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The INTERNATIONAL PANEUROPEAN UNION, also referred to as the PANEUROPEAN MOVEMENT and the PAN-EUROPA MOVEMENT, is the oldest European unification movement . It began with the publishing of Count Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi 's manifesto Paneuropa (1923), which presented the idea of a unified European State . Coudenhove-Kalergi, a member of the Bohemian Coudenhove-Kalergi family and the son of an Austro-Hungarian diplomat and a Japanese mother , was the organisation's central figure and President until his death in 1972.

It is independent of all political parties , but has a set of principles by which it appraises politicians, parties, and institutions. The International Paneuropean Union
Paneuropean Union
has four main basic principles: liberalism , Christianity
Christianity
, social responsibility , and pro-Europeanism . At the same time, it openly welcomes and acknowledges the contributions of Judaism and Islam whose heritage they share.

The organisation was prohibited by Nazi Germany
Germany
in 1933, and was founded again after the Second World War
Second World War
.

Otto von Habsburg
Otto von Habsburg
, the head of the Habsburg dynasty and former Crown Prince of Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
, became involved with the Paneuropean Union in the 1930s, was elected its Vice President in 1957 and became its International President in 1973, after Coudenhove's death. The President of the Union since 2004 is Alain Terrenoire , former Member of Parliament in France and MEP and Director of the French Paneuropa-Union. Otto Habsburg became the International Honorary President of the International Paneuropean Union
Paneuropean Union
in 2004. Its Vice President is Walburga Habsburg Douglas
Walburga Habsburg Douglas
, a member of the Swedish Parliament .

The Union has branches in many European countries, with the General Secretariat located in Munich
Munich
. In France, the Pan-Europa Union was founded by later President Georges Pompidou
Georges Pompidou
and later cabinet minister Louis Terrenoire , with the support of Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
. The Union achieved high political influence in France, particularly within the gaullist segment of French politics. The Austrian-Hungarian border crossing where the Pan-European Picnic took place in 1989

Among its notable members were Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
, Fridtjof Nansen
Fridtjof Nansen
, Johan Ludwig Mowinckel , Thomas Mann
Thomas Mann
, Franz Werfel
Franz Werfel
, Bronisław Huberman , Aristide Briand
Aristide Briand
, Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
, Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud
, Benedetto Croce
Benedetto Croce
, Bruno Kreisky
Bruno Kreisky
, Léon Blum
Léon Blum
and Georges Pompidou
Georges Pompidou
. Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
lauded the movement's work for a unified Europe prior to the war in his famous Zurich speech in 1946.

Grounded in liberal values, the Paneuropean Union
Paneuropean Union
was considered staunchly anti-communist from its inception and especially during the Cold War
Cold War
. For this reason, the organisation was much reviled by the communist regimes of the Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
. The organisation became renowned for its role in organising the Pan-European Picnic , an important event during the Revolutions of 1989
Revolutions of 1989
.

PRESIDENTS

Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi, 1894–1972

* Count Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi (1923–1972), elected the first International President in 1926. * Otto von Habsburg
Otto von Habsburg
, MEP, the former Crown Prince Otto of Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
(1973–2004) * Alain Terrenoire , former Member of Parliament and MEP, France (2004–)

SEE ALSO

* European integration
European integration
– mainly through the European Union
European Union
and the Council of Europe * Euroscepticism – opposition to the process of political European integration

REFERENCES

* ^ A B C D http://www.paneuropa.org/ * ^ Richard Vaughan, Twentieth-Century Europe: Paths to Unity, Taylor Wolfram Kaiser, Helmut Wohnout: Christdemokratie in Europa im 20. Jahrhundert: Christian democracy in 20th century Europe. Böhlau Verlag Wien, 2001, ISBN 3205993608 , Seiten 595. * ^ Trevor C. Salmon; William Nicoll: Building European Union: a documentary history and analysis. Manchester University Press, 1997, ISBN 0719044464 , Seite 26.

EXTERNAL

.