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Italo-Turkish War
Italo-Turkish War
(1911–1912)

Battle of Beirut

World War I
World War I
(1915–1918)

Battle of Durazzo

Paolo Camillo Thaon, Marquess
Marquess
of Revel (10 June 1859 – 24 March 1948), laterly titled by Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
with the honorary title of 1st Duke of the Sea, was an Italian admiral of the Royal Italian Navy (Regia Marina) during World War I
World War I
and later a politician.

Contents

1 Early life and career 2 World War I 3 Later life 4 References 5 Bibliography

Early life and career[edit] Thaon di Revel was born in Turin
Turin
from a family of the Savoyard and Niçard nobility of Scottish descent, a minor son of Marquess
Marquess
and Count
Count
Ottavio Thaon di Revel. He took part as Rear-admiral in the Italo-Turkish War, commanding Italian cruisers in the Battle of Beirut. He was named Chief of Staff of the Regia Marina
Regia Marina
in 1913; he supported the signing of a naval convention between the nations of the Triple Alliance, knowing of Italy's vulnerability to seaborne threats and its dependence on its sealanes, which was concluded on October of that year. When World War I
World War I
broke out, he warned the government of Antonio Salandra that chances of Austro-Italian success against the combined force of the French and British fleets was small, and that the Regia Marina could not guarantee the safety of the Italian coast. This factors weighed in Salandra's decision to proclaim Italy's neutrality.[1] World War I[edit] When Italy
Italy
joined the Entente on 24 May 1915, Thaon di Revel became the leading figure of Italy's naval war, and remained so for the duration. He resigned on October 1915 because of friction between him and the Minister of the Navy Camillo Corsi over the respective authority, and took command of the naval base of Venice. On 3 February 1917, he was reappointed Chief of Staff, and combined the position with that of Commander in Chief of the mobilized naval forces (i.e. the Regia Marina's main forces), replacing Prince Luigi Amedeo, Duke of the Abruzzi. On one hand, Thaon di Revel was "energetic and autocratic", a tireless defender of perceived allied indifference towards Italian needs and merits and of Italian independent command, and the major reason as to why a unified Mediterranean naval command never came to be (which would have led to dangerous ambiguity had a combined fleet action been imminent), which led to a less than optimal relationship with the allied navies and officers; however, he was also "thoroughly realistic", having a picture of the Adriatic theater that discouraged aggressive actions to lure out the Austrian fleet, and which led to his decision not to risk his battleships and to fight the war with smaller ships and insidious means such as the MAS (which would score several successes in the conflict, notably the sinking of the battleship SMS Szent István.[2][3] After the Italian rout at Caporetto in November 1917, he secured the coastal area. In the late days of the war he led the bombardment of Durazzo[4] and the quick occupation of the coasts of Istria
Istria
and Dalmatia. Later life[edit] In 1917 Thaon di Revel was named to the Italian Senate. In November 1921, while serving as the Chief of the Italian Naval Staff, he was Italy's naval representative to the Washington Armaments Conference.[5] In 1922, he was ennobled by King Victor Emmanuel III
Victor Emmanuel III
and given the victory title of 1st Duca del Mare ("Duke of the Sea"). In October 1922 he was appointed Minister of the Navy in the Mussolini Cabinet; he resigned in 1925, to protest the creation of the position of Chief of the General Staff, to be assigned exclusively to Army officers. He was named Grand Admiral
Admiral
(Grande Ammiraglio) on 4 November 1924. He was President of the Italian Senate
Italian Senate
from 1943 to 1944 after the fall of fascist regime. Thaon di Revel died in Rome
Rome
in 1948. He was buried in the church of Santa Maria degli Angeli e dei Martiri, next to general Armando Diaz.

Political offices

Preceded by Giacomo Suardo President of the Italian Senate 1943-1944 Succeeded by Pietro Tomasi Della Torretta

v t e

Presidents of Italian Senate

Kingdom of Italy

Coller Manno Alfieri di Sostegno Settimo Sclopis Casati Fardella di Torrearsa Ambrois Pasolini Tecchio Durando Farini Saracco Canonico Manfredi Bonasi Tittoni Federzoni Suardo Thaon di Revel Tomasi Della Torretta

Italian Republic

Bonomi De Nicola Paratore Gasparotto Ruini Merzagora Zelioli-Lanzini Fanfani Spagnolli Fanfani Morlino Colombo Cossiga Fanfani Malagodi Spadolini Scognamiglio Pasini Mancino Pera Marini Schifani Grasso

v t e

List of Italian First Marshals and Marshals of Italy

First Marshal of the Empire (Primo Maresciallo dell'Impero)

King Victor Emmanuel III Benito Mussolini

Marshals (Maresciallo d'Italia)

Regio Esercito  

Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Prince Emanuele Filiberto, Duke of Aosta Pietro Badoglio Enrico Caviglia Gaetano Giardino Guglielmo Pecori Giraldi Emilio De Bono Rodolfo Graziani Ugo Cavallero Ettore Bastico Umberto, Prince of Piedmont Giovanni Messe

Grand Admiral (Grande Ammiraglio)

Regia Marina  

Paolo Thaon di Revel

Marshal of the Air Force (Maresciallo dell'Aria)

Regia Aeronautica  

Italo Balbo

References[edit]

^ Halpern, p. 54-6 and144 ^ "http://encyclopedia.1914-1918-online.net/article/italian_front".  External link in title= (help) ^ Halpern, p. 359-62 ^ Kabashi, Gezim (December 24, 2012). "Fotot e Rralla - Bombardimi i Durresit me 2 Tetor 1918" [Rare Photos - Bombing of Durres on October 2, 1918]. Gazeta e Durresit. Archived from the original on October 24, 2014.  ^ "To Attend Washington Conference". Norwich Bulletin. Norwich, Connecticut. 12 November 1921. p. 5. 

Bibliography[edit]

Halpern, Paul G. (1994). A naval history of World War I. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 9781612511726. 

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 67314060 LCCN: n97082876 ISNI: 0000 0001 1663 417X GND: 121091961 SUDOC: 136870937 BNF: cb10713323s (data) ICCU: ITIC

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