The International Paneuropean Union, also referred to as the
Paneuropean Movement and the Pan-Europa Movement, is the oldest
European unification movement. It began with the publishing of Count
Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi's manifesto Paneuropa (1923), which
presented the idea of a unified European State. Coudenhove-Kalergi, a
member of the Bohemian
Coudenhove-Kalergi family and the son of an
Austro-Hungarian diplomat and a Japanese mother, was the
organisation's central figure and President until his death in 1972.
It is independent of all political parties, but has a set of
principles by which it appraises politicians, parties, and
institutions. The International
Paneuropean Union has four main basic
principles: liberalism, Christianity, social responsibility, and
pro-Europeanism. At the same time, it openly welcomes and acknowledges
the contributions of Judaism and Islam whose heritage they share.
The organisation was prohibited by Nazi
Germany in 1933, and was
founded again after the Second World War.
Otto von Habsburg, the head of the
Habsburg dynasty and former Crown
Prince of Austria-Hungary, became involved with the Paneuropean Union
in the 1930s, was elected its Vice President in 1957 and became its
International President in 1973, after Coudenhove's death. The
President of the Union since 2004 is Alain Terrenoire, former Member
of Parliament in France and MEP and Director of the French
Paneuropa-Union. Otto Habsburg became the International Honorary
President of the International
Paneuropean Union in 2004. Its Vice
President is Walburga Habsburg Douglas, a member of the Swedish
The Union has branches in many European countries, with the General
Secretariat located in Munich. In France, the Pan-Europa Union was
founded by later President
Georges Pompidou and later cabinet minister
Louis Terrenoire, with the support of Charles de Gaulle. The Union
achieved high political influence in France, particularly within the
Gaullist segment of French politics.
The Austrian-Hungarian border crossing where the Pan-European Picnic
took place in 1989
Among its notable members were Albert Einstein, Fridtjof Nansen, Johan
Ludwig Mowinckel, Thomas Mann, Franz Werfel, Bronisław Huberman,
Aristide Briand, Konrad Adenauer, Sigmund Freud, Benedetto Croce,
Léon Blum and Georges Pompidou. Winston Churchill
lauded the movement's work for a unified Europe prior to the war in
his famous Zurich speech in 1946.
In 1947, the group formed around Duncan Sandys, Winston Churchill,
Edvard Beneš and others split into newly formed European Movement in
opposition of Union's strong Christian right.
Grounded in liberal values, the
Paneuropean Union was considered
staunchly anti-communist from its inception and especially during the
Cold War. For this reason, the organisation was much reviled by the
communist regimes of the Eastern Bloc. The organisation became
renowned for its role in organising the Pan-European Picnic, an
important event during the Revolutions of 1989.
Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi, 1894–1972
Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi
Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi (1923–1972), elected the first
International President in 1926.
Otto von Habsburg, MEP, the former Crown Prince Otto of
Alain Terrenoire, former Member of Parliament and MEP, France
European integration – mainly through the
European Union and the
Council of Europe
Euroscepticism – opposition to the process of political European
^ a b c d http://www.paneuropa.org/
^ Richard Vaughan, Twentieth-Century Europe: Paths to Unity, Taylor
& Francis, 1979, ISBN 0064971724
^ Michael Gehler; Wolfram Kaiser, Helmut Wohnout: Christdemokratie in
Europa im 20. Jahrhundert: Christian democracy in 20th century Europe.
Böhlau Verlag Wien, 2001, ISBN 3205993608, Seiten 595.
^ Trevor C. Salmon; William Nicoll: Building European Union: a
documentary history and analysis. Manchester University Press, 1997,
ISBN 0719044464, Seite 26.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Paneuropean Union.
European Society Coudenhove-Kalergi
Archival sources on the
Paneuropean Union at the Historical Archives
of the EU