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A papal conclave is a meeting of the College of Cardinals
College of Cardinals
convened to elect a Bishop
Bishop
of Rome, also known as the Pope. The pope is considered by Roman Catholics to be the apostolic successor of Saint Peter
Saint Peter
and earthly head of the Roman Catholic Church.[1] Concerns around political interference led to reforms after the interregnum of 1268–1271 and Pope
Pope
Gregory X's decree during the Second Council of Lyons
Second Council of Lyons
in 1274 that the cardinal electors should be locked in seclusion cum clave ( Latin
Latin
for "with a key") and not permitted to leave until a new Bishop
Bishop
of Rome
Rome
had been elected.[2] Conclaves are now held in the Sistine Chapel
Sistine Chapel
of the Apostolic Palace.[3] Since the Apostolic Age, the Bishop
Bishop
of Rome, like other bishops, was chosen by the consensus of the clergy and laity of the diocese.[4] The body of electors was more precisely defined when, in 1059, the College of Cardinals was designated the sole body of electors.[5] Since then, other details of the process have developed. In 1970, Pope
Pope
Paul VI limited the electors to cardinals under 80 years of age in Ingravescentem aetatem. The current[update] procedures were established by Pope
Pope
John Paul II
John Paul II
in his apostolic constitution Universi Dominici gregis[3] as amended by Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI in 2007 and 2013.[6] A two-thirds supermajority vote is required to elect the new pope.[7][8]

Contents

1 Historical development

1.1 Electorate 1.2 Choice of electors and of candidates 1.3 Secular influence 1.4 Conclaves

2 Modern practice

2.1 Death of the pope 2.2 Resignation of a pope 2.3 Before the sealing of the Sistine Chapel 2.4 Expelling the outsiders 2.5 Voting

2.5.1 Pre-scrutiny 2.5.2 Scrutiny 2.5.3 Post-scrutiny

2.5.3.1 Smoke colors

2.6 Acceptance and proclamation

3 Papal documents regarding the conclave 4 See also 5 Notes 6 Direct citations 7 References

Historical development[edit] Main article: Papal selection before 1059

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The procedures relating to the election of the pope have undergone almost two millennia of development. Procedures similar to the present system were introduced in 1274 when Gregory X promulgated Ubi periculum following the action of the magistrates of Viterbo
Viterbo
during the interregnum of 1268–1271.[9] The process was further refined by Gregory XV
Gregory XV
with his 1621 bull Aeterni Patris Filius, which established the requirement of a two-thirds majority of cardinal electors to elect a pope.[10] The Third Lateran Council
Third Lateran Council
had initially set the requirement that two-thirds of the cardinals were needed to elect a pope in 1179.[11] This requirement had varied since then, depending on whether the winning candidate was allowed to vote for himself, in which cases the required majority was two-thirds plus one vote. Aeterni Patris Filius prohibited this practice and established two-thirds as the standard needed for election.[12] Aeterni Patris Filius
Aeterni Patris Filius
did not eliminate the possibility of election by acclamation, but did require that a secret ballot take place first before a pope could be elected.[13] Electorate[edit] As early Christian communities emerged, they elected bishops, chosen by the clergy and laity with the assistance of the bishops of neighbouring dioceses.[4] St. Cyprian
St. Cyprian
(died 258) says that Pope Cornelius (in office 251-253) was chosen as Bishop
Bishop
of Rome
Rome
"by the decree of God and of His Church, by the testimony of nearly all the clergy, by the college of aged bishops [sacerdotum], and of good men".[14] As in other dioceses, the clergy of the Diocese of Rome
Diocese of Rome
was the electoral body for the Bishop
Bishop
of Rome. Instead of casting votes, the bishop was selected by general consensus or by acclamation. The candidate would then be submitted to the people for their general approval or disapproval. This lack of precision in the election procedures occasionally gave rise to rival popes or antipopes.[15] The right of the laity to reject the person elected was abolished by a Synod held in the Lateran in 769, but restored to Roman noblemen by Pope
Pope
Nicholas I during a Synod of Rome
Rome
in 862.[15] The pope was also subjected to oaths of loyalty to the Holy Roman Emperor, who had the duty of providing security and public peace in Rome.[16] A major change came in 1059, when Pope
Pope
Nicholas II decreed in In Nomine Domini that the cardinals were to elect a candidate, who would take office after receiving the assent of the clergy and laity. The cardinal bishops were to meet first and discuss the candidates before summoning the cardinal priests and cardinal deacons for the actual vote.[14] The Second Council of the Lateran
Second Council of the Lateran
in 1139 removed the requirement for obtaining the assent of the lower clergy and the laity,[15] while the Third Council of the Lateran
Third Council of the Lateran
in 1179 gave equal rights to the entire College of Cardinals
College of Cardinals
when electing a new pope.[17] Through much of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and Renaissance
Renaissance
the Catholic Church had only a small number of cardinals at any one time, as few as seven under either Pope
Pope
Alexander IV (1254-1261)[18] or Pope
Pope
John XXI (1276-1277).[19][20] The difficulty of travel further reduced the number arriving at conclaves. The small electorate magnified the significance of each vote and made it all but impossible to displace familial or political allegiances. Conclaves lasted months and even years. In his 1274 decree requiring the electors be locked in seclusion, Gregory X also limited each cardinal elector to two servants and rationed their food progressively when a conclave reached its fourth and ninth days.[15] The cardinals disliked these rules; Pope
Pope
Adrian V temporarily suspended them in 1276 and John XXI's Licet felicis recordationis revoked them later that same year.[21][a] Lengthy elections resumed and continued to be the norm until 1294, when Pope
Pope
Celestine V. Celestine reinstated the 1274 rules.[22] Long interregna followed: in 1314–1316 during the Avignon Papacy, where the original conclaves were dispersed by besieging mercenaries and not reconvened for almost two years;[23] and in 1415–1417, as a result of the Western Schism. In 1587 Pope
Pope
Sixtus V limited the number of cardinals to 70, following the precedent of Moses
Moses
who was assisted by 70 elders in governing the Children of Israel: six cardinal bishops, 50 cardinal priests, and 14 cardinal deacons.[18] Beginning with the attempts of Pope
Pope
John XXIII (1958-1963) to broaden the representation of nations in the College of Cardinals, that number has increased. In 1970 Paul VI ruled that cardinals who reach the age of eighty before the start of a conclave are ineligible to participate.[24] In 1975 he limited the number of cardinal electors to 120.[25] Though this remains the theoretical limit, John Paul II
John Paul II
(in office 1978-2005) exceeded this for short periods of time. He also changed the age limit slightly, so that cardinals who turn 80 before a pope dies can not serve as electors.[3] Choice of electors and of candidates[edit] Originally, lay status did not bar election to the See of Rome. Bishops of dioceses were sometimes elected while still catechumens, such as the case of St. Ambrose,[26] who became Bishop
Bishop
of Milan in 374. In the wake of the violent dispute over the 767 election of Antipope
Antipope
Constantine II, Pope
Pope
Stephen III held the synod of 769, which decreed that only a cardinal priest or cardinal deacon could be elected, specifically excluding those that are already bishops.[14][27] Church practice, however, deviated from this rule as early as 817 and fully ignored it from 882 with the election of Pope Marinus I, the Bishop
Bishop
of Caere.[28] Nicholas II, in the synod of 1059, formally codified existing practice by decreeing that preference was to be given to the clergy of Rome, but leaving the cardinal bishops free to select a cleric from elsewhere if they so decided.[29] The Council of 1179 rescinded these restrictions on eligibility.[17] Pope
Pope
Urban VI in 1378 became the last pope elected from outside the College of Cardinals.[30] The last person elected as pope who was not already an ordained priest or deacon was the cardinal-deacon Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici, elected as Pope
Pope
Leo X in 1513.[31] His successor, Pope
Pope
Adrian VI, was the last to be elected (1522) in absentia.[32] Archbishop Giovanni Montini of Milan received several votes in the 1958 conclave
1958 conclave
though not yet a cardinal.[33][34] As the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
holds that women cannot be validly ordained, women are not eligible for the papacy.[b] Though the pope is the Bishop
Bishop
of Rome, he need not be of Italian background. As of 2017[update], the three most recent conclaves have elected a Pole, a German, and an Argentinian. A simple majority vote sufficed until 1179, when the Third Council of the Lateran increased the required majority to two-thirds.[11] As cardinals were not allowed to vote for themselves (after 1621), the ballots were designed to ensure secrecy while at the same time preventing self-voting.[c] In 1945 Pope
Pope
Pius XII removed the prohibition on a cardinal voting for himself, increasing the requisite majority to two-thirds plus one at all times.[39] He eliminated as well the need for signed ballots.[40] His successor John XXIII immediately reinstated the two-thirds majority if the number of cardinal electors voting is divisible by three, with a rounding up to two-thirds plus one otherwise.[d] Paul VI reinstated Pius XII's procedure thirteen years later,[25] but John Paul II
John Paul II
overturned it again. In 1996, John Paul II's constitution allowed election by absolute majority if deadlock prevailed after thirty-three or thirty-four ballots[3] (thirty-four ballots if a ballot took place on the first afternoon of the conclave). In 2007 Benedict XVI rescinded John Paul II's change (which had been criticised[by whom?] as effectively abolishing the two-thirds majority requirement, as any majority would suffice to block the election until a simple majority was enough to elect the next pope), reaffirming the requirement of a two-thirds majority.[7][8] Electors formerly made choices by accessus, acclamation (per inspirationem), adoration, compromise (per compromissum) or scrutiny (per scrutinium).[9]

With acclamation, the cardinals would unanimously declare the new pope quasi afflati Spiritu Sancto (as if inspired by the Holy Spirit).[39] If this took place before any formal ballot has taken place, the method was called adoration,[41] but Pope
Pope
Gregory XV
Gregory XV
excluded this method in 1621.[42][43] To elect by compromise, a deadlocked College would unanimously delegate the election to a committee of cardinals whose choice they all agree to abide by.[39] Scrutiny is election via the casting of secret ballots. Accessus was a method for cardinals to change their most recent vote to accede to another candidate in an attempt to reach the requisite two-thirds majority and end the conclave. This method was first disallowed by the Cardinal Dean
Cardinal Dean
at the 1903 conclave.[9]

The last election by compromise is considered[by whom?] to be that of Pope
Pope
John XXII in 1316, and the last election by acclamation that of Pope
Pope
Innocent XI in the 1676 conclave.[44] Universi Dominici gregis formally abolished the long unused methods of acclamation and compromise in 1996, making scrutiny now the only approved method for the election of a new pope.[3] Secular influence[edit] For a significant part of the Church's history, powerful monarchs and governments influenced the choice of its leaders. For example, the Roman emperors
Roman emperors
once held considerable sway in the elections of popes. In 418, Emperor Honorius settled a controversial election, upholding Pope
Pope
Boniface I over the challenger Antipope
Antipope
Eulalius. On the request of Boniface I, Honorius ordered that in future cases, any disputed election would be settled by a fresh election.[45] After the demise of the Western Roman Empire, influence passed to the Ostrogothic Kings of Italy and in 533, Pope
Pope
John II formally recognised the right of the Ostrogothic monarchs to ratify elections. By 537 the Ostrogothic monarchy had been overthrown, and power passed to the Byzantine emperors. A procedure was adopted[by whom?] whereby officials were required[by whom?] to notify the Exarch of Ravenna
Exarch of Ravenna
upon the death of a pope before proceeding with the election.[46] Once the electors arrived at a choice, they were required[by whom?] to send a delegation to Constantinople
Constantinople
requesting the emperor's consent, which was necessary before the individual elected could take office. Travel to and from Constantinople
Constantinople
caused lengthy delays.[47] When Pope
Pope
Benedict II (684-685) complained about them, Emperor Constantine IV
Constantine IV
(in office 654-685) acquiesced, ending the requirement for emperors to confirm elections. Thereafter, the Emperor was only required to be notified.[48] The last pope to notify a Byzantine emperor was Pope Zachary in 741.[49] In the 9th century, the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
came to exert control over papal elections. While Charlemagne
Charlemagne
(Emperor from 800 to 814) and Louis the Pious (Emperor from 813 to 840) did not interfere with the Church, Lothair I
Lothair I
(Emperor from 817 to 855) claimed that an election could only take place in the presence of imperial ambassadors.[50] In 898 riots forced Pope
Pope
John IX to recognise the superintendence of the Holy Roman Emperor.[51][52] At the same time, the Roman nobility also continued to exert great influence, especially during the tenth-century period known as saeculum obscurum ( Latin
Latin
for "the dark age").[53] In 1059 the same papal bull that restricted suffrage to the cardinals also recognised the authority of the Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
(at the time Henry IV), but only as a concession made by the pope, declaring that the Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
had no authority to intervene in elections except where permitted to do so by papal agreements.[29] Pope
Pope
Gregory VII (in office 1073-1085) was the last Pope
Pope
to submit to the interference of the Holy Roman Emperors. The breach between him and the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
caused by the Investiture Controversy
Investiture Controversy
led to the abolition of the Emperor's role.[54] In 1122 the Holy Roman Empire acceded to the Concordat
Concordat
of Worms, accepting the papal decision.[55] From about 1600, certain Catholic monarchs claimed a jus exclusivae (right of exclusion), i.e. a veto over papal elections, exercised through a crown-cardinal. By an informal convention, each state claiming the veto could exercise the right once per conclave. Therefore, a crown-cardinal did not announce his veto until the very last moment when the candidate in question seemed likely to get elected. No vetoes could be employed after an election. After the Holy Roman Empire dissolved in 1806, its veto power devolved upon the Austrian Empire. The last exercise of the veto occurred in 1903, when Prince Jan Puzyna de Kosielsko
Jan Puzyna de Kosielsko
informed the College of Cardinals
College of Cardinals
that Austria opposed the election of Mariano Rampolla. Consequently, the College elected Giuseppe Sarto as Pope
Pope
Pius X, who issued the Constitution Commissum nobis six months later, declaring that any cardinal who communicated his government's veto in the future would suffer excommunication latae sententiae.[56][57] Conclaves[edit] To resolve prolonged deadlocks in papal elections in the earlier years, local authorities often resorted to the forced seclusion of the cardinal electors, such as first in the city of Rome
Rome
in 1241, and possibly before that in Perugia
Perugia
in 1216.[58] In 1269, when the forced seclusion of the cardinals alone failed to produce a pope, the city of Viterbo
Viterbo
refused to send in any materials except bread and water. When even this failed to produce a result, the townspeople removed the roof of the Palazzo dei Papi in their attempt to speed up the election.[59] In an attempt to avoid future lengthy elections, Gregory X introduced stringent rules with the 1274 promulgation of Ubi periculum. Cardinals were to be secluded in a closed area and not accorded individual rooms. No cardinal was allowed, unless ill, to be attended by more than two servants. Food was supplied through a window to avoid outside contact.[e] After three days of the conclave, the cardinals were to receive only one dish a day; after another five days, they were to receive just bread and water. During the conclave, no cardinal was to receive any ecclesiastical revenue.[15][60] Adrian V abolished Gregory X's strict regulations in 1276, but Celestine V, elected in 1294 following a two-year vacancy, restored them. In 1562 Pius IV issued a papal bull that introduced regulations relating to the enclosure of the conclave and other procedures. Gregory XV
Gregory XV
issued two bulls that covered the most minute of details relating to the election; the first, in 1621, concerned electoral processes, while the other, in 1622, fixed the ceremonies to be observed. In December 1904 Pope
Pope
Pius X issued an apostolic constitution consolidating almost all the previous rules, making some changes, Vacante sede apostolica.[61] John Paul II
John Paul II
instituted several reforms in 1996.[9] The location of the conclaves became fixed only in the fourteenth century. Since the end of the Western Schism
Western Schism
in 1417, however, elections have always taken place in Rome
Rome
(except in 1800, when French troops occupying Rome
Rome
forced the election to be held in Venice), and normally in what, since the Lateran Treaties
Lateran Treaties
of 1929, has become the independent Vatican City
Vatican City
State. Since 1846, when the Quirinal Palace was used, the Sistine Chapel
Sistine Chapel
in the Vatican has served as the location of the election. Popes have often fine-tuned the rules for the election of their successors: Pope
Pope
Pius XII's Vacantis Apostolicae Sedis (1945) governed the conclave of 1958, Pope
Pope
John XXIII's Summi Pontificis electio (1962) that of 1963, Pope
Pope
Paul VI's Romano Pontifici eligendo (1975) the two conclaves of 1978, John Paul II's Universi Dominici Gregis
Universi Dominici Gregis
(1996) that of 2005, and two amendments by Benedict XVI (2007, 2013) that of 2013. Modern practice[edit] Main article: Universi Dominici gregis

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In 1996, John Paul II
John Paul II
promulgated a new Apostolic Constitution, called Universi Dominici gregis, which with a slight modification by Pope Benedict XVI now governs the election of the pope, abolishing all previous constitutions on the matter, but preserving many procedures that date to much earlier times. Under Universi Dominici gregis, the cardinals are to be lodged in a purpose-built edifice, the Domus Sanctae Marthae, but are to continue to vote in the Sistine Chapel.[62] Several duties are performed by the Dean of the College of Cardinals, who is always a Cardinal Bishop. If the Dean is not entitled to participate in the conclave owing to age, his place is taken by the Sub-Dean, who is also always a Cardinal Bishop. If the Sub-Dean also cannot participate, the senior Cardinal Bishop
Bishop
participating performs the functions.[63] Since the College of Cardinals
College of Cardinals
is a small body, there have been proposals that the electorate should be expanded. Proposed reforms include a plan to replace the College of Cardinals
College of Cardinals
as the electoral body with the Synod of Bishops, which includes many more members. Under present procedure, however, the Synod may only meet when called by the pope. Universi Dominici gregis
Universi Dominici gregis
explicitly provides that even if a synod or an ecumenical council is in session at the time of a pope's death, it may not perform the election. Upon the pope's death, either body's proceedings are suspended, to be resumed only upon the order of the new pope.[64] It is considered poor form to campaign for the position of pope. However, there is inevitably always much speculation about which cardinals have serious prospects of being elected. Speculation tends to mount when a pope is ill or aged and shortlists of potential candidates appear in the media. A cardinal who is considered to be a prospect for the papacy is described informally as a papabile (an adjective used substantively: the plural form is papabili), a term coined by Italian-speaking Vatican watchers in the mid-twentieth century, literally meaning "pope-able". Death of the pope[edit]

The Cardinal Camerlengo proclaims a papal death

The death of the pope is verified by the Cardinal Camerlengo, or Chamberlain, who traditionally performed the task by calling out his Christian (not papal) name three times in the presence of the Master of Papal Liturgical Celebrations, and of the Cleric Prelates, Secretary and Chancellor of the Apostolic Camera. The Cardinal Camerlengo takes possession of the Ring of the Fisherman
Ring of the Fisherman
worn by the pope; the ring, along with the papal seal, is later destroyed before the College of Cardinals. The tradition originated to avoid forgery of documents, but today merely is a symbol of the end of the pope's reign.[65][66] During the sede vacante, as the papal vacancy is known, certain limited powers pass to the College of Cardinals, which is convoked by the Dean of the College of Cardinals. All cardinals are obliged to attend the General Congregation of Cardinals, except those whose health does not permit, or who are over eighty (but those cardinals may choose to attend if they please). The Particular Congregation, which deals with the day-to-day matters of the Church, includes the Cardinal Camerlengo and the three Cardinal Assistants—one Cardinal-Bishop, one Cardinal-Priest
Cardinal-Priest
and one Cardinal-Deacon—chosen by lot. Every three days, new Cardinal Assistants are chosen by lot. The Cardinal Camerlengo and Cardinal Assistants are responsible, among other things, for maintaining the election's secrecy.[67] The Congregations must make certain arrangements in respect of the pope's burial, which by tradition takes place within four to six days of the pope's death, leaving time for pilgrims to see the dead pontiff, and is to be followed by a nine-day period of mourning (this is known as the novemdiales, Latin
Latin
for "nine days"). The Congregations also fix the date and time of the commencement of the conclave. The conclave normally takes place fifteen days after the death of the pope, but the Congregations may extend the period to a maximum of twenty days in order to permit other cardinals to arrive in the Vatican City.[68] Resignation of a pope[edit] Main article: Papal resignation A vacancy in the papal office may also result from a papal resignation. Until the resignation of Benedict XVI on 28 February 2013, no pope had abdicated since Gregory XII in 1415.[69] In 1996 Pope
Pope
John Paul II, in his Apostolic Constitution
Apostolic Constitution
Universi Dominici gregis, anticipated the possibility of resignation when he specified that the procedures he set out in that document should be observed "even if the vacancy of the Apostolic See should occur as a result of the resignation of the Supreme Pontiff".[70] In his book, Light Of The World: The Pope, The Church and The Signs Of The Times, Benedict XVI had espoused the idea of abdication on health grounds which already had some theological respectability.[71] Before the sealing of the Sistine Chapel[edit] The cardinals hear two sermons before the election: one before actually entering the conclave, and one once they are settled in the Sistine Chapel. In both cases, the sermons are meant to lay out the current state of the Church, and to suggest the qualities necessary for a pope to possess in that specific time. The first preacher in the 2005 conclave was Fr. Raniero Cantalamessa, the preacher of the papal household and a member of the Capuchin Franciscan order, who spoke at one of the meetings of the cardinals held before the actual day when the conclave began.[72] Cardinal Tomáš Špidlík, a former professor at the Pontifical Oriental Institute and a non-voting member (due to age) of the College of Cardinals, spoke just before the doors were finally closed for the conclave.[73] On the morning of the day designated by the Congregations of Cardinals, the cardinal electors assemble in St Peter's Basilica to celebrate the Eucharist. Then, they gather in the afternoon in the Pauline Chapel of the Palace of the Vatican and process to the Sistine Chapel while singing the Litany of the Saints. The Cardinals will also sing the Veni Creator Spiritus[74] then take an oath to observe the procedures set down by the apostolic constitutions; to, if elected, defend the liberty of the Holy See; to maintain secrecy; and to disregard the instructions of secular authorities on voting. The Cardinal Dean
Cardinal Dean
reads the oath aloud in full; in order of precedence (where their rank is the same, their birthdate is taken as precedence), the other cardinal electors repeat the oath, while touching the Gospels. The oath is:

Et ego, (first name), Cardinalis (surname), spondeo, voveo, ac iuro. Sic me Deus adiuvet et haec Sancta Dei Evangelia, quae manu mea tango. And I, (name), Cardinal (name), promise, vow and swear. Thus, may God help me and these Holy Gospels
Gospels
which I touch with my hand.[75][76]

Expelling the outsiders[edit] After all the cardinals present have taken the oath, the Master of the Papal Liturgical Celebrations orders all individuals other than the cardinal electors and conclave participants to leave the Chapel. Traditionally, he stands at the door of the Sistine Chapel
Sistine Chapel
and calls out: "Extra omnes!" ( Latin
Latin
for, roughly, "Everybody else, get out!") He then closes the door.[77] In modern practice, the Master of the Papal Liturgical Celebrations does not have to stand at the door of the Sistine Chapel—during the 2013 conclave, the Master Guido Marini stood in front of the altar and gave the command through a microphone and only went to the chapel doors to close them after the outsiders had left.[78][79] The Master himself may remain, as may one ecclesiastic designated by the Congregations prior to the commencement of the election. The ecclesiastic makes a speech concerning the problems facing the Church and on the qualities the new pope needs to have. After the speech concludes, the ecclesiastic leaves. Following the recitation of prayers, the Cardinal Dean
Cardinal Dean
asks if any doubts relating to procedure remain. After the clarification of the doubts, the election may commence. Cardinals who arrive after the conclave has begun are admitted nevertheless. An ill cardinal may leave the conclave and later be readmitted; a cardinal who leaves for any reason other than illness may not return to the conclave.[80] Although in the past cardinal electors could be accompanied by attendants ("conclavists"), now only a nurse may accompany a cardinal who for reasons of ill-health, as confirmed by the Congregation of Cardinals, needs such assistance.[3] The Secretary of the College of Cardinals, the Master of Papal Liturgical Celebrations, two Masters of Ceremonies, two officers of the Papal Sacristy and an ecclesiastic assisting the Dean of the College of Cardinals
College of Cardinals
are also admitted to the conclave. Priests are available to hear confessions in different languages; two doctors are also admitted. Finally, a strictly limited number of servant staff are permitted for housekeeping and the preparing and serving of meals. Secrecy is maintained during the conclave; the cardinals as well as the conclavists and staff are forbidden to disclose any information relating to the election. Cardinal electors may not correspond or converse with anyone outside the conclave, by post, radio, telephone, internet and social media, or otherwise and eavesdropping is an offense punishable by excommunication latae sententiae. Only three cardinals electors are permitted to communicate with the outside world under grave circumstances, prior to approval of the College, to fulfil their duties: the Major Penitentiary, the Cardinal Vicar
Cardinal Vicar
for the Diocese
Diocese
of Rome, and the Vicar General for the Vatican City
Vatican City
State.[3] Before the conclave that elected Pope
Pope
Francis, the Sistine Chapel
Sistine Chapel
was "swept" using the latest electronic devices to detect any hidden "bugs" or surveillance devices (there were no reports that any were found, but in previous conclaves press reporters who had disguised themselves as conclave servants were discovered). Universi Dominici gregis specifically prohibits media such as newspapers, the radio, and television.[81] Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi
access is blocked in Vatican City
Vatican City
and wireless signal jammers are deployed at the Sistine Chapel
Sistine Chapel
to prevent any form of electronic communications to or from the Cardinal electors.[82] Voting[edit]

Cardinals formerly used these intricate ballot papers, one of which is shown folded above. Currently, the ballots are simple cards, folded once (like a note card), with the words "I elect as Supreme Pontiff ....." printed on them.

Cardinal electors receive copies of ballot cards, scrutiny ballots, and a copy of Ordo Rituum Conclavis (Order for Rites in a Conclave). Shown above are the ballot papers of Cardinal Roger Mahony
Roger Mahony
used in the 2013 conclave.

On the afternoon of the first day, one ballot (referred to as a "scrutiny") may be held, but is not required. If a ballot takes place on the afternoon of the first day and no-one is elected, or no ballot had taken place, a maximum of four ballots are held on each successive day: two in each morning and two in each afternoon. Before voting in the morning and again before voting in the afternoon, the electors take an oath to obey the rules of the conclave. If no result is obtained after three vote days of balloting, the process is suspended for a maximum of one day for prayer and an address by the senior Cardinal Deacon. After seven further ballots, the process may again be similarly suspended, with the address now being delivered by the senior Cardinal Priest. If, after another seven ballots, no result is achieved, voting is suspended once more, the address being delivered by the senior Cardinal Bishop. After a further seven ballots, there shall be a day of prayer, reflection and dialogue. In the following ballots, only the two names who received the most votes in the last ballot shall be eligible in a runoff election. However, the two people who are being voted on, if Cardinal electors, shall not themselves have the right to vote.[7] The process of voting comprises three phases: the "pre-scrutiny", the "scrutiny", and the "post-scrutiny." Pre-scrutiny[edit] During the pre-scrutiny, the Masters of the Ceremonies prepare ballot papers bearing the words Eligo in Summum Pontificem ("I elect as Supreme Pontiff") and provide at least two to each cardinal elector. As the cardinals begin to write down their votes, the Secretary of the College of Cardinals, the Master of Papal Liturgical Celebrations and the Masters of Ceremonies exit; the junior Cardinal Deacon then closes the door. The junior Cardinal Deacon then draws by lot nine names; the first three become Scrutineers, the second three Infirmarii and the last three Revisers. New Scrutineers, Infirmarii and Revisers are not selected again after the first scrutiny; the same nine cardinals perform the same task for the second scrutiny. After lunch, the election resumes with the oath to obey the rules of the conclave taken anew when the cardinals again assemble in the Sistine Chapel. Nine names are chosen for new scrutineers, infirmarii, and revisers. The third scrutiny then commences, and if necessary, a fourth immediately follows.[83] No changes in these rules were made by Benedict XVI in 2007. These rules were followed, so far as is known, given the secrecy of a conclave, in electing Pope
Pope
Francis in March 2013. Scrutiny[edit] The scrutiny phase of the election is as follows: The cardinal electors proceed, in order of precedence, to take their completed ballots (which bear only the name of the individual voted for) to the altar, where the Scrutineers stand. Before casting the ballot, each cardinal elector takes a Latin
Latin
oath, which translates to: "I call as my witness Christ
Christ
the Lord who will be my judge, that my vote is given to the one who before God I think should be elected." If any cardinal elector is in the Chapel, but cannot proceed to the altar due to infirmity, the last Scrutineer may go to him and take his ballot after the oath is recited. If any cardinal elector is by reason of infirmity confined to his room, the Infirmarii go to their rooms with ballot papers and a box. Any such sick cardinals take the oath and then complete the ballot papers. When the Infirmarii return to the Chapel, the ballots are counted to ensure that their number matches with the number of ill cardinals; thereafter, they are deposited in the appropriate receptacle. This oath is taken by all cardinals as they cast their ballots. If no one is chosen on the first scrutiny, then a second scrutiny immediately follows. A maximum total of four scrutinies can be taken each day, two in the morning and two in the afternoon. The oath when casting one's vote is therefore anonymous, since the name of the elector is no longer signed on the ballot with that of the candidate. (Previously, the ballot was signed by the elector, who included his motiff [unique identification code]. Then he folded it over at two places to cover his signature and motiff. After this, it was sealed with wax to result in a semi-secret ballot. See example above.) This was the procedure prior to 1945. The example above is a copy of the old three section semi-secret ballot, which was last used in the conclave of 1939. There was no oath taken when actually casting ballots, prior to 1621.[84] Completely secret ballots (at the option of the cardinals present and voting) were sometimes used prior to 1621, but these secret ballots had no oath taken when the vote was actually cast. At some conclaves prior to 1621, the cardinals verbally voted and sometimes stood in groups to facilitate counting the votes cast. The signature and motiff of the elector covered by two folded-over parts of the ballot paper was added by Gregory XV
Gregory XV
in 1621, to prevent anyone from casting the deciding vote for himself. Cardinal Pole of England refused to cast the deciding vote for himself in 1549 (and was not elected), but in 1492 Cardinal Borgia ( Pope
Pope
Alexander VI) did cast the deciding vote for himself.[85] Faced by the mortal challenge to the papacy emanating from Protestantism, and fearing schism due to several stormy conclaves in the late 16th and early 17th centuries, Gregory XV
Gregory XV
established this procedure to prevent any cardinal from casting the deciding vote for himself.[86] Since 1945, a cardinal can again cast the deciding vote for himself, though the ⅔ majority rule has always been continued, except when John Paul II
John Paul II
had modified that rule in 1996 (after 33 ballots, a simple majority was sufficient), with the ⅔ majority rule restored in 2007 by Benedict XVI.[87] Prior to 1621, the only oath taken was that of obedience to the rules of the conclave in force at that time, when the cardinals entered the conclave and the doors were locked, and each morning and afternoon as they entered the Sistine Chapel
Sistine Chapel
to vote. Gregory XV
Gregory XV
added the additional oath, taken when each cardinal casts his ballot, to prevent cardinals wasting time in casting "courtesy votes" and instead narrowing the number of realistic candidates for the papal throne to perhaps only two or three. Speed in electing a pope was important, and that meant using an oath so as to get the cardinals down to the serious business of electing a new pope and narrowing the number of potentially electable candidates. The reforms of Gregory XV
Gregory XV
in 1621 and reaffirmed in 1622 created the written detailed step-by-step procedure used in choosing a pope; a procedure that was essentially the same as that which was used in 2013 to elect Pope
Pope
Francis. The biggest change since 1621 was the elimination of the rule that required the electors to sign their ballots resulting in the detailed voting procedure of scrutiny making use of anonymous oaths. This was perhaps the most significant change in the modern era. It was a significant change to the step-by-step voting procedure, since that detailed voting procedure was first created in 1621. It was Pius XII who made this change in 1945.[88][89] Once all votes have been cast, the first Scrutineer chosen shakes the container, and the last Scrutineer removes and counts the ballots. If the number of ballots does not correspond to the number of cardinal electors present (including sick cardinals in their rooms), the ballots are burnt, unread, and the vote is repeated. If, however, no irregularities are observed, the ballots may be opened and the votes counted. Each ballot is unfolded by the first Scrutineer; all three Scrutineers separately write down the name indicated on the ballot. The last of the Scrutineers reads the name aloud. Once all of the ballots have been opened, the final post-scrutiny phase begins. Post-scrutiny[edit]

Fumata nera in the Sistine Chapel, indicating that there was not a two-thirds majority in the papal election at the Conclave.[90]

Fumata bianca in Sistine Chapel, indicating that a pope has been elected by the College of Cardinals.[90]

The Scrutineers add up all of the votes, and the Revisers check the ballots and the names on the Scrutineers' lists to ensure that no error was made. The ballots are then all burned by the Scrutineers with the assistance of the Secretary of the College and the Masters of Ceremonies. If the first scrutiny held in any given morning or afternoon does not result in an election, the cardinals proceed to the next scrutiny immediately. The papers from both scrutinies are then burned together at the end of the second scrutiny. Smoke colors[edit] The color of the smoke indicates the results to the people assembled in St Peter's Square. Dark smoke (fumata nera) indicates that the ballot did not result in an election, while white smoke (fumata bianca) announces that a new pope was chosen.[90] Originally, in the event a pope was not elected, damp straw was added to the fire to create dark smoke. In the event a new pope was elected, the ballots were burned alone, creating white smoke. Prior to 1945 (when Pius XII changed the form of ballot to use anonymous oaths, first carried out in 1958), the sealing wax on the complex type ballots illustrated above had the effect of making the smoke from burning the ballots either black or white, depending on whether or not damp straw was added. Until the 20th century, sealing wax customarily had beeswax mixed into its composition. The use of wax made solely from animal fat does not give as much white colored smoke, as does wax that includes beeswax. In the 1939 conclave there was some confusion over the smoke color, which was even more apparent in the 1958 conclave. This explains the confusion over the color of the smoke in the 1958 Papal conclave, caused by the lack of sealing wax on the ballots. The Siri thesis
Siri thesis
was based on the confusion over the smoke color on the first day of that conclave. Since 1963, chemicals have been added to the burning process, and beginning in 2005, bells ring after a successful election to augment the white smoke.[91] During the 2013 conclave, the Vatican disclosed the chemicals used to color the smoke:[92][93][94]

Black smoke: potassium perchlorate, anthracene, sulfur White smoke: potassium chlorate, lactose, pine rosin

Acceptance and proclamation[edit] Once the election concludes, the Cardinal Dean
Cardinal Dean
summons the Secretary of the College of Cardinals
College of Cardinals
and the Master of Papal Liturgical Celebrations into the hall. The Cardinal Dean
Cardinal Dean
then asks the pope-elect if he assents to the election, saying in Latin: "Acceptasne electionem de te canonice factam in Summum Pontificem? (Do you accept your canonical election as Supreme Pontiff?)" There is no requirement that the pope-elect do so and he is free to respond "Non accepto" (I do not accept). In practice, any cardinal who intends not to accept will explicitly state this before he receives a sufficient number of votes to become pope, as Giovanni Colombo
Giovanni Colombo
did in October 1978.[95][96] If he accepts, and is already a bishop, he immediately takes office. If he is not a bishop, however, he must be first consecrated as one before he can assume office. If a priest is elected, the Cardinal Dean consecrates him bishop; if a layman is elected, then the Cardinal Dean first ordains him deacon, then priest, and only then consecrates him as bishop. Only after becoming a bishop does the pope-elect take office. These functions of the Dean are assumed, if necessary, by the sub-Dean, and if the sub-Dean is also impeded, they are assumed by the senior cardinal-bishop in attendance. In 2005 the Dean himself—Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger—was elected pope. In 2013, the Dean and sub-Dean were not in attendance (over the age limit), and these functions were assumed by Cardinal Giovanni Battista Re. Since 533,[citation needed] the new pope has also decided on his regnal name. Pope
Pope
John II was the first to adopt a new papal name; he felt that his original name, Mercurius, was inappropriate, as it was also the name of a Roman god. In most cases, even if such considerations are absent, popes tend to choose papal names different from their baptismal names; the last pope to reign under his baptismal name was Pope
Pope
Marcellus II (1555). After the newly elected pope accepts his election, the Cardinal Dean
Cardinal Dean
asks him about his papal name, saying in Latin: "Quo nomine vis vocari? (By what name do you wish to be called?)" After the papal name is chosen, the officials are readmitted to the conclave, and the Master of Pontifical Liturgical Ceremonies writes a document recording the acceptance and the new name of the pope. In the past, when the cardinals were voting during the conclave, they sat on canopied thrones symbolizing the cardinals' collective governance of the church during the period of sede vacante.[38] Upon the acceptance by the new pope of his election, all other cardinals in attendance would each pull a cord and lower the canopies above their respective thrones signifying an end to the period of collective governance and only the newly elected pope's canopy remained unlowered.[38] The last time canopied thrones were used was during the 1963 conclave.[97] Beginning with the 1978 August conclave canopied thrones were no longer used due to the lack of space resulting from the large increase in the number of cardinal electors. At the end of the conclave, the new pope if he so chose, would give his cardinalitial zucchetto or skull cap to the secretary of the conclave, indicating the secretary would be made cardinal at the next consistory to create cardinals. Prior to the 2013 conclave, this tradition was last followed at the 1958 conclave
1958 conclave
by the newly elected Pope
Pope
John XXIII, who bestowed his cardinal's skull cap on Alberto di Jorio and created him a cardinal at the consistory on 15 December of that year. In 2013 the Portuguese section of Vatican Radio
Vatican Radio
reported that at the conclusion of the 2013 conclave, the newly elected Pope Francis bestowed his cardinalitial zucchetto on Archbishop Lorenzo Baldisseri the secretary of that conclave[98] and on 22 February 2014 at Pope
Pope
Francis' first consistory, Baldisseri was formally made a cardinal with the title of Cardinal-Deacon
Cardinal-Deacon
of Sant’Anselmo all’Aventino.[99] Then, the new pope goes to the "Room of Tears", a small red room next to the Sistine Chapel; the room has the nickname because of the strong emotions experienced by the new pope. The new pope dresses by himself, choosing a set of pontifical choir robes—consisting of a white cassock, rochet, and red mozzetta—from three sizes provided. He then wears a gold corded pectoral cross, a red and gold embroidered stole, and then dons the white papal zucchetto on his head. In 2013, Pope Francis dispensed with the red mozzetta, rochet, and gold pectoral cross, wearing only the white cassock and his own pectoral cross when he appeared on the central balcony. He also did not emerge wearing the stole, vesting in it only to impart the Apostolic Blessing
Apostolic Blessing
and removing it shortly after. Next, the Cardinal Protodeacon
Cardinal Protodeacon
(the senior Cardinal Deacon) appears at the loggia of the Basilica to proclaim the new pope. He usually proceeds with the traditional Latin
Latin
formula (assuming the new Pope
Pope
was a cardinal):

Annuntio vobis gaudium magnum: Habemus Papam! Eminentissimum ac Reverendissimum Dominum, Dominum [forename], Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae Cardinalem [surname], qui sibi nomen imposuit [papal name].

("I announce to you a great joy: We have a Pope! The Most Eminent and Most Reverend Lord, Lord [forename], Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church [surname], who takes to himself the name [papal name].")

During the announcement for Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI's election, the cardinal protodeacon Jorge Arturo Medina Estévez greeted the crowds first in several different languages "Dear brothers and sisters" before proceeding to the Latin
Latin
announcement. This was not done when Pope Francis was elected. It has happened in the past that the Cardinal Protodeacon
Cardinal Protodeacon
has himself been the person elected pope. In such an event, the announcement is made by the next senior Deacon, who has thus succeeded as Protodeacon. The last time the cardinal protodeacon was elected was in 1513 when Giovanni de Medici was elected as Pope
Pope
Leo X and the next senior cardinal deacon Alessandro Farnese (the future Pope
Pope
Paul III) made the announcement. During the election of Pope
Pope
Leo XIII in 1878 Protodeacon Prospero Caterini
Prospero Caterini
appeared and started to make the announcement but was physically incapable of completing it, so another made it for him.[f] Following the announcement, the senior Cardinal Deacon retreats, and papal aides unfurl a large, maroon banner that out of practicality often bears the late pope's arms in the centre, draping it onto the railing of the Basilica's loggia.[103] During Pope
Pope
Francis' announcement, there was no image of his predecessor's arms (indicating that the previous pope was still alive), and during Pope
Pope
Pius XI's first appearance following his election at the 1922 conclave, the banner showed the arms of Pope
Pope
Pius IX instead of the arms of his immediate predecessor Pope
Pope
Benedict XV.[104] The new pope then emerges onto the balcony to the adulation of the crowd, while a brass band in the forecourt below plays the Pontifical Anthem. He then imparts the Urbi et Orbi
Urbi et Orbi
blessing. The Pope
Pope
may on this occasion choose to give the shorter episcopal blessing as his first Apostolic Blessing
Apostolic Blessing
instead of the traditional Urbi et Orbi
Urbi et Orbi
blessing, this happened most recently with Pope
Pope
Paul VI after his election at the 1963 conclave[105] Beginning with Pope
Pope
John Paul II, the last three popes elected including Pope
Pope
Francis, have chosen to address the crowds first before imparting the Urbi et Orbi
Urbi et Orbi
blessing. Also, at Pope
Pope
Francis' first appearance, he led the faithful first in prayers for his predecessor and asked them for prayers for himself before imparting the Urbi et Orbi blessing. Formerly, the pope would later be crowned by the triregnum or Triple Tiara at the Papal Coronation. All popes since John Paul I have refused an elaborate coronation, choosing instead to have a simpler papal inauguration ceremony.[106] Papal documents regarding the conclave[edit]

In nomine Domini
In nomine Domini
(1059) Quia propter (1215) Ubi periculum (1274) Ne Romani (1312) Aeterni Patris Filius
Aeterni Patris Filius
(1621) Commissum Nobis (1904) Vacante sede apostolica (1904) Cum proxime (1922) Vacantis Apostolicae Sedis (1945) Summi Pontificis electio (1962) Ingravescentem aetatem
Ingravescentem aetatem
(1970) Romano Pontifici eligendo
Romano Pontifici eligendo
(1975) Universi Dominici gregis
Universi Dominici gregis
(1996) Ordo Rituum Conclavis (2000) De electione romani pontifici (2007) Normas nonnullas (2013)

See also[edit]

Christianity portal Religion portal

Conclave capitulation Elective monarchy Index of Vatican City-related articles List of papal elections Papal appointment

Notes[edit]

^ Each of these popes intended to promulgate a new constitution governing papal elections but died before doing so. ^ Canon 1024 states: "A baptized male alone receives sacred ordination validly."[35] Claims that there was a female pope, including the legendary Pope
Pope
Joan, are fictitious.[36][37] ^ The London Magazine printed an image of a ballot design in 1903 with this description: "It is divided into three compartments, in the first of which the Cardinal writes his own name, in the second that of the candidate for whom he votes, and in the third a motto and number. The first and third compartments are then folded twice and sealed down [with wax] at both sides, so that only the middle compartment can be seen by the scrutineers [vote counters].... Should the majority be exactly two-thirds of the total votes recorded, the papers are opened and the names of those voting in the majority examined, in order to make sure that the elected Cardinal did not vote for himself."[38] ^ John XXIII (5 September 1962). Summi Pontificis Electio (in Latin). Motu proprio. AAS. 54. (1962) pp. 632–640. Vatican City. ^ Formerly, cardinals regularly had meals sent in from their homes with much pageantry accompanying the conveyance of food: "Towards noon each day, the Cardinal's gentlemen proceeded to his house and conveyed his dinner to the Vatican in a state coach. They were accompanied by an officer, known as the Seneschal Dapifer, who was charged with the very important duty of seeing that the Cardinal's food was not poisoned! … The dishes were enclosed in hampers or tin boxes, covered with green or violet drapery, and … were carried in state through the entrance halls, preceded by the mace of the Cardinal. The Seneschal Dapifer, bearing a serviette on his shoulder, preceded the dishes.... Before the Cardinal received his dinner, each dish underwent a careful inspection by the prelates on guard, in order that no letter should be concealed in it."[38] These ceremonies have not been observed since the nineteenth century. ^ Richard Henry Clarke's book about Leo XIII claims that Prospero Caterini made the announcement[100] and Salvador Miranda's entry on Cardinal Caterini at The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church website mentions Caterini as having given the announcement[101] but Francis Burkle-Young claims that Caterini started to make the announcement but was incapable of completing the spoken formula and was ultimately assisted by Bartolomeo Grassi-Landi, a non-cardinal and the conclavist of Cardinal Luigi Oreglia di Santo Stefano[102]

Direct citations[edit]

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(1274)". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  ^ a b c d e f g John Paul II
John Paul II
(22 February 1996). Universi Dominici gregis. Apostolic constitution. Vatican City: Vatican Publishing House. ^ a b Baumgartner 2003, p. 4. ^  Weber, N. A. (1913). " Pope
Pope
Nicholas II". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  ^ " Pope
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Issues Conclave Motu Proprio" National Catholic Register. 25 February 2013. ^ a b c Benedict XVI (11 June 2007). De aliquibus mutationibus in normis de electione Romani Pontificis (in Latin). Motu proprio. Vatican City: Vatican Publishing House. ^ a b " Pope
Pope
alters voting for successor". BBC News. 26 June 2007. ^ a b c d  Dowling, A. (1913). "Conclave". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  ^ Signorotto and Visceglia 2002, p. 106 ^ a b Baumgartner 2003, pp. 32-33 ^ Baumgartner 2003, p. 146 ^ Baumgartner 2003, p. 145 ^ a b c  Joyce, G. H. (1913). "Election of the Popes". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  ^ a b c d e  Fanning, W. H. W. (1913). "Papal Elections". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  ^ Baumgartner 2003, p. 14–19. ^ a b Guruge 2010, p. 49. ^ a b  Sägmüller, Johannes Baptist (1913). "Cardinal". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  ^ Miranda, Salvador. "Election of May 30 – November 25, 1277 (Nicholas III)". ^ Adams, John Paul (7 November 2010). "SEDE VACANTE 1277" ^  Kirsch, Johann Peter (1913). " Pope
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John XXI (XX)". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  ^ Baumgartner 2003, p. 44–46. ^ Levillain 2002, p. 848. ^ Pope
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Paul VI (20 November 1970). "Ingravescentem aetatem" (in Latin). Libreria Editrice Vaticana. Retrieved 4 December 2017.  ^ a b Pope
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Paul VI (1 October 1975). "Romano Pontifici eligendo" (in Latin). Libreria Editrice Vaticana. Retrieved 4 December 2017.  ^  Loughlin, James Francis (1913). "St. Ambrose". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  ^ Baumgartner 2003, p. 13. ^ Guruge 2010, p. 46–47. ^ a b Baumgartner 2003, p. 21-23. ^ Hay, Denys (1989). Europe in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries (2nd ed.). Routledge. p. ??.  ^ Löffler, Klemens (1910). " Pope
Pope
Leo X". The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved 11 August 2016.  ^ Guruge 2010, p. 36-37. ^ Baumgartner 2003, p. 215. ^ Baumgartner, Frederic J. (2003). "10: Conclaves in the Twentieth Century". Behind Locked Doors: A History of the Papal Elections. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 217. ISBN 9780312294632. Retrieved 2017-07-12. The best authority on the conclave indicates that [Roncalli] had thirty-eight [votes], three more than required. Siri received ten, and Montini, two.  ^ John Paul II
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(25 January 1983). "THOSE TO BE ORDAINED". Code of Canon Law IV(I)VI.II. Vatican City: Vatican Publishing House. ^  Kirsch, J.P. (1913). "Popess Joan". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  ^ Lord, Lewis (24 July 2000). "The lady was a pope: A bestseller revives the outlandish tale of Joan". U.S. News Online. U.S. News & World Report. ^ a b c d Wintle, W. J. (June 1903). "How the Pope
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Gregory XV". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  ^ Gregory XV
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(15 November 1621). "Aeterni Patris". Papal bull. Rome. ^ Toman, J. T. (5 January 2004). The Papal Conclave: How do Cardinals Divine the Will of God? Archived 10 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine.. ^  Peterson, John B. (1913). " Pope
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in the Early Middle Ages". Foundation for Medieval Genealogy 1 (1): 5–21. ^ Nelson, Lynn H. (1999) "The Owl, The Cat, And The Investiture Controversy: 1000 – 1122" Archived 15 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine.. ^ "The Concordat
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of Worms 1122". Halsall, Paul (ed.) Internet Medieval Source Book (January 1996). ^  Sägmüller, Johannes Baptist (1913). "Right of Exclusion". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  ^  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Conclave". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.  ^ Guruge 2010, p. 141. ^ Wright, David (18 April 2005). "Inside Longest Papal Conclave in History". Viterbo: ABC News. ^ Goda, Paul (15 April 2005). "Papal Election Procedure: Incarnate History and Faith in a Higher Good" Archived 5 September 2006 at the Wayback Machine.. Jurist Forum, University of Pittsburgh School of Law. ^ Martin S.J., M. (1910). The Roman Curia. The Ecclesiastical Review. 43. p. 426. Retrieved 3 November 2017.  ^ "Interesting Conclave Facts". ewtn.com.  ^ "Cardinal Sodano elected dean of College of Cardinals". Cwnews.com. 2 May 2005. Retrieved 12 March 2013.  ^ Some have proposed the election of the pope by a special synod of bishops. This would imitate some of the Eastern-rite churches where metropolitans and patriarchs are elected by synods of bishops. However, the method for selecting the synod members would inevitably be controversial. Cardinals and Conclaves Archived 23 August 2006 at the Wayback Machine., By Thomas J. Reese, S.J., senior fellow at the Woodstock Theological Center, America, 19 November 1994. ^ "Toward the conclave #1: the office of camerlengo". Cwnews.com. 5 April 2005. Retrieved 12 March 2013.  ^ Menachery George "Last Days of Pope
Pope
John Paul II"http://www.indianchristianity.com/html/Books.html ^ Sede Vacante, from Aquinas publishing ^ For a description of John Paul II's burial see A pope among popes ^  Ott, Michael T. (1913). " Pope
Pope
Gregory XII". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  ^ Pope
Pope
John Paul II
John Paul II
(22 February 1996). "Universi Dominici Gregis". The Holy See. Libreria Editrice Vaticana. para. 77. Retrieved 7 September 2017.  ^ Stanford, Peter. " Pope
Pope
resigns: The pope who was not afraid to say sorry". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 12 February 2013.  ^ See the home page Archived 29 August 2006 at the Wayback Machine. here ^ Homepage for Card. Tomáš Špidlík
Tomáš Špidlík
Archived 29 August 2006 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Veni Creator Spiritus". Catholic Encyclopedia. New Advent. Retrieved 11 August 2016.  ^ Cardinals begin voting for new Pope
Pope
(video, at 2:40 mins), Daily Telegraph, 12 Mar 2013. Retrieved 13 Mar 2013. ^ The rites for the Conclave begin: The entrance procession of the Cardinal Electors, wdtprs.com, 12 Mar 2013. Retrieved 13 Mar 2013. ^ Cardinals Gather to Mourn Pope, Choose Successor, 04.04.05, Newshour, ^ Procession
Procession
and entrance in Conclave (Television production) (in Italian). Rome: Centro Televisivo Vaticano. 12 March 2013. Retrieved 9 April 2013.  ^ For a daily chronicle of Pope
Pope
Francis election events and for His Holiness' post election programmes until Easter 2013 reported by Menachery George cf.http://www.indianchristianity.com ^ If a Cardinal with the right to vote should refuse to enter Vatican City in order to take part in the election, or subsequently, once the election has begun, should refuse to remain in order to discharge his office, without manifest reason of illness attested to under oath by doctors and confirmed by the majority of the electors, the other Cardinals shall proceed freely with the election, without waiting for him or readmitting him. The Election of a New Pope, Malta Media. ^ 2 – Secret conclave, from the BBC ^ "At The Vatican, A Social Media Blackout Keeps Cardinals Pure". Npr.org. Retrieved 12 March 2013.  ^ Universi Dominici gregis
Universi Dominici gregis
(Shepherd of the Lord's Whole Flock), promulgated by Pope
Pope
John Paul II, 22 February 1996 ^ Ludwig Von Pastor, History of the Papacy, the Bulls of Gregory XV, Aeterni Patris, and Decet Romanum Pontificem 1621–1622 ^ Francis Burkle Young, Conclaves in the 15th century; also see Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church, a website maintained by Salvador Miranda, via FIU ^ Ludwig Von Pastor, History of the Papacy, ^ Benedict XVI (11 June 2007) " De aliquibus mutationibus in normis de electione Romani Pontificis" Apostolic letter. ^ Vacantis Apostolicae Sedis, 8 December 1945, Pope
Pope
Pius XII ^ Vacante Sede Apostolica, 25 December 1904 Pope
Pope
Pius X ^ a b c Chumley, Cheryl K. (12 March 2013). "What Do American Catholics Want in the Next Pope?". Fox News. The Washington Times. Retrieved 15 March 2013.  ^ 3 – Voting rituals, from the BBC series "Choosing a Pope" ^ Fountain, Henry (11 March 2013). "Conclave Smoke's Recipe Is a Mystery". New York Times. Retrieved 13 March 2013.  ^ Fountain, Henry (12 March 2013). "Vatican Reveals Recipes for Conclave Smoke". New York Times. Retrieved 13 March 2013.  ^ "Así se consigue la fumata blanca y la negra". ABC (in Spanish). Vatican City. Agencia EFE. 13 March 2013. Retrieved 15 March 2013.  ^ Thomas J. Resse SJ, Inside The Vatican: The Politics and Organization of the Catholic Church, Harvard University Press (1996), p. 99. ^ Menachery George, Vatican Adventure http://www.indianchristianity.com/html/menachery/html/GeorgeMenachery.htm ^ Conclave A.D. 1963 – Election of Pope
Pope
Paul VI. YouTube video. Accessed 19 October 2013 ^ "Dom Lorenzo Baldisseri
Lorenzo Baldisseri
recebe solideu cardinalício" (in Portuguese). Rádio Vaticano Portuguese section.  ^ "Annuncio di Concistoro per la Creazione di Nuovi Cardinali" (in Italian). The Vatican Today. 12 January 2014. Retrieved 12 January 2014.  ^ Richard Henry Clarke. The life of His Holiness Pope
Pope
Leo XIII ...: together with extracts from his pastorals and encyclicals.  ^ "Caterini, Prospero". Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church.  ^ Francis A. Burkle-Young. Papal Elections in the Age of Transition, 1878–1922.  ^ Menachery George, Vatican Adventure, Election of John Paul II, http://www.indianchristianity.com/html/menachery/html/GeorgeMenachery.htm ^ See for example the image at the article "How new Pope
Pope
is elected" at Pophap "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 20 December 2013. Retrieved 2 June 2013.  ^ Elezione Papa Paolo VI (1963). YouTube. Accessed on 22 December 2012. ^ 5 – New pope announced, Choosing a Pope, BBC

References[edit]

Pius X (25 December 1904). "Vacante Sede Apostolica". Apostolic constitution. Pii X Pontificis Maximi Acta. 3. (1908) pp. 239–288. Pius XI (1 March 1922). "Cum Proxime". Motu proprio. AAS. 14. (1922) pp. 145–146. Pius XI (25 March 1935). "Quae Divinitus". Apostolic constitution. AAS. 27 (1935) pp. 97–113. Paul VI (15 August 1967). Regimini Ecclesiae Universae (in Latin). Apostolic constitution. AAS. 59. (1967) pp. 885–928. Vatican City. John Paul II
John Paul II
(28 June 1988). Pastor Bonus. Apostolic constitution. Vatican City: Vatican Publishing House. Benedict XVI (11 June 2007). De aliquibus mutationibus in normis de electione Romani Pontificis. Apostolic letter. Vatican City: Vatican Publishing House. Beal, John P.; Coriden, James A.; Green, Thomas J., eds. (2000). New Commentary on the Code of Canon Law. Mahwah, New Jersey: Paulist Press International. ISBN 978-0-8091-0502-1. Burkle-Young, Francis A. (1999). Passing the Keys: Modern Cardinals, Conclaves, and the Election of the Next Pope. New York: The Derrydale Press. ISBN 978-1-56833-130-0. Kurtz, Johann Heinrich (1889). Church History 1. New York: Funk & Wagnalls. ISBN 978-0-217-33928-5. Levillain, Philippe; O'Malley, John W., eds. (2002). "The Papacy: An Encyclopedia". Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-92228-9. Baumgartner, Frederic J. (2003). Behind Locked Doors: A History of the Papal Elections. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-29463-2. Colomer, Josep M.; McLean, Iain (1998). "Electing Popes. Approval Balloting with Qualified-Majority Rule". Journal of Interdisciplinary History (MIT Press) 29 (1): 1–22. Duffy, Eamon (2006). Saints and Sinners: A History of the Popes (3rd ed.). Connecticut: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-11597-0. Guruge, Anura (2010). The Next Pope
Pope
After Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI. WOWNH LLC. ISBN 978-0-615-35372-2. Pastor, Ludwig von. "History of the Papacy, Conclaves in the 16th century; Reforms of Pope
Pope
Gregory XV, papal bulls: Aeterni Patris (1621) and Decet Romanum Pontificem (1622)". Reese, T. J. (1996). "Revolution in Papal Elections". America 174 (12): 4. Wintle, W. J. (June 1903). "How the Pope
Pope
is Elected". The London Magazine. "Papal Conclave" Catholic Almanac (2012). Huntington, Indiana: Our Sunday Visitor. "Inside the Vatican: National Geographic Goes Behind the Public Facade". National Geographic Channel. 8 April 2004. "How the Pope
Pope
is Elected". ReligionFacts.com Signorotto, Gianvittorio; Visceglia, Maria Antonietta (2002). Court and Politics in Papal Rome, 1492–1700. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781139431415. 

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