1 Early history 2 Theory 3 Galton's experiments on rabbits 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links
The hypothesis of pangenesis was developed by the ancient Greek
philosophers such as
The hypothesis of pangenesis is as old as the belief in the
inheritance of acquired characters. It was endorsed by Hippocrates,
Maupertuis's theory called for particles from both parents governing
the attributes of the child.
A hypothesis much like Darwin's pangenesis was held by the French
Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon
"As Darwin explained it, pangenesis was the highly abstract notion
that every tissue, cell and living part of an organism produced
minute, unseen gemmules (or what he sometimes called granules or
germs) which carried inheritable characteristics and were transmitted
to the offspring via the reproductive process. He was careful to
specify that each part of an organism produced only information about
itself. There were gemmules for hands and feet, not for whole
organisms. Individual gemmules did not contain a complete microscopic
blueprint for an entire creature in the way that
Some gemmules remained dormant for generations, whereas others were
routinely carried by all offspring. He thought about these literally,
"almost as if gemmules were letters in the postal system". Every child
was built up from a mixture of the parents and grandparents' gemmules
coming from either side. Darwin likened this to gardening: a flowerbed
could be sprinkled with seeds "most of which soon germinate, some lie
for a period dormant, whilst others perish.". He did not claim
gemmules were in the blood, although his theory was often interpreted
in this way. Responding to Fleming Jenkin's review of On the Origin of
Species, he argued that pangenesis would permit the preservation of
some favourable variations in a population so that they wouldn't die
out through blending.
Hugo de Vries
I. In the cells there are numberless particles which differ from each other, and represent the individual cells, organs, functions and qualities of the whole individual. These particles are much larger than the chemical molecules and smaller than the smallest known organisms; yet they are for the most part comparable to the latter, because, like them, they can divide and multiply through nutrition and growth. They are transmitted, during cell-division, to the daughter-cells: this is the ordinary process of heredity. II. In addition to this, the cells of the organism, at every stage of development, throw off such particles, which are conducted to the germ-cells and transmit to them those characters which the respective cells may have acquired during development.
Diagram of August Weismann's germ plasm theory. The hereditary
material, the germ plasm, is confined to the gonads. Somatic cells (of
the body) develop afresh in each generation from the germ plasm. The
Darwin's pangenesis theory was criticised for its Lamarckian premise
that parents could pass on traits acquired in their lifetime.
^ Holterhoff, Kate (2014). "The History and Reception of Charles Darwin's Hypothesis of Pangenesis". Journal of the History of Biology. 47: 661–695. doi:10.1007/s10739-014-9377-0. ^ Darwin, Charles (1868). The variation of animals and plants under domestication. London: John Murray. ISBN 1-4191-8660-4. ^ a b c Zirkle, Conway (1935). "The Inheritance of Acquired Characters and the Provisional Hypothesis of Pangenesis". The American Naturalist. 69: 417–445. doi:10.1086/280617. ^ a b Deichmann, Ute. (2010). Darwinism, Philosophy, and Experimental Biology. Springer. pp. 41-42. ISBN 978-90-481-9901-3 ^ Mayr, Ernst (1981). The Growth of Biological Thought. Harvard University Press. pp. 328, 646. ISBN 978-0674364462. ^ Hull, David L. (1988). Science as a Process: An Evolutionary Account of the Social and Conceptual Development of Science. University of Chicago Press. p. 86. ISBN 0-226-36051-2 "As Darwin was to discover many years later, Buffon had devised a system of heredity not all that different from his own theory of pangenesis." ^ Deichmann, Ute. (2010). Darwinism, Philosophy, and Experimental Biology. Springer. p. 42. ISBN 978-90-481-9901-3 "Among the other authors were Buffon, who proposes "organic molecules" with affinities to various organs, and, in particular, Erasmus Darwin, who in 1801 anticipated his grandson's concept of pangenesis, suggesting that small particles were given off by parts of the bodies of both parents; and that they are circulated in the blood, ending in the sexual organs from where they could be combined during reproduction in order to form the nucleus of an offspring." ^ Macalister, Alexander. (1870). Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. In Dublin Quarterly Journal of Medical Science, Volume 50. Fannin and Company. p. 131 ^ a b Geison, G. L. (1969). "Darwin and heredity: The evolution of his hypothesis of pangenesis". J Hist Med Allied Sci. XXIV (4): 375–411. doi:10.1093/jhmas/XXIV.4.375. ^ Jablonka, E.; Lamb, M. (2005). Evolution in four dimensions: Genetic, epigenetic, behavioural and symbolic. MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-10107-6. ^ Browne, Janet (2002). Charles Darwin--The Power of Place. London: Jonathon Cape. p. 275. ^ Browne 2002, p. 276. ^ Browne 2002, p. 283. ^ de Vries, Hugo (1910) . Intracellular Pangenesis. p. 63. Retrieved May 2, 2015. ^ Ghiselin, Michael T. (September–October 1994). "Nonsense in schoolbooks: 'The Imaginary Lamarck'". The Textbook Letter. The Textbook League. Retrieved 2008-01-23. ^ Magner, Lois N. (2002). A History of the Life Sciences (Third ed.). Marcel Dekker, CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-203-91100-6. ^ West-Eberhard, M. J. (2008). Inhertance/West-Ebberhardt.pdf "Toward a modern revival of Darwin's theory of evolutionary novelty" Check url= value (help) (PDF). Philosophy of Science. 75 (5): 899–908. doi:10.1086/594533. JSTOR 10. ^ Liu, Y. S.; Zhou, X. M.; Zhi, M. X.; Li, X. J.; Wan, Q. L. (2009). "Darwin's contributions to genetics" (PDF). J Appl Genet. 50 (3): 177–184. doi:10.1007/BF03195671. PMID 19638672. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-30. ^ (Bulmer 2003, pp. 116–118) ^ Darwin, C. R. (1871). Pangenesis. Nature. A Weekly Illustrated Journal of Science 3 (27 April): 502-503.
Bulmer, M. G. (2003). Francis Galton: Pioneer of
On-line Facsimile Edition of The Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domestication from Electronic Scholarly Publishing Variation under Domestication, From: Freeman, R. B. 1977. The Works of Charles Darwin: An Annotated Bibliographical Handlist. 2nd edn. Dawson: Folkstone, at DarwinOnline, with links to online versions of the 1st. edition, first and second issues, and