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Panorpida or Mecopterida is a proposed superorder of Endopterygota. The conjectured monophyly of the Panorpida is based on morphological, not genomic evidence, namely the reduction or loss of the ovipositor and several internal characteristics, including a muscle connecting a pleura and first axillary sclerite at the base of the wing, various structures of larval maxilla and labium, and basal fusion of CuP and A1 veins in hind wings.[1][2] The monophyly of the Panorpida is also supported by molecular data.[3]

Panzygothoraca, part of Endopterygota
Panorpida
Antliophora

Diptera Common house fly, Musca domestica.jpg




Mecoptera (scorpionflies, hangingflies, 400 spp.) (exc. Boreidae) Gunzesrieder Tal Insekt 3.jpg




Boreidae (snow scorpionflies, 30 spp.) Boreus hiemalis2 detail.jpg



Siphonaptera (fleas, 2500 spp.) Pulex irritans female ZSM.jpg





Amphiesmenoptera

Trichoptera (caddisflies) Sericostoma.personatum.jpg



Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) Tyria jacobaeae-lo.jpg





Hymenoptera (sawflies, wasps, ants, bees) AD2009Sep09 Vespula germanica 03.jpg



References

  1. ^ Kristensen, Niels Peder (1975). "The phylogeny of hexapod "orders". A critical review of recent accounts". Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research. 1 (13): 1–44. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0469.1975.tb00226.x. 
  2. ^ Kristensen, Niels Peder (1991). "Phylogeny of extant hexapods". Insects of Australia: 126–140. 
  3. ^ Grimaldi, David; Engel, Michael, S. (2005). Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press. p. 468. ISBN 978-0-521-82149-0.