Pangasinan (Pangasinan: Luyag na Pangasinan; Ilokano: Probinsia ti
Pangasinan; Filipino: Lalawigan ng Pangasinan; Kapampangan: Lalawigan
ning Pangasinan) is a province in the Philippines. Its provincial
capital is Lingayen.
Pangasinan is on the western area of the island
Luzon along the
Lingayen Gulf and South
China Sea. It has a total
land area of 5,451.01 square kilometres (2,104.65 sq mi).
According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 2,956,726
people. The official number of registered voters in
Pangasinan is the name for the province, the people, and the language
spoken in the province. Indigenous
Pangasinan speakers are estimated
to number at least 2 million. The
Pangasinan language, which is
official in the province, is one of the officially recognized regional
languages in the Philippines. In Pangasinan, there were several ethnic
groups who enriched the cultural fabric of the province. Almost all of
the people are Pangasinans and the rest are descendants of Bolinao and
Ilocano, who settled the eastern and western parts of the province.
Pangasinan is spoken as a second-language by many of the ethnic
minorities in Pangasinan. The secondary ethnic groups are the Bolinaos
and the Ilocanos.
Pangasinan (pronounced "Pang-ASINan") means "place of salt"
or "place of salt-making"; it is derived from the prefix pang, meaning
"for", the root word asin, meaning "salt”, and suffix an, signifying
"location". At present it is pronounced "Paŋgasinan" based on the
Spanish pronunciation. The province is a major producer of salt in the
Philippines. Its major products include bagoong ("salted-krill") and
Pangasinan was first founded by
Austronesian peoples who called
themselves Anakbanwa by at least 2500 BC. A kingdom called Luyag na
Caboloan, which expanded to incorporate much of northwestern Luzon,
Pangasinan before the Spanish conquest that began in the
16th century. The Kingdom of Luyag na Kaboloan was known as the
Pangasinan in Chinese records. The ancient Pangasinan
people were skilled navigators and the maritime trade network that
once flourished in ancient
Pangasinan with other
peoples of Southeast Asia, India, China,
Japan and the rest of the
Pacific. The ancient kingdom of Luyag na
Caboloan was in fact
mentioned in Chinese and Indian records as being an important kingdom
on ancient trade routes.
Popular tourist attractions in
Pangasinan include the Hundred Islands
National Park in
Alaminos City and the white-sand beaches of Bolinao
Dagupan City is known for its Bangus Festival ("Milkfish
Pangasinan is also known for its delicious mangoes and
Calasiao puto ("native rice cake"). Pangasinan
occupies a strategic geo-political position in the central plain of
Luzon, known as the rice granary of the Philippines.
been described as a gateway to northern
Luzon and as the heartland of
1.1 Ancient history
1.2 Southeast Asian maritime trade network
1.3 Wangdom of
Pangasinan (Luyag na Caboloan)
Anito and mana beliefs and practices
1.5 Spanish accounts of pre-Hispanic Pangasinan
1.7 Spanish colonization
1.7.1 Provincia de Pangasinan
1.7.2 Rebellion against the Spanish rule
220.127.116.11 Malong liberation
18.104.22.168 Palaris liberation
1.8 Philippine revolution against Spain
1.9 American colonization and the Philippine Commonwealth regime
1.10 Philippine Republic
2.2 Administrative divisions
5 Health and education
8 Notable people from Pangasinan
9 See also
11 External links
Pangasinan people, like most of the people in the Malay
Archipelago, are descendants of the Austronesian-speakers who settled
Southeast Asia since prehistoric times. Comparative genetics,
linguistics and archaeological studies locate the origin of the
Austronesian languages in Sundaland, which was populated as early as
50,000 years ago by modern humans. The
Pangasinan language is
one of many languages that belongs to the Malayo-Polynesian languages
branch of the
Austronesian languages family.
Southeast Asian maritime trade network
A vast maritime trade network connected the distant Austronesian
settlements in Southeast Asia, the
Pacific and the Indian Ocean. The
Pangasinan people were part of this ancient Austronesian civilization.
The ancient Austronesian-speakers were expert navigators. Their
outrigger canoes and sailboats were capable of crossing the distant
seas. The Malagasy sailed from the Malay archipelago to Madagascar, an
island across the Indian Ocean, and probably reached Africa. As the
possible predecessors of the Polynesians, large seagoing canoes called
"bangka" ("vaka" in several Polynesian dialects and "waka" in Maori)
were first developed by Austronesians in the Philippine archipelago
which were then used to settle and establish long-distance trade
networks with distant
Pacific islands from the Micronesian island
Palau as far away as
Easter Island and
probably reached the
Pacific coastline of the Americas. Proof of these
trade exchanges are the prevalence of "kumara" or sweet potato in the
Pacific Islands which is endemic to South America, and the abundance
of chicken bones in ancient South American archaeological dig sites
whose closest genetic relatives are those of chickens from Asia. At
least three hundred years before the arrival of Europeans, the Makasar
Bugis from Sulawesi, in what is now Indonesia, as well as the
Sama-Bajaus of the Malay Archipelago, carried out long-distance
commerce with their prau or paraw ("sailboat") and established
settlements in north Australia, which they called Marege.
Pangasinan was founded by
Austronesian peoples who called themselves
Anakbanwa during the Austronesian expansion from Taiwan and Southern
China in about 5000-2500 BC or the Austronesian dispersal from
Sundaland at least 7,000 years ago after the last Ice Age. Anakbanwa
means “child of banwa.” Banwa (also spelled banua or vanua) is an
Austronesian concept that could mean territory, homeland, habitat,
society, civilization or cosmos. The
Pangasinan people identified or
associated banwa with the sun, which was their symbol for their banwa.
Pangasinan people are closely related to the
Ibaloi in the
neighboring province of
Benguet and other peoples of Luzon. The
Anakbanwa established their settlements in the banks of the Agno River
and the coasts of Lingayen Gulf. The coastal area came to be known as
Pangasinan, and the interior area came to be known as Kaboloan.
Eventually, the whole region, its people and the used language came to
be known as Pangasinan. Archaeological evidence and early Chinese and
Indian records show that the inhabitants of
Pangasinan traded with
Japan as early as the 8th century A.D.
Pangasinan (Luyag na Caboloan)
The Wangdom of
Pangasinan (as known in Chinese records) and locally
known as the ancient kingdom or state called Luyag na
spelled Kaboloan), with Binalatongan as its capital, existed in the
Agno River valley. Around the same period, the
Majapahit empires arose in
Indonesia that extended their influence to
much of the Malay Archipelago. Urduja/Udaya, a legendary woman
warrior, is believed to have ruled in
Pangasinan around the 14th
century. The Luyag na
Caboloan expanded the territory and influence of
Pangasinan to what are now the neighboring provinces of Tarlac, La
Nueva Ecija and Benguet.
Pangasinan enjoyed full
independence until the Spanish conquest.
Anito and mana beliefs and practices
Pangasinan people, like other Austronesian peoples,
practiced anito worship. An anito was believed to be the spirit or
divine power of an ancestor or the god or divine power in nature or
natural phenomena. They believed in mana, an Austronesian concept
which can be described as the divine power or vital or spiritual
essence of every being and everything that exists. To the Pangasinan
people, mana can be transferred, inherited or acquired, like from an
ancestor, nature, or natural phenomena. Their belief or practice is
similar to Shamanist or animist beliefs and rituals. They worshipped a
pantheon of anito ("spirit" or "deity"). Their temples or altars were
dedicated to a chief anito called Ama Kaoley (“Supreme Father”),
who communicated through mediums or priests called manag-anito. These
manag-anito wore special costumes when serving an anito and they made
offerings of oils, ointments, essences, and perfumes in exquisite
Spanish accounts of pre-Hispanic Pangasinan
In the sixteenth-century
Pangasinan was called the "Port of Japan" by
the Spanish. The locals wore native apparel typical of other maritime
Southeast Asian ethnic groups in addition to Japanese and Chinese
silks. Even common people were clad in Chinese and Japanese cotton
garments. They blackened their teeth and were disgusted by the white
teeth of foreigners, which were likened to that of animals. They used
porcelain jars typical of Japanese and Chinese households.
Japanese-style gunpowder weapons were encountered in naval battles in
the area. In exchange for these goods, traders from all over Asia
would come to trade primarily for gold and slaves, but also for
deerskins, civet and other local products. Other than a notably more
extensive trade network with
Japan and China, they were culturally
similar to other
Luzon groups to the south.
Pangasinans were also described as a warlike people who were long
known for their resistance to Spanish conquest. Bishop Domingo Salazar
described them as really the worst people, the fiercest and cruelest
in the land. There was evidence of Christian influence even before
Spanish colonization; they used vintage wine in small quantities for
their sacramental practices. The church bragged that they won the
northern part of the
Spain not Spanish military. They
were unusually strict against adulterers, with the punishment being
death for both parties. Pangasinans were known to take defeated Zambal
and Negrito warriors to sell as slaves to Chinese traders.
In 1324, Odoric of Pordenone, a Franciscan missionary from Friuli,
Italy, is believed by some to have celebrated a Catholic Mass and
baptized natives at Bolinao, Pangasinan. In July 2007, memorial
markers were set up in Bolinao to commemorate Odoric's journey based
on a publication by Luigi Malamocco, an Italian priest from Friuli,
Italy, who claimed that Odoric of Perdenone held the first Catholic
Mass in the
Philippines in Bolinao, Pangasinan. That 1324 mass would
have predated the mass held in 1521 by Ferdinand Magellan, which is
generally regarded as the first mass in the Philippines, by some 197
years. However, historian William Henry Scott concluded after
examining Oderic's writings about his travels that he likely never set
foot on Philippine soil and, if he did, there is no reason to think
that he celebrated mass.
On April 27, 1565, the Spanish conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi
arrived in the Philippine islands with about 500 soldiers to establish
a Spanish settlement and begin the conquest of the archipelago. On May
24, 1570, the Spanish forces defeated
Rajah Sulayman and other rulers
Manila and later declared
Manila as the new capital of the Spanish
East Indies. After securing Manila, the Spanish forces continued to
conquer the rest of the island of Luzon, including Pangasinan.
Provincia de Pangasinan
In 1571, the Spanish conquest of
Pangasinan began with an expedition
by the Spanish conquistador Martín de Goiti, who came from the
Spanish settlement in
Manila through Pampanga. About a year later,
another Spanish conquistador, Juan de Salcedo, sailed to Lingayen Gulf
and landed at the mouth of the Agno River. Limahong, a Chinese pirate,
Pangasinan after his fleet was driven away from
Limahong failed to establish a colony in Pangasinan, as an army
Juan de Salcedo chased him out of
Pangasinan after a
The province of
Pangasinan dates its actual beginnings as an
administrative and judicial district, with Lingayen as the capital, to
as early as 1580, but its territorial boundaries were first delineated
in 1611. Lingayen has remained the capital of the province except for
a brief period during the revolutionary Era when San Carlos served as
temporary administrative headquarters, and during the slightly longer
Japanese Occupation when
Dagupan was the capital.
The province of
Pangasinan was formerly classified as an alcaldia
mayor de termino, or first class civil province, during the Spanish
regime and has, in fact, remained a first class-A province up to the
present. Its territorial jurisdiction once included the entire
Zambales and portions of what are now
Tarlac and La Union
Rebellion against the Spanish rule
Andres Malong, a native chief of the town of Binalatongan (now named
San Carlos City), liberated the province from Spanish rule in December
1660. The people of
Pangasinan proclaimed Andres Malong Ari na
Pangasinan ("King of Pangasinan").
Pangasinan armies attempted to
liberate the neighboring provinces of
Pampanga and Ilocos, but were
repelled by a Spanish-led coalition of loyalist tribal warriors and
mercenaries. In February 1661, the newly independent Kingdom of
Pangasinan fell to the Spanish.
On November 3, 1762, the people of
Pangasinan proclaimed independence
Spain after a rebellion led by
Juan de la Cruz Palaris overthrew
Spanish rule in Pangasinan. The
Pangasinan revolt was sparked by news
of the fall of
Manila to the British on October 6, 1762. However,
after the Treaty of Paris on March 1, 1763 that closed the Seven
Years' War between Britain, France and Spain, the Spanish colonial
forces made a counter-attack. On January 16, 1765, Juan de la Cruz
Palaris was captured and
Pangasinan independence was again lost.
Philippine revolution against Spain
Philippine Revolution Against Spain
The Katipunan, a nationalist secret society, was founded on July 7,
1892 with the aim of uniting the peoples of the
fighting for independence and religious freedom. The Philippine
Revolution began on August 26, 1896 and was led by Andres Bonifacio,
the leader of the Katipunan. On November 18, 1897, a
was formed in western
Pangasinan with Roman Manalang as Presidente
Generalisimo and Mauro Ortiz as General. General Emilio Aguinaldo
proclaimed Philippine independence on June 12, 1898.
Dagupan City, the
major commercial center of Pangasinan, was surrounded by Katipunan
forces by July 18, 1898. The Battle of
Dagupan lasted from July 18 to
July 23 of that year with the surrender of 1,500 soldiers of the
Spanish forces under Commander Federico J. Ceballos and Governor
Joaquin de Orengochea.
Andres Urdaneta monument, in front of the City Hall.
The Battle of Dagupan, fought fiercely by local Katipuneros under the
overall command of General Francisco Makabulos, chief of the Central
and Directive Committee of Central and Northern Luzon, and the last
remnants of the once mighty Spanish Army under General Francisco
Ceballos, led to the liberation of
Pangasinan from the Spaniards. The
five-day battle was joined by three local heroes: Don Daniel Maramba
from Santa Barbara, Don Vicente Prado from San Jacinto and Don Juan
Quezada from Dagupan. Their armies massed in
Dagupan to lay siege on
the Spanish forces, making a last stand at the brick-walled Catholic
Grave of Don Daniel B. Maramba (Santa Barbara)
Daniel B. Maramba Monument and 1970 NHI Marker
Maramba led the liberation of the town of Santa Barbara on March 7,
1898 following a signal for simultaneous attack from Makabulos.
Hearing that Santa Barbara fell into rebel hands, the Spanish forces
Dagupan attempted to retake the town, but were repulsed by
Maramba's forces. Thus, after the setback, the Spaniards decided to
concentrate their forces in Lingayen to protect the provincial
capital. This enabled Maramba to expand his operations to Malasiqui,
Urdaneta and Mapandan, taking them one after the other. He took one
more town, Mangaldan, before proceeding to
Dagupan to lay siege on the
last Spanish garrison. Also on March 7, 1898, the rebels under the
command of Prado and Quesada attacked convents in a number of towns in
Zambales province, located west of Lingayen, which now constitute the
western parts of Pangasinan.
Attacked and brought under Filipino control were Alaminos, Agno, Anda,
Alos, Bani, Balincaguin, Bolinao, Dasol, Eguia and Potot. The revolt
then spread to Labrador, Sual, Salasa and many other towns in the
west. The towns of Sual, Labrador, Lingayen, Salasa and Bayambang were
occupied first by the forces of Prado and Quesada before they
proceeded to attack Dagupan.
At an assembly convened to organize a central governing body for
Central and Northern
Luzon on April 17, 1898, General Makabulos
appointed Prado as politico-military governor of Pangasinan, with
Quesada as his second in command. His appointment came a few days
before the return of General Emilio Aguinaldo in May 1898 from his
exile in Hong Kong following the signing of the Pact of Biac-na-Bato
in December 1897. Aguinaldo's return gave fresh impetus to the renewal
of the flame of the revolution. Thus, on June 3, 1898, General
Tarlac and from that day on, the fires of revolution
So successful were the Filipinos in their many pitched battles against
the Spaniards that on June 30, 1898, Spanish authorities decided to
evacuate all their forces to
Dagupan where a last stand against the
rebels was to be made. They were ordered to go to
Dagupan were all
civilian and military personnel, including members of the volunteer
locales of towns not yet in rebel hands. Those who heeded this order
were the volunteer forces of Mangaldan, San Jacinto, Pozorrubio,
Manaoag, and Villasis. Among the items brought to
Dagupan was the
image of the Most Holy Rosary of the Virgin of Manaoag, which was
already the patron saint of Pangasinan.
When the forces of Maramba from the east and Prado from the west
Dagupan on July 18, 1898, the siege began. The arrival of
General Makabulos strengthened the rebel forces until the Spaniards,
holed up inside the Catholic Church, waved the flag of surrender five
days later. Armed poorly, the Filipinos were no match at the very
start with Spanish soldiers holed inside the Church. They just became
mere sitting ducks to Spanish soldiers shooting with their rifles from
a distance. But the tempo of battle changed when the attackers, under
Don Vicente Prado, devised a crude means of protection to shield them
from Spanish fire while advancing. This happened when they rolled
trunks of bananas, bundled up in sawali, that enabled them to inch
their way to the Church.
American colonization and the Philippine Commonwealth regime
Pangasinan and other parts of the
Spanish East Indies
Spanish East Indies were ceded to
the Americans after the Treaty of Paris that closed the
Spanish–American War. During the Philippine–American War,
Jose Torres Bugallon
Jose Torres Bugallon from the town of Salasa fought
together with Gen. Antonio Luna to defend the First Philippine
Republic against American colonization of Northern Luzon. Bugallon was
killed in battle on February 5, 1899. The First Philippine Republic
was abolished in 1901. In 1907, the
Philippine Assembly was
established and for the first time, five residents of
elected as its district representatives. In 1921, Mauro Navarro,
Pangasinan in the Philippine Assembly, sponsored a law to
rename the town of Salasa to Bugallon in order to honor General
During the Philippine Commonwealth regime,
Manuel L. Quezon
Manuel L. Quezon was
inaugurated as the first president of the Commonwealth of the
Philippines under the collaboration from the
United States of America
on November 15, 1935.
The 21st Infantry Division, Philippine Commonwealth Army, USAFFE was
found military establishment and built of the general headquarters was
active on July 26, 1941 to June 30, 1946 and they stationed in
Pangasinan during the pre-World War II era. From the conflict
engagements of the Anti-Japanese Imperial military operations included
the fall of
Bataan and Corregidor and aiding the USAFFE ground force
from January to May 1942 and the Japanese Insurgencies and Allied
Pangasinan from 1942 to 1945 and some parts in
Luzon and helps local guerrillas and American forces
against the Japanese.
After the declaration of
Manila on July 4, 1946,
Eugenio Perez, a Liberal Party congressman representing the fourth
district of Pangasinan, was elected Speaker of the lower Legislative
House. He led the House until 1953, when the
Nacionalista Party became
the dominant party.
Pangasinan, which was historically part of the Central
was made part of the
Ilocos Region (Region I) in the gerrymandering of
Philippines by Ferdinand Marcos, despite the fact that Pangasinan
has its distinct primary language, which is Pangasinan. The political
Pangasinan as part of the
Ilocos Region has
generated confusion among some Filipinos that the residents of
Pangasinan are Ilocanos, even though Ilocanos only constitute a
significant minority in the province.
Pangasinan has a distinct
primary language, ethnic group and culture, its economy is bigger than
the predominantly Ilocano provinces of Ilocos Norte,
Ilocos Sur and La
Union and its population is more than 50 percent of the population of
Region 1. Many Pangasinans prefer to have their own
or be returned to Central Luzon.
In February 1986, Vice Chief of Staff General Fidel V. Ramos, head of
the Philippine Integrated National Police and a native of Lingayen,
Pangasinan, became one of the instrumental figures of the EDSA people
power revolution that led to the overthrow of President Ferdinand
After the downfall of Marcos, all local government unit executives in
Philippines were ordered by President
Corazon Aquino to vacate
their posts. Some local executives were ordered to return to their
seats as in the case of Mayor Ludovico Espinosa of Dasol, where he
claims he joined the UNIDO, Mrs. Aquino's party during the height of
the EDSA Revolution. Fidel Ramos was appointed as AFP Chief of Staff
and later as Defense Secretary replacing Juan Ponce Enrile. Oscar
Orbos, a congressman from Bani, Pangasinan, was appointed by Aquino as
head of the
Department of Transportation and Communications
Department of Transportation and Communications and later
as Executive Secretary.
On May 11, 1992,
Fidel V. Ramos
Fidel V. Ramos ran for the position of President. He
was elected and became the first
Pangasinan President of the
Philippines. Through his leadership, the
Philippines recovered from a
severe economy after the oil and power crisis of 1991. His influence
also sparked the economic growth of
Pangasinan when it hosted the 1995
Palarong Pambansa (Philippine National Games).
Jose de Venecia, who represented the same district as Eugenio Perez,
was the second
Pangasinan to be Speaker of the House of
Representatives in 1992. He was reelected for the same position in
1995. De Venecia was selected by the Ramos' administration party Lakas
NUCD to be its presidential candidate in 1998. De Venecia ran but lost
to Vice President Joseph Estrada. Oscar Orbos, who served as
Pangasinan governor from 1995, ran for Vice President, but lost to
Senator Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, whose mother, former First Lady
Evangelina Macaraeg-Macapagal, hails from Binalonan, Pangasinan.
Arroyo later ascended to the presidency after the second EDSA
Revolution when President
Joseph Estrada was overthrown.
In May 2004, actor-turned-politician Fernando Poe, Jr., whose family
is from San Carlos City, Pangasinan, ran for President against
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo during the Philippine general
election in 2004. The
Pangasinan vote was almost evenly split by the
two presidential candidates who both have
Pangasinan roots. Arroyo was
elected President, but her victory was tainted by charges of electoral
fraud and vote-buying.
The state of crisis of the national government in Manila, corruption
in Malacañang, widespread poverty and the slow pace of economic
development is forcing many Pangasinans to seek opportunities in Metro
Manila or other richer provinces, work in other nations or emigrate to
wealthier nations, like the United States, Japan, Saudi
Pangasinan is located on the west central area of the island of Luzon
in the Philippines. It is bordered by
La Union to the north, Benguet
Nueva Vizcaya to the northeast,
Nueva Ecija to the southeast, and
Tarlac to the south. To the west of
Pangasinan is the
China Sea. The province also encloses the Lingayen Gulf.
The province has a land area of 5,451.01 square kilometres
(2,104.65 sq mi). It is 170 kilometres (110 mi)
north of Manila, 50 kilometres (31 mi) south of Baguio City, 115
kilometres (71 mi) north of Subic International Airport and
Seaport, and 80 square kilometres (31 sq mi) north of Clark
International Airport. At the coast of Alaminos, the Hundred islands
have become a famous tourist spot.
The terrain of the province is typically flat, with a few being
mountainous. The northeastern municipalities of San Manuel, San
Nicolas, Natividad, San Quintin and Umingan have hilly to mountainous
areas, situated at the tip of the Cordillera mountains. The Zambales
mountains extend to the province's western towns of Labrador, Mabini,
Bugallon, Aguilar, Mangatarem, Dasol, and Infanta forming the
mountainous portions of those towns.
Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology
Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)
reported several inactive volcanoes in the province: Amorong,
Balungao, Cabaluyan, Cahelietan, Candong, and Malabobo. PHIVOLCS
reported no active or potentially active volcanoes in Pangasinan. A
caldera-like landform is located between the towns of
Villasis with a center at about 15° 55′ N and 120° 30′ E near
the Cabaruan Hills.
Several rivers traverse the province. The longest is the Agno River,
which originates from the Cordillera mountains of Benguet, eventually
emptying its waters into the Lingayen Gulf. Other major rivers include
the Bued River, Angalacan River, Sinocalan River, Patalan River and
the Cayanga River.
For a more comprehensive list, see Administrative divisions of
The province of
Pangasinan is subdivided into 44 municipalities, 4
cities, and 1,364 barangay (which means "village" or "community").
There are six congressional districts in the province.
Political map of Pangasinan
The capital of the province is Lingayen. In ancient times, the capital
Pangasinan was Binalatongan, now San Carlos City.
Pangasinan has 1,364 barangays comprising its 44 municipalities and 4
cities, ranking the province at 3rd with the most number of barangays
in a Philippine province, only behind Leyte and Iloilo.
The most populous barangay in the province is
Bonuan Gueset in Dagupan
City, with a population of 22,042 in 2010. If cities are excluded,
Poblacion in the municipality of Lingayen has the highest population
at 12,642. Iton in Bayambang has the lowest with only 99 in the census
Further information: List of barangays in Pangasinan
Pangasinan people, Ilocano people, and Sambal people
Population census of
Philippine Statistics Authority
Philippine Statistics Authority 
The population of
Pangasinan in the 2015 census was 2,956,726
people, with a density of 540 inhabitants per square kilometre or
1,400 inhabitants per square mile.
Pangasinan people (Totoon Pangasinan) are called
Pangasinan or the
Hispanicized name Pangasinense, or simply taga-Pangasinan, which means
Pangasinan people were known as traders,
businesspeople, farmers and fishers.
Pangasinan is the third
most-populated province in the Philippines. The estimated population
of the indigenous speakers of the
Pangasinan language in the province
Pangasinan is almost 2 million and is projected to double in about
30 years. According to the 2000 census, 47 percent of the population
Pangasinan and 44 percent are Ilocanos. Sambal settlers
Zambales also predominate in the westernmost municipalities of
Bolinao and Anda. The
Pangasinan people are closely related to the
Austronesian-speaking peoples of the other parts of the Philippines,
as well as
Indonesia and Malaysia.
Languages Spoken (2010)
Pangasinan language, Ilocano language, and Bolinao
Pangasinan language is an agglutinative language. It belongs to
Malayo-Polynesian languages branch of the Austronesian language
family and is the primary language of the province of Pangasinan, as
well as northern
Tarlac and southwestern La Union. The Pangasinan
language is similar to the other
Malayo-Polynesian languages of the
Philippines, as well as
Indonesia and Malaysia. It is closely related
Ibaloi language spoken in the neighboring province of Benguet,
located northwest of Pangasinan. The
Pangasinan language along with
Ibaloi are classified under the Pangasinic group of languages. The
other Pangasinic languages are:
Aside from their native language, some educated Pangasinans are highly
proficient in Ilocano, English and Filipino.
Pangasinan is mostly
spoken in the central part of the province in the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and
is the second language in other parts of Pangasinan. Ilocano is widely
spoken in the westernmost and easternmost parts of
Pangasinan in the
1st, 5th and 6th districts, and is the second language in other parts
of Pangasinan. Ilocanos and Pangasinans speak Ilocano with a
Pangasinan accent, as descendants of Ilocanos from first generation
who lived within
Pangasinan population learned
Bolinao, a Sambalic language is widely spoken in the western tip of
the province in the towns of Bolinao and Anda.
The religion of the people of
Pangasinan is predominantly Christianity
Roman Catholicism as the overwhelming majority at 80% affiliation
in the population. The second major denomination in the province is
Aglipayan Church with at least 15% of the population. Other
religious denominations are divided with other Christian groups such
as Members Church of God International, Iglesia Ni Cristo, Baptist,
Methodist, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (Mormon),
Jehovah's Witnesses and Seventh-day Adventist. Few are strict
believers and continue to practice their indigenous anito beliefs and
rituals, like most of the people of the Philippines.
Spanish and American missionaries introduced Christianity to
Pangasinan. Prior to the Spanish conquest in 1571, the predominant
religion of the people of
Pangasinan was similar to the indigenous
religion of the highland
Igorot or the inhabitants of the Cordillera
Administrative Region on the island of Luzon, who mostly retained
their indigenous culture and religion. A translation of the New
Testament (excluding Revelation) in the
Pangasinan language by Fr.
Nicolas Manrique Alonzo Lallave, a Spanish Dominican friar assigned in
Urdaneta, was the first ever translation of a complete portion of the
Bible in a Philippine language.
Pangasinan was also influenced by
Islam to a lesser extent, before the
introduction of Christianity.
Commercial salt industry in Dasol
Pangasinan is the richest province in
Ilocos Region of the
The 1200 megawatt Sual coal-fired power plant, and 345 megawatt San
Roque multi-purpose dam, in the municipalities of Sual and San Manuel
respectively, are the primary sources of energy of the province.
Pangasinan is a major fish supplier in Luzon, and a major producer of
salt in the Philippines. It has extensive fishponds, mostly for
raising bangus or "milkfish", along the coasts of the Lingayen Gulf
and the South
China Sea. Pangasinan's aquaculture includes oyster and
sea urchin farms.
Salt is also a major industry. In salt evaporation ponds seawater is
mixed with sodium bicarbonate until the water evaporates and the salt
remains. This is their ancient tradition inspired from Egypt.
The major crops in
Pangasinan are rice, mangoes, corn, and sugar cane.
Pangasinan has a land area of 536,819 hectares, and 44
percent of the total land area of
devoted to agricultural production.
Pangasinan has 593 banking and financing institutions.[citation
Pangasinan has a labor force of about 1.52 million, and 87 percent of
the labor force are gainfully employed.
Health and education
There are thousands of public schools and hundreds of private schools
across the province for primary and secondary education. Many
Pangasinans go to Metro Manila, Baguio City, and the
United States for
tertiary and higher education.
Pangasinan has 51 hospitals and clinics and 68 rural health units (as
of July 2002). Although some residents go to other parts of the
Philippines, Metro Manila, Europe and the
United States for extensive
medical tests and treatment, almost all Pangasinans go to the major
medical centers in the cities of Dagupan, San Carlos and Urdaneta.
The culture of
Pangasinan is a blend of the indigenous
Malayo-Polynesian and western Hispanic culture, with some Indian and
Chinese influences and minor American influences. Today,
very much westernized, yet retains a strong, native Austronesian
The main centers of
Pangasinan culture are
Dagupan City, Lingayen,
Manaoag, Calasiao, and San Carlos City.
Siblings Margaret F. Celeste, Cong. Jesus 'Boying' F. Celeste
(Representative, Pangasinan, 1st District, House of Representatives,
Quezon City), former Cong. Arthur F. Celeste, Pangasinan, 1st,
Lakas-Kampi-CMD, 14th Congress of the Philippines), and Mayor Alfronso
Pangasinan and Legislative districts of
The current governor of
Pangasinan is Amado "Pogi" Espino, III, son of
former governor Amado T. Espino, Jr., and the current vice governor is
Jose Ferdinand Calimlim, Jr. Among those who served as
Pangasinan include Tito Primicias, Vicente Millora and Daniel Maramba.
District Representatives (2016-2019)
1st District: Jesus F. Celeste
2nd District: Leopoldo N. Bataoil
3rd District: Rosemarie P. Arenas
4th District: Christopher George P. De Venecia
5th District: Amado T. Espino, Jr.
6th District: Marlyn L. Primicias- Agabas
Provincial Board Members (2016-2019)
1st District: Napoleon C. Fontelera Jr. and Anthony D. Sison
2nd District: Raul P. Sison and Nestor D. Reyes
3rd District: Angel M. Baniqued, Jr. and Generoso D. Tulagan, Jr.
4th District: Jeremy Agerico B. Rosario and Liberato Z. Villegas
5th District: Rosary Gracia P. Perez- Tababa and Clemente B. Arboleda,
6th District: Salvador S. Perez, Jr. and Noel C. Bince
Liga ng mga
Barangay Provincial President: Jeanne Jinky C. Zaplan
Pangasinan President: Shiela Marie S. Perez-Galicia
Notable people from Pangasinan
Notable people either born or residing in
Fernando Poe Sr., former action star, from San Carlos City.
Eva Macapagal, First Lady of the
Philippines in 1961–1965 and mother
of Former President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, was from Binalonan.
President Fidel V. Ramos, who was born in Lingayen and hails from
Leticia Ramos-Shahani (Senator of the Philippines, 1987-1998),
born in Lingayen and hails from Asingan.
Eugenio Perez (1896-1996), first Speaker of the House of
Representatives (Philippines) from
Pangasinan and born in Basista.
Dr. Francisco Duque III, current Secretary of Department of Health
Retired Gen. Isidro Lapena, current commissioner of Bureau of Customs
and former director of
Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency
Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency (PDEA)
Manuel Moran, former Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, who was born
Gabriel C. Singson, the former governor of the Bangko Sentral ng
Pilipinas, is from Lingayen.
Carlos Bulosan, internationally known writer from Binalonan.
Francisco Sionil José, internationally known writer from Rosales.
Victorio Edades, a Filipino modernist and a recognized National
Artist, was from
Jacqueline Aquino Siapno, a professor from
Dagupan City, is the
interim first lady of East Timor.
Geronima Tomelden-Pecson, the first female senator of the Philippines,
was a native of Lingayen.
Julius Babao, ABS-CBN news anchor, TV/Radio host, born in Dagupan
Cheryl Cosim, TV5 news anchor, TV/Radio host is from
Mitoy Yonting, first winner of The Voice of the Philippines, lead
singer Draybers., from Calasiao.
Danny Ildefonso, two-time PBA Season MVP, five-time Best Player of the
Conference, three-time Finals MVP, All-Star Game MVP, Rookie of the
Year, Comeback Player of the Year, eight-time PBA Champion and one of
the 40 Greatest Players in PBA History, from Urdaneta City.
Marc Pingris, two-time Finals MVP, three-time Defensive Player of the
Year, All-Star Game MVP, Most Improved Player, eight-time PBA Champion
and one of the 40 Greatest Players in PBA History, from Pozorrubio
Marlou Aquino, Rookie of the Year, Best Player of the Conference,
Defensive Player of the Year, three-time PBA Champion and one of the
40 Greatest Players in PBA History, from Santa Barbara.
Lordy Tugade, Finals MVP and PBA Champion, from Alaminos City.
Ana "The Hurricane" Julaton, a native of Pozorrubio, World Boxing
Oscar Orbos, a native of Bani, a former governor and TV host.
Thomas Orbos, current undersecretary of Department of Transportation
(Philippines), brother of former
Governor Oscar Orbos, natives from
the town of Bani.
Gloria Romero, a veteran actress, hails from Mabini.
Nova Villa, GMA veteran actress, from Mangatarem
Maki Pulido, GMA news anchor, hails from Anda.
Narciso Ramos, a journalist, lawyer, assemblyman and ambassador, and
the father of former president Fidel V. Ramos., born in Asingan.
Barbara Perez, veteran actress, born in Urdaneta City.
Lolita Rodriguez, actress, born in Urdaneta City.
Carmen Rosales, former actress, born in Rosales.
Hermogenes Esperon Jr., Former AFP Chief of Staff and current adviser
of National Security Council (Philippines), born in Asingan.
Papa Jack, TV Radio Broadcaster and DJ, from Alcala.
Mocha Uson, Assistant Secretary of Presidential Communications
Operations Office (PCOO), born in
Jhong Hilario, ABS-CBN dancer and actor, born in Asingan.
Jane Oineza, ABS-CBN Teen Actress from Bani.
Anne Curtis, ABS-CBN Actress and fashion model, whose mother is from
Liza Soberano, ABS-CBN Actress, fashion model and singer, whose father
is from Asingan.
Romeo de la Cruz, former Solicitor General of the
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Lingayen-Dagupan
Roman Catholic Diocese of Alaminos
Roman Catholic Diocese of Urdaneta
This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain
unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to
improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (September
2009) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
^ a b "List of Provinces". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines:
National Statistical Coordination Board. Retrieved 11 February
^ a b c d Census of Population (2015). "Region I (Ilocos Region)".
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Retrieved 20 June 2016.
Pangasinan voters already 1,651,814," Sunday Punch. December 10,
^ a b Minahan, James (10 June 2014). Ethnic Groups of South Asia and
the Pacific. ABC-CLIO. p. 34. ISBN 1598846604. Retrieved 10
^ New DNA evidence overturns population migration theory in Island
Southeast Asia - University of Oxford Archived 2011-10-28 at the
^ New research forces U-turn in population migration theory
^ Mark Donohue; Tim Denham (April 2010). "Farming and Language in
Island Southeast Asia : Reframing Austronesian History" (PDF).
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study of Philippine history. New Day Publishers. pp. 81–82.
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^ "Province: Pangasinan". PSGC Interactive.
Quezon City, Philippines:
Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
^ a b Census of Population and Housing (2010). "Region I (Ilocos
Region)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and
Barangay. NSO. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
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Table 1. Population Enumerated in Various Censuses by Province/Highly
Urbanized City: 1903 to 2007. NSO.
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Utilities Administration Research Division. Retrieved 17 December
^ Table 10. Household Population by Country of Citizenship and Sex:
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Garotech Publishing, Eighth Edition, 1990).
Cortes, Rosario Mendoza. Pangasinan, 1572-1800. (
University of the
Philippines Press, 1974; New Day Publishers, 1975).
Cortes, Rosario Mendoza. Pangasinan, 1801-1900: The Beginnings of
Book Shop, April 1991).
Cortes, Rosario Mendoza. Pangasinan, 1901-1986: A Political,
Socioeconomic, and Cultural History. (Cellar
Book Shop, April 1991).
Cortes, Rosario Mendoza. The Filipino Saga: History as Social Change.
Quezon City: New Day Publishers, 2000).
Craig, Austin. "Lineage Life and Labors of Jose Rizal". (Manila:
Philippine Education Company, 1913).
Mafiles, Victoria Veloria; Nava, Erlinda Tomelden. The English
Pangasinan Folk Literature. (
Philippines: Five Ed Printing Press, 2004).
Quintos, Felipe Quintos. Sipi Awaray Gelew Diad Pilipinas (Revolucion
Filipina). (Lingayen, Pangasinan: Gumawid Press, 1926).
Pangasinan Folk Literature, A Doctoral
Dissertation. (University of the Philippines, Diliman,
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pangasinan.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Pangasinan.
Geographic data related to
Pangasinan at OpenStreetMap
Official Tourism Website of Pangasinan
Official Website of the Provincial Government of Pangasinan
Provincial Profile at the National Competitiveness Council of the
Local Governance Performance Management System
Salt production in Pangasinan
Philippine Standard Geographic Code
Philippine Census Information
Places adjacent to Pangasinan
Lingayen Gulf /
La Union / Benguet
Zambales / Tarlac
Province of Pangasinan
Independent component city
Dagupan (Administratively independent from the province but grouped
Pangasinan by the Philippine Statistics Authority.)
See: List of barangays in Pangasinan
Articles related to Pangasinan
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