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PANGOOL (in Serer and Cangin ) singular: FANGOOL (var : Pangol and Fangol), are the ancient saints and ancestral spirits of the Serer people of Senegal
Senegal
, the Gambia
Gambia
and Mauritania
Mauritania
. The Pangool
Pangool
play a crucial role in Serer religion
Serer religion
and history . In a religious sense, they act as interceders between the living world and the supreme being Roog
Roog
or Koox
Koox
. In a historical sense, the ancient Serer village and town founders called Lamanes were believed to be accompanied by a group of Pangool
Pangool
as they travelled in search of land to exploit. These Lamanes became guardians of Serer religion
Serer religion
and created shrines in honour of the Pangool, thus becoming the custodians of the Pangool cult.

There are several Pangool
Pangool
in Serer religion
Serer religion
and each one is associated with a specific attribute, have their own sacred place of worship , means of worship, etc. The symbol of the Pangool
Pangool
is the serpent , represented by two coiled snakes.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology and terminology * 2 Types

* 3 History

* 3.1 Early history * 3.2 Medieval Era
Medieval Era

* 4 Serer religion
Serer religion
* 5 List of Serer Pangool
Pangool
* 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Bibliography

ETYMOLOGY AND TERMINOLOGY

* Fangool - the singular of Pangool * Pangool
Pangool
- a group of Fangool * O Yaal Pangool
Pangool
(var : yaal pangool) - the masters of the Pangool cult, i.e. the Serer priestly class - Saltigues , previously the Lamanic class . * Pangool
Pangool
ke - the ancestors

The etymology of fangool comes from the Serer phrase Fang Qool which means the sacred serpent the plural of which is pangool. Fangool means serpent.

TYPES

There are two main types of Pangool: non-human Pangool
Pangool
and human Pangool. Both are sacred and ancient, but the former is more ancient as a general rule. The non-human Pangool
Pangool
include ancient sacred places with vital spiritual energies and personalized as such. These Pangool generally are the personifications of natural forces. Human Pangool on the other hand became Pangool
Pangool
once they are canonized after death. Thus some are ancient, others are medieval . Through their intercession with the divine, they form a link which transmits vital energies. Not every dead ancient ancestor is canonized as Pangool.

Pangool
Pangool
can be subdivided further into: 1. those Pangool
Pangool
who are known and revered in a particular region, such as the tombs of ancient Serer kings and queens (see Serer ancient history
Serer ancient history
and Serer creation myth ) 2. those Pangool
Pangool
who are known and revered in a particular village or town, such as the Serer village or town founders 3. those Pangool
Pangool
who are known, revered and venerated in a particular square such as the founder of the square 4. a Fangool made known to an individual and thus became the personal Fangool of the individual in question, such as the Fangool Ginaaru (the personal Fangool of Maad a Sinig Maysa Wali Jaxateh Manneh , var: Maysa Waaly Dione, the first Guelowar king of Sine , reigned: 1350-1370 ). 5. those Pangool
Pangool
whose names are lost to history or did not disclose their identity, but are well known for certain events in Serer history, such as the seizure of certain historical figures, etc.

In addition to these, Pangool
Pangool
can be further categorized depending on their character and nature, such as: 1. Blood
Blood
or red Pangool: those who require the sacrifice of domesticated animals (i.e. cattle ) in their veneration, or alcohol 2. Milk
Milk
Pangool: those who require the offerings of milk 3. Water
Water
Pangool': those who reside in water, etc.,

Blood
Blood
is a sign of life in Serer cosmogony and these types of Pangool
Pangool
fulfill a vital role in Serer society, and are seen as one of the most ancient and powerful. The Fangool Ngolum Joof (var: Ngolum Diouf) is one of these blood Pangool. In many cases, offerings of alcohol rather than the sacrifice of domesticated animals are made to these blood Pangool. In contrast to the blood Pangool, the milk Pangool
Pangool
such as Moussa Sarr, Njemeh (var: Ndiémé) of Languème and Njoxona, etc., are those Pangool
Pangool
who are peaceful in nature and character. They even reject anything that symbolizes violence or things that may evoke destruction or death, i.e. iron, weapons, gunpowder, blood and the colour red. They usually are the protectors of Serer cities and the defenders of the weak.

HISTORY

EARLY HISTORY

Main articles: Timeline of Serer history
Timeline of Serer history
, States headed by ancient Serer Lamanes , and Lamane
Lamane

The history regarding the veneration of the Pangool
Pangool
is found within the hermeneutics of Serer religion, oral tradition and archaeological discoveries. Prior to the widespread veneration of the Pangool, the religious habit of the ancient Serers included holding prayers at the beginning of the rainy season. The branches of the Njambayargin tree (bauhinia rufescens ) were fetched by these ancient people because they believed the tree to possess elements which boosted the growth of their crops and produce much fruit. Ritual prayers were made to the supreme spirit Roog
Roog
(or Koox
Koox
among the Cangin ), totally distinct from the prayers that would later become afforded to other Serer spiritual entities such as the Pangool. In Serer cosmogony , trees play a vital role in the creation narrative , as they were the first things created on Earth
Earth
by the divine, followed by animals (non-humans ). The exact date as to when the Pangool
Pangool
cult became prevalent cannot be stated with a degree of accuracy.

MEDIEVAL ERA

Main articles: Lamane
Lamane
Jegan Joof and Tukar
Tukar

Lamane
Lamane
Jegan Joof founder of Tukar
Tukar
c. 11th century, is reported to have been accompanied by a group of Pangool
Pangool
when he migrated from Lambaye with his brother Ndik following a disagreement with his relative the king of Lambaye. After his migration, he founded Tukar, previously in the Serer pre-colonial Kingdom of Sine
Kingdom of Sine
, now part of independent Senegal
Senegal
. Tukar
Tukar
is one of the Serer holy sites , and the Pangool
Pangool
affiliated with it are devotedly venerated in the Serer religious calendar, such as the 'Raan festival which takes place once a year on the second Thursday after the new moon in April. The descendants of Lamane
Lamane
Jegan Joof (the Joof family
Joof family
of Tukar) play a vital role in this religious affair.

SERER RELIGION

Part of a series on

SERERS AND SERER RELIGION

Deities

* Roog
Roog
* Kopé Tiatie Cac
Kopé Tiatie Cac
* Kokh Kox
Kokh Kox
* Takhar
Takhar
* Tiurakh
Tiurakh

Main doctrines

* Animism * Astronomy * Divination * Intercession of saints
Intercession of saints
* Rainmaker

Sacred places

* Baol
Baol
* Cekeen Tumulus * Fandène
Fandène
* Fatick
Fatick
* Index of holy sites * Saloum
Saloum
* Senegambian stone circles
Senegambian stone circles
* Sine * Somb
Somb
* Tassili n\'Ajjer * Point of Sangomar
Point of Sangomar
* Thiouthioune
Thiouthioune
* Tukar
Tukar
* Yaboyabo
Yaboyabo

Related articles

* Lamane
Lamane
* Pangool * Saltigue
Saltigue
* Serer prehistory * Serer creation myth * Serer people
Serer people
* States headed by Serer Lamanes * Timeline of Serer history
Timeline of Serer history

Notable figures

* Amar Godomat
Amar Godomat
* Lamane
Lamane
Jegan Joof * Issa Laye Thiaw
Issa Laye Thiaw
* Maad Semou Njekeh Joof * Index of Serer patriarchs * Index of Serer matriarchs

Relations with other religions

* Serer views on incarnation * Serer history * Religious persecution * Serer views on interfaith marriage * Serer views on heaven and hell

Education

* Ndut initiation rite
Ndut initiation rite

See also

* Index of articles relating to Serer history * Index of articles relating to Serer religion
Serer religion
* Index of all articles relating to Serer people
Serer people

* SERER PEOPLE CATEGORY

* SERER RELIGION CATEGORY

* Serer people
Serer people
portal

* Serer religion
Serer religion
portal

* v * t * e

Further information: Serer religion
Serer religion
and Serer creation myth

The Pangool
Pangool
are related to the transcendence of the divine. In the Serer home, the altar of the Pangool
Pangool
can not conceal that of the divine.

The Pangool
Pangool
provide the vital energies relating to the realities of the Serer people
Serer people
especially those forces outside the control of humanity. The religious practices and representations of the Pangool helps the Serer people
Serer people
dominate the hostile forces of nature, hence the advent of the Pangool
Pangool
veneration. Through their sacred intercession with the divine, these Pangool
Pangool
act as protectors and transmitters of vital energy to the world of the living. They can be humans, plants, animals, places, supernatural beings, etc. Animals and trees are viewed by the Serers as extended relatives of human beings, because they came from the same divine placenta at the time of the coronation .

Many Pangool
Pangool
are spirits of early ancestors who had died. They represent both Pangool
Pangool
of the paternal line (pangool o kurcala) and those of the maternal line (pangool o ƭeen yaay). These ancestors guide and protect their descendants. Many Serer families have a master of the cult who knows how to evokes the ancestor. The earlier Pangool were not human beings, but superior beings created by Roog
Roog
at the time human beings were created. They were believed to have been created by the divine in order to help human kind. It is for this reason why the terms Pangool
Pangool
and Nguus (Serer word for genie ) are sometimes used interchangeably. Because some Pangool
Pangool
are linked to Serer lineages, only the head of the lineage schooled in the rituals can make a libation to the relevant Pangool
Pangool
or Fangool (the ancestor).

In the other world , the ancestors are the actual carrying-holders of transcendent sacred energies. However, the Pangool
Pangool
are superior in title because they were not transformed in the sacred energy. Thus the distinction between a fangool (non-human) and a human-ancestor lies in the mode of their participation in the transcendence. In either case, Roog
Roog
is the first source of the transcendence of sacred energies.

Offerings of fruits, vegetables, crops, milk, or the sacrifice of domesticated animals are made to the Pangool
Pangool
in different places, eg: at the foot of trees, in forests, at community shrines, etc. There are Pangools whose scope is therapeutic, those who deliver justice (see also Takhar
Takhar
- spirit of justice) and those who are personal Pangool
Pangool

LIST OF SERER PANGOOL

The following table provides a sample of Pangool, their attributes and the part of Serer country they protect :

NAME OF FANGOOL PROTECTOR OF ATTRIBUTES / COMMENTS

Laga Ndong Foundiougne Department (Djilor and Peithie) Canonized king of the Pangool
Pangool
during the reign of Maad a Sinig Waasila Faye (king of Sine , in the 15th century ). Homage made to him at the festival of Tourou Peithie, one of the religious festivals in the Serer calendar . Veneration headed by the Taa'boor matriclan (var : Tabor).

Njoxona Nakhar village in Nakhar Village founded by Jaan Fadé represented by the python . Homage headed by the Jaan clan. Njoxona is a milk Fangool.

Mindiss (var : Mindis) Fatick
Fatick
Region A female protector of the Fatick
Fatick
Region, offering made to the River Sine . She appears to humans in the form of a manatee , one of the best known Fangool. She possess the attributes of a typical water Fangool, yet at the same time she is a blood Fangool.

Julang Joof and Ngojil Joof Ngol and several others Husband and wife protectors of Ngol and several villages and towns within its vicinity, where the ceremony and offerings are made to the sacred tree of Ñaawul (var : Naawul) believed to be the sacred tree of these two. Headed by the Joof family
Joof family
.

Ngolum Joof (var : Ngolum Diouf, proper : Ngolum Juuf) Nianiane Offerings are made at the village of Nianiane (founded by Nokhor Choro Joof ) to the Ngane and baobab tree . Headed by the Joof family and the Karé-Karé matriclan. He is a blood Fangool.

Lunguñ Joof (Serer proper : Lunguñ Juuf) FA Oye, Ngouye and Tukar
Tukar
. A typical Fangool that delivers justice and have many devotees. Canonized at the time of Lamane
Lamane
Jegan Joof . Headed by the Joof family.

Ginaaru Personal Personal Fangool of Maad a Sinig Maysa Wali Jaxateh Manneh (var : Maysa Waaly Dione), king of Sine , reigned : 1350-1370.

Njemeh (var : Ndiémé) Languème Njemeh is one of the milk Pangool.

Moussa Sarr (or : Saar) ? A milk Fangool.

Harwak Fayil Veneration headed by the Cofaan matriclan.

Tamba Faye Ndiob According to Serer oral tradition, during the reigne of Maad a Sinig Boukar Tjilas Mahe Soum Joof (king of Sine , c . 1750 - 1763), the Maad a Sinig
Maad a Sinig
came into conflict with the great Fangool of Ndiob - Tamba Faye.

SEE ALSO

* Serer religion
Serer religion
portal * Serer people
Serer people
portal * Senegal
Senegal
portal * Gambia
Gambia
portal * Mauritania
Mauritania
portal * Traditional African religion portal * Religion portal

* Nommo * Snakes in mythology * Ancestor worship
Ancestor worship

REFERENCES

* ^ and Martin & Becker, "Lieux de culte et emplacements célèbres dans les pays sereer", pp 7-8 * ^ Gravrand, Henry , "La Civilisation Sereer - Pangool", vol.2, Les Nouvelles Editions Africaines du Senegal, (1990), p 278, ISBN 2-7236-1055-1 * ^ Galvan, Dennis Charles, "The State Must Be Our Master of Fire : How Peasants Craft Culturally Sustainable Development in Senegal", Berkeley, University of California Press (2004), pp 53, 185 * ^ Gravrand, "Pangool", p 9 * ^ Kalis, p 300 * ^ Kalis, p 122 * ^ Gravrand, "Pangool", p 311 * ^ A B C Gravrand, "Pangool", p 313 * ^ Granvrand, "Pangool", p 327 * ^ A B Kalis, pp 122-123 * ^ A B C D E (in French) R. P. Crétois, "Dictionnaire Sereer-Français", Dakar, CLAD, t. 1 (1972), t. 2 (1973), t. 3 (1974), t. 4 (1975), t. 5 Martin & Becker (pp 7-8) * ^ A B Gravrand, "Pangool", p 344 * ^ A B Sarr, Alioune , "Histoire du Sine- Saloum
Saloum
" (Sénégal), Introduction, bibliographie et notes par Charles Becker. Version légèrement remaniée par rapport à celle qui est parue en 1986-87. p 19 * ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M Gravrand, "Pangool", p 338 * ^ (in French) Lericollais, André, "La mort des arbres à Sob, en pays Sereer" (Sénégal), pp 3-5 * ^ Gravrand, "Pagool", pp 283-4 * ^ Niangoran-Bouah, Georges, "L'univers Akan des poids à peser l'or : les poids dans la société", Les nouvelles éditions africaines - MLB, (1987), p 25, ISBN 2723614034 * ^ Universität Frankfurt am Main , Frobenius-Institut, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Kulturmorphologie, Frobenius Gesellschaft, "Paideuma: Mitteilungen zur Kulturkunde, Volumes 43-44", F. Steiner (1997), pp 144-5, (Henry Gravrand, "La civilisation Sereer -Pangool" ) ISBN 3515028420 * ^ Galvan, Dennis Charles, The State Must Be Our Master of Fire: How Peasants Craft Culturally Sustainable Development in Senegal, University of California Press, Berkeley (2004), pp 109-111, 80, 2-281 ISBN 9780520235915 * ^ Bressers, Hans, Rosenbaum, Walter A., Achieving sustainable development: the challenge of governance across social scales, Greenwood Publishing Group, (2003) p. 151 ISBN 0275978028 * ^ Gravrand, "Pangool, p 241 * ^ Gravrand, "Pangool", p 305 * ^ A B Gravrand, "Pangool", pp 307-8 * ^ Faye, Louis Diène , "Mort et Naissance le monde Sereer", Les Nouvelles Editions Africaines (1983), p 43, ISBN 2-7236-0868-9 * ^ Kalis, p 153 * ^ A B C D Gravrand, "Pangool", 352 * ^ Kalis, p 123-4 * ^ Gravrand, "Pangool", p 330 * ^ Gravrand, "Pangool", p 342-4 * ^ Gravrand, "Pangool", p 363 * ^ Gravrand, "Pangool", p 386 * ^ (in French) Niang, Mor Sadio, "CEREMONIES ET FÊTES TRADITIONNELLES", Ethiopiques no 31 révue socialiste de culture négro-africaine 3e trimestre (1982) * ^ Gravrand, "Pangool", p 320 * ^ A B C (in French) Martin, Victor & Becker, Charles, "Lieux de culte et emplacements célèbres dans les pays sereer" (Sénégal), Publié dans le Bulletin de l’Institut Fondamental d\'Afrique Noire , Tome 41, Série B, n° 1, janvier 1979, p. 133-189 (pp 15-34) * ^ Kalis, p 123 * ^ Gravrand, "Pangool", p 327 * ^ Variation : Dioulang Diouf & Ngojil Diouf (French spelling in Senegal
Senegal
respectively), the surname Joof (English spelling in the Gambia
Gambia
) or Diouf (French spelling in Senegal) is spelt Juuf or Juf in Serer language . Juuf is the proper spelling of the surname Joof/Diouf. * ^ Gravrand, "Pangool", p 332-3 * ^ Variation : Nokhor Tioro Diouf * ^ Var : Lungun Diouf * ^ Gravrand, "Pangool", pp 342-3, 349 * ^ Gravrand, "Pangool", p 344 & 352 * ^ Variation : Boukar Tjilas Mahé Soum Diouf * ^ (in French) Diouf, Niokhobaye, "Chronique du royaume du Sine", Suivie de notes sur les traditions orales et les sources écrites concernant le royaume du Sine par Charles Becker et Victor Martin. (1972). Bulletin de l'Ifan, Tome 34, Série B, n° 4, (1972). pp 723 (p 14)

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Gravrand, Henry , "La Civilisation Sereer - Pangool", vol.2, Les Nouvelles Editions Africaines du Senegal, (1990), ISBN 2-7236-1055-1 * Gravrand, Henry, "La civilisation Sereer, VOL.1, Cosaan : les origines", Nouvelles Editions africaines (1983), ISBN 2723608778 * Kalis, Simone, "Médecine traditionnelle, religion et divination ches les Seereer Siin du Sénégal" –La connaissance de la nuit, L’Harmattan (1997), ISBN 2-7384-5196-9 * Faye, Louis Diène , "Mort et Naissance le monde Sereer", Les Nouvelles Editions Africaines (1983), ISBN 2-7236-0868-9 * Galvan, Dennis Charles, "The State Must Be Our Master of Fire : How Peasants Craft Culturally Sustainable Development in Senegal", Berkeley, University of California Press (2004) * Lericollais, André, "La mort des arbres à Sob, en pays Sereer" (Sénégal), pp 3–5 * Niangoran-Bouah, Georges, "L'univers Akan des poids à peser l'or : les poids dans la société", Les nouvelles éditions africaines - MLB, (1987), ISBN 2723614034 * Universität Frankfurt am Main , Frobenius-Institut, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Kulturmorphologie, Frobenius Gesellschaft, "Paideuma: Mitteilungen zur Kulturkunde, Volumes 43-44", F. Steiner (1997), pp 144–5, (Henry Gravrand, "La civilisation Sereer -Pangool" ) ISBN 3515028420 * Bressers, Hans, Rosenbaum, Walter A., Achieving sustainable development: the challenge of governance across social scales, Greenwood Publishing Group, (2003) p. 151 ISBN 0275978028 * Niang, Mor Sadio, "CEREMONIES ET FÊTES TRADITIONNELLES", Ethiopiques no 31 révue socialiste de culture négro-africaine 3e trimestre (1982) * Martin, Victor & Becker, Charles, "Lieux de culte et emplacements célèbres dans les pays sereer" (Sénégal), Publié dans le Bulletin de l’Institut Fondamental d\'Afrique Noire , Tome 41, Série B, n° 1, janvier 1979, p. 133-189 (p 15) * R. P. Crétois, Dictionnaire Sereer-Français, Dakar, CLAD, t. 1 (1972), t. 2 (1973), t. 3 (1974), t. 4 (1975), t. 5 (1976), t. 6 (1977), passim. Martin, Victor & Becker, Charles, "Lieux de culte et emplacements célèbres dans les pays sereer" * Abbé L. Diouf, L’homme dans le monde (Vision sereer), communication aux Journées Africaines de Théologie, polygraphié, s. d., p. 6. Martin, Victor ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

Serer topics

PEOPLES

SERER PEOPLES

* * Laalaa * Ndut * Niominka * Noon * Palor * Saafi * Seex

RELIGION

KEY TOPICS

* * Ciiɗ * Classical Ndut teachings * Creation myth * Criticism * Festivals * Jaaniiw * Junjung
Junjung
* Lamane
Lamane
* Sadax * Saltigue
Saltigue
* Symbolism * Women

SUPREME DEITIES

* * Kokh Kox
Kokh Kox
* Koox
Koox
* Kopé Tiatie Cac
Kopé Tiatie Cac
* Roog
Roog
(main)

OTHER DEITIES

* * Kumba Njaay * Takhar
Takhar
* Tiurakh
Tiurakh

Saints and ancestral spirits

* * Ginaaru * Julang Joof * Laga Ndong * Lunguñ Joof * Mindiss * Moussa Sarr * Njemeh (of Languème ) * Njoxona * Ngojil Joof * Ngolum Joof

* Pangool
Pangool

* list

SACRED SITES

* * Fatick
Fatick
* Sine River
Sine River
* Sine- Saloum
Saloum
* Somb
Somb
* Point of Sangomar
Point of Sangomar
* Tattaguine
Tattaguine
* Tukar
Tukar
* Yaboyabo
Yaboyabo

* History * Philosophy * Science * Law * Geography * Politics

HISTORY

* Cekeen Tumulus * Khasso
Khasso
* Kingdom of Baol
Baol
* Kingdom of Biffeche * kingdom of Saloum
Saloum
* Kingdom of Sine
Kingdom of Sine
* Serer ancient history
Serer ancient history
* Serer history (medieval era to present) * States headed by ancient Serer Lamanes
States headed by ancient Serer Lamanes
* The Battle of Fandane- Thiouthioune
Thiouthioune
* The Battle of Logandème * Timeline of Serer history
Timeline of Serer history
* Western Sahara
Western Sahara

Philosophy

* Science * Law

* Medicine

* medicinal plants

* CEMETRA

* Loup (healer)

* Saltigues and Loup practitioners

* MALANGO * Philosophy of beauty * Jom principle * Cosmology * Customary law

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* Demographics * Culture

DEMOGRAPHICS

BY REGION

* * Gambia
Gambia
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Mauritania
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Senegal

LANGUAGE

* * Cangin * Lehar * Ndut * Noon * Palor * Safen * Serer

CULTURE

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Mbalax
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Njuup
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Sabar
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ROYALTY

Kings and lamanes

* Lamane
Lamane
Jegan Joof * Maad a Sinig
Maad a Sinig
Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof * Maad a Sinig
Maad a Sinig
Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof * Maad a Sinig
Maad a Sinig
Kumba Ndoffene Fa Ndeb Joof * Maad a Sinig
Maad a Sinig
Mahecor Joof * Maad a Sinig Maysa Wali Jaxateh Manneh * Maad a Sinig
Maad a Sinig
Ama Joof Gnilane Faye Joof * Maad Ndaah Njemeh Joof
Maad Ndaah Njemeh Joof
* Maad Semou Njekeh Joof

Queens and queen mothers

* Lingeer Fatim Beye
Lingeer Fatim Beye
* Lingeer Ndoye Demba * Serer maternal clans
Serer maternal clans

Dynasties and royal houses

* Faye family
Faye family
* Guelowar * Joof family
Joof family
* Joos Maternal Dynasty
Joos Maternal Dynasty
* The Royal House of Boureh Gnilane Joof * The Royal House of Jogo Siga Joof * The Royal House of Semou Njekeh Joof

Families and royal titles

* Buumi
Buumi
* Faye family
Faye family
* Joof family
Joof family
* Lamane
Lamane
* Lingeer * Loul
Loul
* Maad Saloum
Saloum
* Maad a Sinig
Maad a Sinig
* Njie family * Sarr family * Sene family * Teigne * Thilas
Thilas

* SERER PEOPLE CATEGORY

* SERER RELIGION CATEGORY

* Serer people
Serer people
portal

* Serer religion
Serer religion
portal

* v * t * e

Religion in Africa
Religion in Africa

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Akan mythology
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Bantu mythology
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Serer religion
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Yoruba religion
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