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The International Paneuropean Union, also referred to as the Paneuropean Movement and the Pan-Europa Movement, is the oldest European unification movement. It began with the publishing of Count Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi's manifesto Paneuropa (1923), which presented the idea of a unified European State. Coudenhove-Kalergi, a member of the Bohemian Coudenhove-Kalergi
Coudenhove-Kalergi
family and the son of an Austro-Hungarian diplomat and a Japanese mother, was the organisation's central figure and President until his death in 1972. It is independent of all political parties, but has a set of principles by which it appraises politicians, parties, and institutions. The International Paneuropean Union
Paneuropean Union
has four main basic principles: liberalism, Christianity, social responsibility, and pro-Europeanism. At the same time, it openly welcomes and acknowledges the contributions of Judaism and Islam whose heritage they share.[1] The organisation was prohibited by Nazi Germany
Germany
in 1933, and was founded again after the Second World War. Otto von Habsburg, the head of the Habsburg dynasty
Habsburg dynasty
and former Crown Prince of Austria-Hungary, became involved with the Paneuropean Union in the 1930s, was elected its Vice President in 1957 and became its International President in 1973, after Coudenhove's death.[1] The President of the Union since 2004 is Alain Terrenoire, former Member of Parliament in France and MEP and Director of the French Paneuropa-Union.[1] Otto Habsburg became the International Honorary President of the International Paneuropean Union
Paneuropean Union
in 2004. Its Vice President is Walburga Habsburg Douglas, a member of the Swedish Parliament.[1] The Union has branches in many European countries, with the General Secretariat located in Munich. In France, the Pan-Europa Union was founded by later President Georges Pompidou
Georges Pompidou
and later cabinet minister Louis Terrenoire, with the support of Charles de Gaulle. The Union achieved high political influence in France, particularly within the Gaullist
Gaullist
segment of French politics.

The Austrian-Hungarian border crossing where the Pan-European Picnic took place in 1989

Among its notable members were Albert Einstein, Fridtjof Nansen, Johan Ludwig Mowinckel, Thomas Mann, Franz Werfel, Bronisław Huberman, Aristide Briand, Konrad Adenauer, Sigmund Freud, Benedetto Croce, Bruno Kreisky, Léon Blum
Léon Blum
and Georges Pompidou.[2] Winston Churchill lauded the movement's work for a unified Europe prior to the war in his famous Zurich speech in 1946.[3][4] In 1947, the group formed around Duncan Sandys, Winston Churchill, Edvard Beneš
Edvard Beneš
and others split into newly formed European Movement in opposition of Union's strong Christian right. Grounded in liberal values, the Paneuropean Union
Paneuropean Union
was considered staunchly anti-communist from its inception and especially during the Cold War. For this reason, the organisation was much reviled by the communist regimes of the Eastern Bloc. The organisation became renowned for its role in organising the Pan-European Picnic, an important event during the Revolutions of 1989. Presidents[edit]

Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi, 1894–1972

Count Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi
Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi
(1923–1972), elected the first International President in 1926. Otto von Habsburg, MEP, the former Crown Prince Otto of Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
(1973–2004) Alain Terrenoire, former Member of Parliament and MEP, France (2004–)

See also[edit]

European integration
European integration
– mainly through the European Union
European Union
and the Council of Europe Euroscepticism
Euroscepticism
– opposition to the process of political European integration

References[edit]

^ a b c d http://www.paneuropa.org/ ^ Richard Vaughan, Twentieth-Century Europe: Paths to Unity, Taylor & Francis, 1979, ISBN 0064971724 ^ Michael Gehler; Wolfram Kaiser, Helmut Wohnout: Christdemokratie in Europa im 20. Jahrhundert: Christian democracy in 20th century Europe. Böhlau Verlag Wien, 2001, ISBN 3205993608, Seiten 595. ^ Trevor C. Salmon; William Nicoll: Building European Union: a documentary history and analysis. Manchester University Press, 1997, ISBN 0719044464, Seite 26.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Paneuropean Union.

Official website European Society Coudenhove-Kalergi Archival sources on the Paneuropean Union
Paneuropean Union
at the Historical Archives of

.