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Panhard
Panhard
is a French manufacturer of light tactical and military vehicles. Its current incarnation, now owned by Renault
Renault
Trucks Defense, was formed by the acquisition of Panhard
Panhard
by Auverland
Auverland
in 2005. Panhard
Panhard
had been under Citroën
Citroën
ownership, then PSA (Peugeot société anonyme) after the 1974 takeover of Citroën
Citroën
by Peugeot, for 40 years. The combined company now uses the Panhard
Panhard
name; this was decided based on studies indicating that the Panhard
Panhard
name had better brand recognition worldwide than the Auverland
Auverland
name. Panhard
Panhard
once built innovative civilian cars but ceased production of those in 1968. Many of its military products however end up on the civilian market via third sources and as military/government surplus vehicles. Panhard also built railbuses between the wars.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Early years 1.2 First World War 1.3 Between two world wars 1.4 Post- World War II
World War II
era

2 Models

2.1 Panhard
Panhard
car models 2.2 Cars with Panhard
Panhard
technology 2.3 Partial lists of trucks and buses (not armoured)

3 Current military models 4 Vehicles in service 5 Gallery 6 See also 7 References

7.1 Notes 7.2 Bibliography

8 External links

History[edit] Panhard
Panhard
was originally called Panhard
Panhard
et Levassor, and was established as a car manufacturing concern by René Panhard and Émile Levassor
Émile Levassor
in 1887. Early years[edit] Panhard
Panhard
et Levassor sold their first automobile in 1890, based on a Daimler engine license. Levassor obtained his licence from Paris lawyer Edouard Sarazin, a friend and representative of Gottlieb Daimler's interests in France. Following Sarazin's 1887 death, Daimler commissioned Sarazin's widow Louise to carry on her late husband's agency. The Panhard
Panhard
et Levassor license was finalised by Louise, who married Levassor in 1890.[1] Daimler and Levassor became fast friends, and shared improvements with one another. These first vehicles set many modern standards, but each was a one-off design. They used a clutch pedal to operate a chain-driven gearbox. The vehicle also featured a front-mounted radiator. An 1895 Panhard
Panhard
et Levassor is credited with the first modern transmission. For the 1894 Paris–Rouen Rally, Alfred Vacheron equipped his 4 horsepower (3.0 kW; 4.1 PS) with a steering wheel, believed to be one of the earliest employments of the principle.[2][3] In 1891, the company built its first all-Levassor design,[4] a "state of the art" model: the Système Panhard
Système Panhard
consisted of four wheels, a front-mounted engine with rear wheel drive, and a crude sliding-gear transmission, sold at 3500 francs.[4] (It would remain the standard until Cadillac
Cadillac
introduced synchromesh in 1928.)[5] This was to become the standard layout for automobiles for most of the next century. The same year, Panhard
Panhard
et Levassor shared their Daimler engine license with bicycle maker Armand Peugeot, who formed his own car company. In 1895, 1,205 cc (74 cu in) Panhard
Panhard
et Levassor vehicles finished first and second in the Paris–Bordeaux–Paris race, one piloted solo by Levassor, for 48¾hr.[6] However, during the 1896 Paris–Marseille– Paris
Paris
race, Levassor was fatally injured due to a crash while trying to avoid hitting a dog, and died in Paris
Paris
the following year. Arthur Krebs
Arthur Krebs
succeeded Levassor as General Manager in 1897, and held the job until 1916. He turned the Panhard
Panhard
et Levassor Company into one of the largest and most profitable manufacturers of automobiles before World War I. Panhards won numerous races from 1895 to 1903. Panhard
Panhard
et Levassor developed the Panhard
Panhard
rod, which came to be used in many other types of automobiles as well. From 1910 Panhard
Panhard
worked to develop engines without conventional valves, using under license the sleeve valve technology that had been patented by the American Charles Yale Knight. Between 1910 and 1924 the Panhard
Panhard
& Levassor catalogue listed plenty of models with conventional valve engines, but these were offered alongside cars powered by sleeve valve power units. Following various detailed improvements to the sleeve valve technology by Panhard's own engineering department, from 1924 till 1940 all Panhard
Panhard
cars used sleeve valve engines. First World War[edit] Under the presidency of Raymond Poincaré, which ran from 1913 till 1920, Panhard
Panhard
& Levassor's 18CV and 20CV models were the official presidential cars. During the war Panhard, like other leading automobile producers, concentrated on war production, including large numbers of military trucks, V12-cylinder aero-engines, gun components, and large 75 and 105 diameter shells.[7] The military were also keen on the sleeve valve engined Panhard 20HP.[7] General Joffre himself used two 35HP Panhard
Panhard
Type X35s with massive 4-cylinder 7,360 cc (449 cu in) engines for his personal transport, and these were frequently to be seen by Parisians carrying military leaders between the front-line and the Élysée Palace.[7] Between two world wars[edit] Following the outbreak of peace in 1918, Panhard
Panhard
resumed passenger car production in March 1919 with the 10HP Panhard
Panhard
Type X19 which used a 4-cylinder 2,140cc engine.[7] This was followed three months later by three more 4-cylinder models which will have been familiar to any customers whose memories pre-dated the war, but they now incorporated ungraded electrics and a number of other modifications.[7] For the 15th Paris
Paris
Motor Show, in October 1919, Panhard
Panhard
were displaying four models, all with four cylinder engines, as follows:[7]

Panhard
Panhard
Type X19 2,150 cc / 10 HP Panhard
Panhard
Type X31 2,275 cc / 12 HP

(This replaced the 12 HP Panhard
Panhard
Type 25 for 1920.)

Panhard
Panhard
Type X28 3,175 cc / 16 HP Panhard
Panhard
Type X29 4,850 cc / 20 HP

By 1925, all Panhard's cars were powered by Knight sleeve valve engines that used steel sleeves.[8] The steel sleeves were thinner and lighter than the cast iron ones that had been fitted in Panhard
Panhard
sleeve valve engines since 1910, and this already gave rise to an improved friction coefficient permitting engines to run at higher speeds.[8] To reduce further the risk of engines jamming, the outer sleeves, which are less thermally stressed than the inner sleeves, were coated on their inner sides with an anti-friction material, employing a patented technique with which Panhard
Panhard
engineers had been working since 1923. This was one of several improvements applied by Panhard
Panhard
engineers to the basic Knight sleeve-valve engine concept.[8] In 1925 a 4.8 litre (292ci) model set the world record for the fastest hour run, an average of 185.51 km/h (115.26 mph). A surprise appeared on the Panhard
Panhard
stand at the 20th Paris
Paris
Motor Show in October 1926, in the shape of the manufacturer's first six-cylinder model since before the war.[9] The new Panhard
Panhard
16CV "Six" came with a 3445cc engine and sat on a 3540 mm wheelbase.[9] At the show it was priced, in bare chassis form, at 58,000 francs.[9] Of the nine models displayed for the 1927 model year, seven featured four cylinder engines, ranging in capacity from 1480cc (10CV) to 4845cc (20CV), and in price from 31,000 francs to 75,000 francs (all in bare chassis form).[9] Also on show was an example of the 8-cylinder 6350cc (35CV) "Huit" model which Panhard
Panhard
had offered since 1921 and which at the 1926 show was priced by the manufacturer in bare chassis form at 99,000 francs.[9] When Panhard
Panhard
presented their 1931 line-up at the Paris
Paris
Motor Show in October 1930, their last two four cylinder models had been withdrawn, along with the 10CV 6-cylider Type X59.[10] Instead they concentrated on their "S-series" cars, designated " Panhard
Panhard
CS" and " Panhard
Panhard
DS" according to engine size, and introduced a year earlier.[10] Publicity of the time indicated the "S" stood for "Voitures surbaissées" (cars having an "underslung" chassis,[11]) but, clearly captivated by the power of alliteration, added that "S" also indicated cars that were "...souples, supérieures, stables, spacieuses, silencieuses, sans soupapes (ie using valveless cylinders)...".[10] Four of the five Panhards exhibited featured increasingly lavish and pricey 6-cylinder engined cars, their engine sizes ranging from 2.35-litres to 3.5-litres.[10] There was also an 8-cylinder 5.1-litre Panhard
Panhard
Type X67 on display, with a generous 3,590 mm (141.3 in) wheelbase and listed, even in bare chassis form, at 85,000 francs.[10] Panhard
Panhard
et Levassor's last pre-war car was the unusually styled monocoque Dynamic series, first introduced in 1936.[12] Panhard
Panhard
et Levassor also produced railbuses, including some for the metre gauge Chemin de Fer du Finistère. Post- World War II
World War II
era[edit] After World War II
World War II
the company was renamed Panhard
Panhard
(without "Levassor"), and produced light cars such as the Dyna X, Dyna Z, PL 17, 24 CT and 24 BT. The company had long noted the weight advantages of aluminum, and this as well as postwar government steel rationing (designed to limit new car models to ensure an orderly return to production at the major firms), encouraged the firm to proceed with the expensive alternative of making the bodies and several other components out of aluminum. Thus the Dyna X and early Dyna Z series 1 had aluminum bodies. Unfortunately, cost calculations by Jean Panhard, the inheriting son and managing director of the firm, failed to account for the extra cost of aluminum vs steel. His calculation were made for the sheet metal panel area actually utilized per body shell, and did not account for the scrap of each of the stampings making up the shell. Once in production, a re-examination showed a cost of 55,700fr for aluminum shells and only 15,600fr for steel. The use of aluminum had pushed the firm close to bankruptcy, and a hurried engineering job returned the firm to steel. Thus, the later Dyna Z (from mid September 1955) and the successor PL 17 bodies were steel, and the major stampings retained the heavier gauge intended for durability with aluminum, so as to avoid complete replacement of the stamping dies. The air-cooled flat-twin engine of the Dyna was used by Georges Irat for his "Voiture du Bled" (VdB) off-road vehicle, built in Morocco in small numbers in the early 1950s.[13] Drawing inspiration from the Panhard Dynavia
Panhard Dynavia
concept, the styling of the Dyna Z was distinctively smooth and rounded, with an emphasis on aerodynamics and an overall minimalist design. The 24 CT was a later (fr summer 1963-on) stylish 2+2 seater; the 24 BT being a version of the same with a longer wheelbase and space for four. For a period after the war, the Panhard-based Monopole racing cars received unofficial support from Panhard
Panhard
(as did DB and other clients such as Robert Chancel), using it to good effect in winning the "Index of Performance" class at Le Mans in 1950, 1951, and 1952.[14] In 1953, Panhard
Panhard
moved on to a more direct involvement with Chancel, which however came to an end after the deadly 1955 Le Mans.[14] In the latter half of the 1950s and the early 1960s, the Deutsch Bonnet racers ("DB Panhard") picked up this mantle and went on to dominate the "Index of Performance" as well as other small-engine racing classes. The last Panhard
Panhard
passenger car was built in 1967. After assembling 2CV panel trucks for Citroën
Citroën
to utilize capacity during falling sales, and raising operating cash by selling ownership progressively to Citroën, respectively to its then-mother company Michelin
Michelin
(full control as of 1965), in fall of 1967 the civilian branch was absorbed by Citroën, and the marque was retired. Since 1968 Panhard
Panhard
has only made armored vehicles.[15] In 2004, Panhard
Panhard
lost a competition to another manufacturer of military vehicles, Auverland, for the choice of the future PVP of the French Army. This allowed Auverland
Auverland
to purchase Panhard
Panhard
in 2005, then a subsidiary of PSA Peugeot
Peugeot
Citroën. However, the fame of Panhard being greater, it was decided to retain the name; the PVP designed by Auverland
Auverland
would bear a Panhard
Panhard
badge. Today the only use of the name Panhard
Panhard
is the " Panhard
Panhard
rod" (also called Panhard
Panhard
bar). This is a suspension link invented by Panhard that provides lateral location of the axle. This device has been widely used on other automobiles or as after-market upgrade to rear axles for vintage American cars. In October 2012, Renault Trucks
Renault Trucks
Defense, division of Swedish Volvo Group since 2001, finalized the acquisition of Panhard
Panhard
for 62.5 million euros.[16] Models[edit] Panhard
Panhard
car models[edit]

Type Construction period

Panhard
Panhard
Dyna X 1945–1954

Panhard
Panhard
Dynavia 1948

Panhard
Panhard
Dyna Junior 1951–1956

Panhard
Panhard
Dyna Z 1953–1959

Panhard
Panhard
PL 17 1959–1965

Panhard
Panhard
CD 1962–1965

Panhard
Panhard
24 1963–1967

Cars with Panhard
Panhard
technology[edit]

Type Construction period

Dyna Veritas 1949–1954

Rosengart Scarlette 1952

DB HBR 5 1954–1961

DB Le Mans 1958–1964

Sera-Panhard 1959–1961

Partial lists of trucks and buses (not armoured)[edit]

Panhard
Panhard
K 50 from the 1930s

Model designation Type Introduction date (decade)

K 4 Truck 1910s

2 tonnes Truck 1920s

2.5 tonnes Truck 1910s

K 101 Truck 1930s

K 11 Truck 1910s

K 113 Truck 1930s

K 125 Truck 1930s

K 128 Truck 1930s

K 13 Truck 1910s

K 140 Truck 1930s

K 155 Truck 1940s

K 161 Bus 1940s

K 162 Truck 1940s

K 172 Truck 1940s

K 173 Bus 1940s

K 175 Truck/bus 1940s

K 185 Truck 1950s

K 188 (ALM VS 215) Truck 1940s

K 219 (ALM VS 237) Truck 1950s

K 224 Truck 1950s

K 332 Truck 1950s

K 48 Truck/bus 1930s

K 50 Truck 1930s

K 61 Truck/bus 1930s

K 63 Bus 1930s

K 73 Truck/bus 1930s

K 85 Truck 1930s

K 91 Truck 1930s

K 944 Truck 1950s

Notes

The K nomenclature was standardised for Panhard
Panhard
cargo vehicles by the early 20th century. However, Panhard
Panhard
also had, for the same models listed, two other naming options: a 5-letter system designating the class and other using a combination of letters and numbers for the chassis type

Current military models[edit]

A VBL of the French Army

AVL PVP PVPXL / AVXL: an enlarged AVL TC 54 TC 10 TC 24 A3 Peugeot
Peugeot
P4 ERC 90 Sagaie VBR: enlarged VBL multipurpose armored vehicle VAP: Véhicule d'Action dans la Profondeur (deep penetration vehicle), VBL based special operations vehicle VPS: P4 based SAS Patrol vehicle Panhard
Panhard
CRAB

Vehicles in service[edit] Panhard
Panhard
has supplied more than 18,000 military wheeled vehicles to over 50 countries with a range of combat vehicles weighing less than 10 tonnes, as follows:

5,400 armoured wheeled vehicles (AML, ERC 90 Sagaie, and LYNX VCR 6x6) 2,300 VBL in 16 countries which includes 1600 in service with the French Army 933 A4 AVL—PVP—selected by the French Army 9,500 vehicles under 7 tonnes; most being jeep-like vehicles produced under the Auverland
Auverland
name.

Gallery[edit]

Panhard
Panhard
et Levassor 4 CV with Wagonette body (1896) 

Panhard
Panhard
et Levassor Landaulette type A1 (1898) 

Panhard
Panhard
et Levassor automobile circa 1900 

Panhard
Panhard
et Levassor water-cooled 2-cylinder automobile engine, circa 1900 

Panhard
Panhard
et Levassor 2,4 litres Phaéton coachwork by Kellner (1901) 

Panhard
Panhard
et Levassor 7 CV Voiturette (1902) 

Panhard
Panhard
et Levassor Char-à-banc (1903) 

Panhard
Panhard
et Levassor 10 CV (1914) 

Panhard
Panhard
et Levassor X46 2300cc (1924) Saloon by Salmons and Son, Tickford 

Panhard
Panhard
et Levassor Cabrio-Coupé Pourtout 

Panhard
Panhard
et Levassor Eclipse (1934) Pourtout 

Panhard Dyna X
Panhard Dyna X
86 Saloon (1952) 

Panhard
Panhard
Dyna 750 Coupé Allemano (1952) 

Panhard Dyna Z
Panhard Dyna Z
(1953) 

Panhard 24
Panhard 24
CT, (1966) 

Panhard
Panhard
178 

Engin Blindé de Reconnaissance 75 

Auto Mitrailleuse Légère HE-60-7 

P4 

See also[edit]

ACMAT St Chamond (tank) Panhard
Panhard
178 Panhard
Panhard
EBR Panhard
Panhard
AML Arthur Constantin Krebs, Panhard
Panhard
General Manager from 1897 to 1916 Panhard
Panhard
bar, a suspension component designed by Panhard
Panhard
still in automotive use

References[edit] Notes[edit]

^ "Daimler Leaders and Personalities". Louise and Edouard Sarazin. Archived from the original on 9 November 2013. Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Greathouse, John (2008). "Reinvent The Wheel – A Nonstandard Look at Standards". infoChachkie. Retrieved 2011-01-04.  ^ Duncan, H.O. (1927). The World on Wheels - Volume I. Paris. pp. 456–457, picture of the Vacheron–Car on p. 457.  ^ a b Georgano, p.17. ^ Georgano, p.49. ^ The prize would go to Koechlin's Peugeot, instead, since the Panhard et Levassor had only two seats, while the rules required four. Georgano, p.20. ^ a b c d e f "Automobilia". Toutes les voitures françaises 1920 (salon [Paris, Oct] 1919). Paris: Histoire & collections. Nr. 31: Page 74. 2004.  ^ a b c "Automobilia". Toutes les voitures françaises 1925 (salon [Paris, Oct] 1924). Paris: Histoire & collections. Nr. 72s: Page 74. 2005.  ^ a b c d e "Automobilia". Toutes les voitures françaises 1927 (salon [Paris, Oct] 1926). Paris: Histoire & collections. Nr. 78s: Page 74. 2006.  ^ a b c d e "Automobilia". Toutes les voitures françaises 1931 (salon [Paris, Oct] 1930). Paris: Histoire & collections. Nr. 90: Pages 74–76. 2008.  ^ With an "underslung" chassis, the axles were placed directly above (rather than beneath) the chassis “floor”, so that the car's height and centre of gravity could be reduced. ^ Bellu, René (November 1996). "La Panhard
Panhard
Dynamic: Sa carosserie étonne et sa conception technique réserve elle aussi des surprises" [Its surprising appearance and concept still hides some surprises]. Automobilia (in French). Paris: Histoire & Collections (7): 31.  ^ La Voiture du Bled (museum placard), Saumur, France: Musée des Blindés  ^ a b Abeillon, Pierre (2010). "Monopole : l'Autre DB" [Monopole: The other DB] (in French). Panhard
Panhard
Racing Team. Archived from the original on 2013-05-25. Retrieved 2012-05-03.  ^ Panhard: The Flat Twin Cars 1945-1967 David Beare ^ Cabirol, Michel (2012). "Défense : Panhard
Panhard
renforce Renault Trucks Défense" [Defense: Panhard
Panhard
reinforces Renault Trucks
Renault Trucks
Defense] (in French). La Tribune. 

Bibliography[edit]

Beare, David (2017). Panhard
Panhard
& Levassor: Pioneers in Automobile Excellence. Stroud, Glos, UK: Amberley Publishing. ISBN 9781445665344. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Panhard
Panhard
vehicles.

Panhard
Panhard
official website Panhard
Panhard
at Curlie (based on DMOZ)

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