papiamento
Papiamento
Tonology. Amsterdam Centre for Caribbean
Caribbean
Studies ^ Papiamento
Papiamento
Swadesh list https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Appendix:Papiamento_Swadesh_list ^ Gerard van Buurt & Sidney M Joubert (1997) Stemmen uit het Verleden, Indiaanse Woorden in het Papiamento. Curaçao ^ "GUIA para los españoles hablar papiamento y viceversa: Para que los de … : N. N. : Free Download & Streaming : Internet Archive". Archive.org. 2001-03-10. Retrieved 2012-06-16. 

Bibliography[edit]

Eva Eckkrammer: How to Pave the Way for the Emancipation of a Creole Language. Papiamento, or What Can a Literature Do for its Language. In: Hoogbergen, Wim (ed.). Born Out of Resistance. On Caribbean Cultural Creativity. Utrecht: Isor-Publications, 1994, 359–365. Eva Eckkrammer: The Standardisation of Papiamento: New Trends, Problems and Perspectives. In: Dazzi Gross, Anna-Alice / Lorenza Mondada (eds.). Les langues minoritaires en contexte. Minderheitensprachen im Kontext. Bd. I. Les langues minoritaires entre diversité et standardisation. Minderheitensprachen zwischen Vielfalt und Standardisierung. Neuchâtel: Institut de linguistique de l´Université de Neuchâtel (= Bulletin suisse de linguistique appliquée 69/1), 1999, 59–74. Eva Eckkrammer: Papiamento, Cultural Resistance, and Socio-Cultural Challenges: The ABC Islands in a Nutshell. In: Journal of Caribbean Literatures 5/1, 2007, 73–93. Quint, Nicolas. 2000. Le Cap-Verdien: Origines et devenir d’une langue métisse. Paris: L’Harmattan Jacobs, Bart. 2008. "Papiamento: A diachronic analysis of its core morphology". Phrasis 2008 (2), 59–82. Jacobs, Bart. 2009a. “The Upper Guinea origins of Papiamento. Linguistic and historical evidence”. Diachronica 26:3, 319–379. Jacobs, Bart. 2009b. "The origins of Old Portuguese features in Papiamento". In: Nicholas Faraclas, Ronald Severing, Christa Weijer & Liesbeth Echteld (eds.), Leeward voices: Fresh perspectives on Papiamento
Papiamento
and the literatures and cultures of the ABC Islands. Volume 1, 11–38. Curaçao: FPI/UNA. Jacobs, Bart. 2012. Origins of a creole: The history of Papiamento
Papiamento
and its African ties. Berlin: de Gruyter. Efraim Frank Martinus (1996) The Kiss of a Slave: Papiamento's West-African Connections. University of Amsterdam Press. Gary Fouse (2002) The Story of Papiamento. New York: University Press of America John H. Holm (1989) Pidgins and Creoles Volume One. Theory and Structure. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Sidney Joubert & Matthias Perl (2007). "The Portuguese Language on Curação and Its Role in the Formation of Papiamento", Journal of Caribbean
Caribbean
Literatures, 5:1, 43–60. John McWhorter (2000) The Missing Spanish Creoles: Recovering the Birth of Plantation Contact Language. Berkeley: University of California Press. Gerard van Buurt & Sidney M Joubert (1997) Stemmen uit het Verleden, Indiaanse Woorden in het Papiamento. Curaçao

External links and further reading[edit]

Papiamento
Papiamento
edition of, the free encyclopedia

papiamento.aw Website of the Department of Education Aruba
Aruba
regarding Papiamento

Regla di gramatica di Papiamento
Papiamento
– Grammar Ortografia di Papiamento
Papiamento
– Orthography Vocabulario di Papiamento
Papiamento
Word
Word
list Stilistica di Papiamento

General (socio-)linguistic and historical information on Papiamento, including an unedited poem (with translation) from the Curaçaoan poet Lucille Berry-Haseth Papiamento
Papiamento
Official Aruba
Aruba
Government Portal Papiamento – English Dictionary Newspaper from Aruba Website for learning Papiamento, linked to youtube channel Henky's Papiamento La Prensa A Leading Curaçao
Curaçao
Newspaper in Papiamento Hasibokos I-News in Papiamento
Papiamento
(and Dutch) Papiamento
Papiamento
– history and grammatical features Bible Excerpt in Papiamento Papiamento
Papiamento
Translator a simple online translator iPapiamentu A blog on learning Papiamento
Papiamento
for English speakers Papiamentu tur dia A blog for English-speaking students of Papiamento For a discussion about the origins of Papiamento, see "Papiamentu facts", an essay by Attila Narin. "A Language Thrives in Its Caribbean
Caribbean
Home" article by Simon Romero in The New York Times
The New York Times
July 4, 2010 Lista di Palabra Papiamentu (Fundashon pa Planifikashon di Idioma) Bookish Plaza online bookstore with literature from Aruba
Aruba
and Curaçao

v t e

Languages of the Netherlands

Official national language

Dutch

Official regional languages

West Frisian English Papiamento

Non-official regional languages/dialects

Limburgish Low Saxon Romani Yiddish

Sign languages

Dutch Sign Language

v t e

Portuguese-based creole
Portuguese-based creole
languages

Upper Guinea

Cape Verdean Creole Guinea-Bissau Creole

Lower Guinea

Angolar Annobonese Cafundó Forro Principense

Indo-Portuguese

Cannanore Indo-Portuguese Cochin Indo-Portuguese (extinct) Daman and Diu Portuguese Korlai Indo-Portuguese Sri Lankan Portuguese

Southeast Asian

Mardijker or Papiá Tugu (extinct) Bidau Portuguese (extinct) Papiá Kristang Portugis (extinct)

East Asian

Macanese

Caribbean

Papiamento

Creoles with strong Portuguese lexical influence

Bozal Spanish Saramaccan

v t e

Varieties of Spanish by continent

Africa

Canarian Equatoguinean

Americas (Pan-American)

Caribbean

Cuban Dominican Puerto Rican

Central America

Belizean Costa Rican Guatemalan Honduran Nicaraguan Pachuco Panamanian Salvadoran

North America

American

Caló (Chicano) New Mexican Puerto Rican Isleño

Mexican

South America

Amazonic Andean Bolivian Chilean Chilote

Chiloé Archipelago

Colombian Cordobés

Central Argentina

Cuyano

Central western Argentina

Equatorial

Coastal Ecuador

Llanero

Los Llanos Colombia/Venezuela

Maracucho

Zulia State

Paisa

Paisa Region

Paraguayan Peruvian Ribereño

Coastal Peru

Rioplatense

Coastal Argentina Uruguayan

Venezuelan

Asia

Philippine

Europe (Peninsular)

Andalusian Canarian Castilian Castrapo (Galicia) Castúo (Extremadura) Murcian spoken by Catalan speakers

Other

Standard Caló (Para-Romani) Judaeo-Spanish Palenquero
Palenquero
(creole) Chavacano
Chavacano
(creole) Llanito Papiamento
Papiamento
( Portuguese-based creole
Portuguese-based creole
with Spanish influence)

Extinct

Mediaeval Cocoliche
Cocoliche
and Lunfardo

Coastal Argentina, Uruguay

Malespín

Central A

.