Panentheism (meaning "all-in-God", from the
Ancient Greek πᾶν
pân, "all", ἐν en, "in" and Θεός Theós, "God") is the
belief that the divine pervades and interpenetrates every part of the
universe and also extends beyond time and space. The term was coined
by the German philosopher
Karl Krause in 1828 to distinguish the ideas
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770–1831) and Friedrich Wilhelm
Joseph Schelling (1775–1854) about the relation of
God and the
universe from the supposed pantheism of Baruch Spinoza. Unlike
pantheism, which holds that the divine and the universe are
identical, panentheism maintains an ontological distinction between
the divine and the non-divine and the significance of both.
God is viewed as the soul of the universe, the
universal spirit present everywhere, which at the same time
"transcends" all things created.
While pantheism asserts that "all is God", panentheism claims that God
is greater than the universe. Some versions of panentheism suggest
that the universe is nothing more than the manifestation of God. In
addition, some forms indicate that the universe is contained within
God, like in the
Kabbalah concept of tzimtzum. Also much Hindu
thought – and consequently Buddhist philosophy – is
highly characterized by panentheism and pantheism. The basic
tradition however, on which Krause's concept was built, seems to have
Neoplatonic philosophy and its successors in Western philosophy
and Orthodox theology.
1 In philosophy
Ancient Greek philosophy
1.2 Modern philosophy
2 In religion
2.4.1 Eastern Orthodoxy
Panentheism in other Christian confessions
2.8 In the Pre-European Americas
2.10 Bahá'í Faith
3 See also
6 External links
Ancient Greek philosophy
The religious beliefs of
Neoplatonism can be regarded as
Plotinus taught that there was an ineffable
God ("the One", to En, τὸ Ἕν) of which subsequent
realities were emanations. From "the One" emanates the Divine Mind
(Nous, Νοῦς) and the Cosmic
Soul (Psyche, Ψυχή). In
Neoplatonism the world itself is
God (according to Plato's Timaeus
37). This concept of divinity is associated with that of the Logos
(Λόγος), which had originated centuries earlier with Heraclitus
(c. 535–475 BC). The
Logos pervades the cosmos, whereby all thoughts
and all things originate, or as
Heraclitus said: "He who hears not me
Logos will say: All is one." Neoplatonists such as Iamblichus
attempted to reconcile this perspective by adding another hypostasis
above the original monad of force or
Dunamis (Δύναμις). This
new all-pervasive monad encompassed all creation and its original
Baruch Spinoza later claimed that "Whatsoever is, is in God, and
God nothing can be, or be conceived." "Individual things
are nothing but modifications of the attributes of God, or modes by
which the attributes of
God are expressed in a fixed and definite
manner." Though Spinoza has been called the "prophet" and
"prince" of pantheism, in a letter to
Henry Oldenburg Spinoza
states that: "as to the view of certain people that I identify god
with nature (taken as a kind of mass or corporeal matter), they are
quite mistaken". For Spinoza, our universe (cosmos) is a mode under
two attributes of
Thought and Extension.
God has infinitely many other
attributes which are not present in our world.
According to German philosopher Karl Jaspers, when Spinoza wrote "Deus
sive Natura" (
God or Nature) Spinoza did not mean to say that
Nature are interchangeable terms, but rather that God's transcendence
was attested by his infinitely many attributes, and that two
attributes known by humans, namely
Thought and Extension, signified
God's immanence. Furthermore,
Martial Guéroult suggested the term
"panentheism", rather than "pantheism" to describe Spinoza's view of
the relation between
God and the world. The world is not God, but it
is, in a strong sense, "in" God. Yet, American philosopher and
Charles Hartshorne referred to Spinoza's
philosophy as "classical pantheism" and distinguished Spinoza's
philosophy from panentheism.
In 1828, the German philosopher Karl Christian Friedrich Krause
(1781–1832) seeking to reconcile monotheism and pantheism, coined
the term panentheism (from the
Ancient Greek expression πᾶν ἐν
θεῷ, pān en theṓ, literally "all in god"). This conception of
God influenced New England transcendentalists such as Ralph Waldo
Emerson. The term was popularized by
Charles Hartshorne in his
development of process theology and has also been closely identified
with the New Thought. The formalization of this term in the West
in the 19th century was not new; philosophical treatises had been
written on it in the context of
Hinduism for millennia.
Philosophers who embraced panentheism have included Thomas Hill Green
(1839–1882), James Ward (1843–1925), Andrew Seth Pringle-Pattison
Samuel Alexander (1859–1938). Beginning in the
1940s, Hartshorne examined numerous conceptions of God. He reviewed
and discarded pantheism, deism, and pandeism in favor of panentheism,
finding that such a "doctrine contains all of deism and pandeism
except their arbitrary negations". Hartshorne formulated
God as a
being who could become "more perfect": He has absolute perfection in
categories for which absolute perfection is possible, and relative
perfection (i. e., is superior to all others) in categories for
which perfection cannot be precisely determined.
Earliest reference to panentheistic thought in
Hindu philosophy is in
a creation myth contained in the later section of
Rig Veda called the
Purusha Sukta, which was compiled before 1100 BCE. The Purusha
Sukta gives a description of the spiritual unity of the cosmos. It
presents the nature of Purusha or the cosmic being as both immanent in
the manifested world and yet transcendent to it. From this being
the sukta holds, the original creative will proceeds, by which this
vast universe is projected in space and time.
The most influential and dominant school of Indian philosophy,
Advaita Vedanta, rejects theism and dualism by insisting that "Brahman
[ultimate reality] is without parts or attributes...one without a
Brahman has no properties, contains no internal
diversity and is identical with the whole reality it cannot be
understood as an anthropomorphic personal God. The relationship
Brahman and the creation is often thought to be
Panentheism is also expressed in the Bhagavad Gita. In verse IX.4,
By Me all this universe is pervaded through My unmanifested form.
All beings abide in Me but I do not abide in them.
Many schools of
Hindu thought espouse monistic theism, which is
thought to be similar to a panentheistic viewpoint. Nimbarka's school
of differential monism (Dvaitadvaita), Ramanuja's school of qualified
monism (Vishistadvaita) and
Saiva Siddhanta and
Kashmir Shaivism are
all considered to be panentheistic. Caitanya's Gaudiya
Vaishnavism, which elucidates the doctrine of Acintya Bheda Abheda
(inconceivable oneness and difference), is also thought to be
panentheistic. In Kashmir Shaivism, all things are believed to be
a manifestation of Universal Consciousness (Cit or Brahman). So
from the point of view of this school, the phenomenal world (Śakti)
is real, and it exists and has its being in Consciousness (Cit).
Kashmir Shaivism is also propounding of theistic monism or
Shaktism, or Tantra, is regarded as an Indian prototype of
Shakti is considered to be the cosmos itself – she
is the embodiment of energy and dynamism, and the motivating force
behind all action and existence in the material universe. Shiva is her
transcendent masculine aspect, providing the divine ground of all
being. "There is no Shiva without Shakti, or
Shakti without Shiva. The
two ... in themselves are One." Thus, it is She who becomes the
time and space, the cosmos, it is She who becomes the five elements,
and thus all animate life and inanimate forms. She is the primordial
energy that holds all creation and destruction, all cycles of birth
and death, all laws of cause and effect within Herself, and yet is
greater than the sum total of all these. She is transcendent, but
becomes immanent as the cosmos (Mula Prakriti). She, the Primordial
Energy, directly becomes Matter.
Taoism says that all is part of the eternal tao, and that all interact
The Reverend Zen Master
Soyen Shaku was the first Zen Buddhist Abbot
to tour the United States in 1905-6. He wrote a series of essays
collected into the book Zen For Americans. In the essay titled "The
God Conception of Buddhism" he attempts to explain how a Buddhist
looks at the ultimate without an anthropomorphic
God figure while
still being able to relate to the term
God in a Buddhist sense:
At the outset, let me state that Buddhism is not atheistic as the term
is ordinarily understood. It has certainly a God, the highest reality
and truth, through which and in which this universe exists. However,
the followers of Buddhism usually avoid the term God, for it savors so
much of Christianity, whose spirit is not always exactly in accord
with the Buddhist interpretation of religious experience. Again,
Buddhism is not pantheistic in the sense that it identifies the
universe with God. On the other hand, the Buddhist
God is absolute and
transcendent; this world, being merely its manifestation, is
necessarily fragmental and imperfect. To define more exactly the
Buddhist notion of the highest being, it may be convenient to borrow
the term very happily coined by a modern German scholar,
"panentheism," according to which
God is πᾶν καὶ ἕν (all
and one) and more than the totality of existence.
The essay then goes on to explain first utilizing the term "God" for
the American audience to get an initial understanding of what he means
by "panentheism," and then discusses the terms that Buddhism uses in
place of "God" such as Dharmakaya,
Buddha or AdiBuddha, and Tathagata.
Panentheism is also a feature of some Christian philosophical
theologies and resonates strongly within the theological tradition of
the Orthodox Church. It also appears in some Roman Catholic
mysticism and in process theology. While process
theological thinkers are generally regarded in the
Christian West as
unorthodox, process philosophical thought is widely believed to have
paved the way for open theism, a movement associated primarily with
the Evangelical branch of Protestantism.
See also: Omnipresence
In Christianity, creation is not considered a literal "part of" God,
and divinity is essentially distinct from creation (i.e.,
transcendent). There is, in other words, an irradicable difference
between the uncreated (i. e., God) and the created (i. e.,
everything else). This does not mean, however, that the creation is
wholly separated from God, because the creation exists in and from the
divine energies. In Eastern Orthodoxy, these energies or operations
are the natural activity of
God and are in some sense identifiable
with God, but at the same time the creation is wholly distinct from
the divine essence.
God creates the universe by His
will and from His energies. It is, however, not an imprint or
emanation of God's own essence (ousia), the essence He shares
pre-eternally with His Word and Holy Spirit. Neither is it a directly
literal outworking or effulgence of the divine, nor any other process
which implies that creation is essentially
God or a necessary part of
God. The use of the term "panentheism" to describe the divine concept
Christian theology is problematic for those who would
insist that panentheism requires creation to be "part of" God.
God is not merely Creator of the universe, as His dynamic presence is
necessary to sustain the existence of every created thing, small and
great, visible and invisible. That is, God's energies maintain the
existence of the created order and all created beings, even if those
agencies have explicitly rejected him. His love for creation is such
that He will not withdraw His presence, which would be the ultimate
form of annihilation, not merely imposing death, but ending existence
altogether. By this token, the entirety of creation is fundamentally
"good" in its very being, and is not innately evil either in whole or
in part. This does not deny the existence of spiritual or moral evil
in a fallen universe, only the claim that it is an intrinsic property
Sin results from the essential freedom of creatures to
operate outside the divine order, not as a necessary consequence of
having inherited human nature.
Panentheism in other Christian confessions
Many Christians who believe in universalism – mainly expressed
in the Universalist Church of America, originating, as a fusion of
Anabaptist influences, from the American colonies of the
18th century – hold panentheistic views of
God in conjunction
with their belief in apocatastasis, also called universal
reconciliation. Panentheistic Christian Universalists
often believe that all creation's subsistence in
God renders untenable
the notion of final and permanent alienation from Him, citing
Scriptural passages such as Ephesians 4:6 ("[God] is over all and
through all and in all") and Romans 11:36 ("from [God] and through him
and to him are all things") to justify both panentheism and
Panentheism was also a major force in
the Unitarian church for a long time, based in part on Ralph Waldo
Emerson's concept of the
Over-soul (from the synonymous essay of
Panentheistic conceptions of
God occur amongst some modern
Process theology and Creation Spirituality, two recent
developments in Christian theology, contain panentheistic ideas.
Charles Hartshorne (1897–2000), who conjoined process theology with
panentheism, maintained a lifelong membership in the Methodist church
but was also a Unitarian. In later years he joined the Austin, Texas,
Unitarian Universalist congregation and was an active participant in
Some argue that panentheism should also include the notion that God
has always been related to some world or another, which denies the
idea of creation out of nothing (creatio ex nihilo). Nazarene
Thomas Jay Oord
Thomas Jay Oord (* 1965) advocates
panentheism, but he uses the word "theocosmocentrism" to highlight the
God and some world or another are the primary conceptual
starting blocks for eminently fruitful theology. This form of
panentheism helps in overcoming the problem of evil and in proposing
that God's love for the world is essential to who
Main article: Gnosticism
"Gnosticism" is a modern name for a variety of ancient religious ideas
and systems prevalent in the first and second century AD. The
teachings of the various gnostic groups were very diverse. In his
Dictionary of Gnosticism, Andrew Phillip Smith has written that some
Gnosticism taught a panentheistic view of reality, and
held to the belief that
God exists in the visible world only as sparks
of spiritual "light". The goal of human existence is to know the
sparks within oneself in order to return to God, who is in the
Fullness (or Pleroma).
Gnosticism was panentheistic, believing that the true
simultaneously both separate from the physical universe and present
within it. As Jesus states in the Gospel of Thomas,
"I am the light that is over all things. I am all ... . Split a piece
of wood; I am there. Lift up the stone, and you will find me
there." This seemingly contradictory interpretation of gnostic
theology is not without controversy, since one interpretation of
dualistic theology holds that a perfect
God of pure spirit would not
manifest himself through the fallen world of matter.
Manichaeism, being another gnostic sect, preached a very different
doctrine in positioning the true Manichaean
God against matter as well
as other deities, that it described as enmeshed with the world, namely
the gods of Jews, Christians and pagans. Nevertheless, this
dualistic teaching included an elaborate cosmological myth that
narrates the defeat of primal man by the powers of darkness that
devoured and imprisoned the particles of light.
Gnosticism taught that matter came about through
emanations of the supreme being, even if to some this event is held to
be more accidental than intentional. To other
gnostics, these emanations were akin to the
Sephirot of the Kabbalists
and deliberate manifestations of a transcendent
God through a complex
system of intermediaries.
Rabbinic Judaism is classically monotheistic, and
follows in the footsteps of
Maimonides (c. 1135–1204), the
panentheistic conception of
God can be found among certain mystical
Jewish traditions. A leading scholar of Kabbalah, Moshe Idel
ascribes this doctrine to the kabbalistic system of Moses ben Jacob
Cordovero (1522–1570) and in the eighteenth century to the Baal Shem
Tov (c. 1700–1760), founder of the Hasidic movement, as well as his
contemporaries, Rabbi Dov Ber, the Maggid of Mezeritch (died 1772),
and Menahem Mendel, the Maggid of Bar. This may be said of many, if
not most, subsequent Hasidic masters. There is some debate as to
Isaac Luria (1534–1572) and Lurianic Kabbalah, with its
doctrine of tzimtzum, can be regarded as panentheistic.
According to Hasidism, the infinite
Ein Sof is incorporeal and exists
in a state that is both transcendent and immanent. This appears to be
the view of non-Hasidic Rabbi Chaim of Volozhin, as well. Hasidic
Judaism merges the elite ideal of nullification to a transcendent God,
via the intellectual articulation of inner dimensions through Kabbalah
and with emphasis on the panentheistic divine immanence in
Many scholars would argue that "panentheism" is the best single-word
description of the philosophical theology of Baruch Spinoza. It is
therefore no surprise, that aspects of panentheism are also evident in
the theology of
Reconstructionist Judaism as presented in the writings
Mordecai Kaplan (1881–1983), who was strongly influenced by
Further information: Tawheed
Sufi saints and thinkers, primarily Ibn Arabi, held beliefs
that have been considered panentheistic. These notions later took
shape in the theory of wahdat ul-wujud (the Unity of All Things). Some
Sufi Orders, notably the Bektashis and the Universal Sufi
movement, continue to espouse panentheistic beliefs.
follow panentheism according to
Ismaili doctrine. Nevertheless, some
Shia Muslims also do believe in different degrees of Panentheism.
Al-Qayyuum is a Name of
God in the Qur'an which translates to "The
Self-Existing by Whom all subsist". In
Islam the universe can not
exist if Allah doesn't exist, and it is only by His power which
encompasses everything and which is everywhere that the universe can
exist. In Ayaẗ al-Kursii God's throne is described as "extending
over the heavens and the earth" and "He feels no fatigue in guarding
and preserving them". This does not mean though that the universe is
God, or that a creature (like a tree or an animal) is God, because
those would be respectively pantheism, which is a heresy in
traditional Islam, and the worst heresy in Islam, shirk (polytheism).
God is separated by His creation but His creation can not survive
In the Pre-European Americas
The Central American empires of the Mayas, Aztecs as well as the South
American Incas (Tahuatinsuyu) have typically been characterized as
polytheistic, with strong male and female deities. According to
Charles C. Mann's history book 1491: New Revelations of the Americas
Before Columbus, only the lower classes of Aztec society were
polytheistic. Philosopher James Maffie has argued that Aztec
metaphysics was pantheistic rather than panentheistic, since Teotl,
Nahuatl term for God, and the cosmos were considered identical and
Native American beliefs in North America have been characterized as
panentheistic in that there is an emphasis on a single, unified divine
spirit that is manifest in each individual entity. (North American
Native writers have also translated the word for
God as the Great
Mystery or as the Sacred Other) This concept is referred to by
many as the Great Spirit. Philosopher
J. Baird Callicott has described
Lakota theology as panentheistic, in that the divine both transcends
and is immanent in everything.
One exception can be modern
Cherokee who are predominantly
monotheistic but apparently not panentheistic; yet in older
Cherokee traditions many observe both aspects of pantheism and
panentheism, and are often not beholden to exclusivity, encompassing
other spiritual traditions without contradiction, a common trait among
some tribes in the Americas.
Sikh gurus have described
God in numerous ways in their hymns
included in the Guru Granth Sahib, the holy scripture of Sikhism, but
the oneness of the deity is consistently emphasized throughout.
described in the Mool Mantar, the first passage in the Guru Granth
Sahib, and the basic formula of the faith is:
Guru Granth Sahib
Guru Granth Sahib Ji, Ang 1) — ੴ ਸਤਿ ਨਾਮੁ
ਕਰਤਾ ਪੁਰਖੁ ਨਿਰਭਉ ਨਿਰਵੈਰੁ
ਅਕਾਲ ਮੂਰਤਿ ਅਜੂਨੀ ਸੈਭੰ
Ik Oankar Satnaam KartaaPurakh Nirbhau Nirvair AkaalMoorat Ajooni
One primal being who made the sound (oan) that expanded and created
the world. Truth is the name. Creative being personified. Without
fear, without hate. Image of the undying. Beyond birth, self existent.
By Guru's grace~
Guru Arjan, the fifth guru of Sikhs, says, "
God is beyond colour and
form, yet His/Her presence is clearly visible" (Sri Guru Granth Sahib,
Ang 74), and "Nanak's Lord transcends the world as well as the
scriptures of the east and the west, and yet He/She is clearly
manifest" (Sri Guru Granth Sahib, Ang 397).
Knowledge of the ultimate Reality is not a matter for reason; it comes
by revelation of the ultimate reality through nadar (grace) and by
anubhava (mystical experience). Says Guru Nanak; "budhi pathi na paiai
bahu chaturaiai bhai milai mani bhane." This translates to "He/She is
not accessible through intellect, or through mere scholarship or
cleverness at argument; He/She is met, when He/She pleases, through
devotion" (GG, 436).
Guru Nanak prefixed the numeral one (ik) to it, making it Ik Oankar or
Ek Oankar to stress God's oneness.
God is named and known only through
his Own immanent nature. The only name which can be said to truly fit
God's transcendent state is SatNam ( Sat Sanskrit, Truth), the
changeless and timeless Reality.
God is transcendent and all-pervasive
at the same time. Transcendence and immanence are two aspects of the
same single Supreme Reality. The Reality is immanent in the entire
creation, but the creation as a whole fails to contain
God fully. As
says Guru Tegh Bahadur, Nanak IX, "He has himself spread out His/Her
Own “maya” (worldly illusion) which He oversees; many different
forms He assumes in many colours, yet He stays independent of all"
God in the Bahá'í Faith
In the Bahá'í Faith,
God is described as a single, imperishable God,
the creator of all things, including all the creatures and forces in
the universe. The connection between
God and the world is that of the
creator to his creation.
God is understood to be independent of
his creation, and that creation is dependent and contingent on God.
Accordingly, the Bahá'í
Faith is much more closely aligned with
traditions of monotheism than panentheism.
God is not seen to be part
of creation as he cannot be divided and does not descend to the
condition of his creatures. Instead, in the Bahá'í understanding,
the world of creation emanates from God, in that all things have been
realized by him and have attained to existence. Creation is seen
as the expression of God's will in the contingent world, and every
created thing is seen as a sign of God's sovereignty, and leading to
knowledge of him; the signs of
God are most particularly revealed in
Conceptions of God
Soul (1841), essay by Ralph Waldo Emerson
Orthodox Christian theology
Philosophy of space and time
Subud, a spiritual movement, founded by Muhammad Subuh Sumohadiwidjojo
Tawhid, the concept of indivisible oneness in Islam
People associated with panentheism:
Gregory Palamas (1296–1359), Byzantine theologian
Baruch Spinoza (1632–1677), Dutch philosopher of Sephardi-Portuguese
Alfred North Whitehead
Alfred North Whitehead (1861–1947), English mathematician and
Charles Hartshorne (1897–2000), American philosopher
Arthur Peacocke (1924–2006), British Anglican theologian and
John B. Cobb
John B. Cobb (* 1925), American theologian and philosopher
Mordechai Nessyahu (1929–1997), Jewish-Israeli political theorist
and philosopher of Cosmotheism
William Luther Pierce
William Luther Pierce (1933–2002), American political activist and
Jan Assmann (* 1938), German Egyptologist, theorist of Cosmotheism
Norman Lowell (* 1946), Maltese writer and politician, self-proclaimed
John Polkinghorne (* 1960), English theoretical physicist and
Michel Weber (* 1963), Belgian philosopher
Thomas Jay Oord
Thomas Jay Oord (* 1965), American theologian and philosopher
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Panentheism in non-Western cultures”, in:
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^ Ethics, part I, prop. 15.
^ Ethics, part I, prop. 25S.
^ Picton, J. Allanson, "Pantheism: Its Story and Significance", 1905.
^ Fraser, Alexander Campbell, "Philosophy of Theism", William
Blackwood and Sons, 1895, p. 163.
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Charles Hartshorne and William Reese, Philosophers Speak of God,
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hymns in book 10. Estimates for a terminus post quem of the earliest
hymns are more uncertain. Oberlies (p. 158) based on 'cumulative
evidence' sets wide range of 1700–1100
Purusha Sukta in Daily Invocations by Swami Krishnananda
^ Krishnananda, Swami. A Short History of Religious and Philosophic
Thought in India. Divine Life Society. P. 19
^ "Consciousness in Advaita Vedānta ," By William M. Indich, Motilal
Banarsidass Publishers, 1995, ISBN 81-208-1251-4.
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Philosophy (Winter 2010 Edition),
Edward N. Zalta
Edward N. Zalta (ed.)
^ a b Southgate, Christopher. God, Humanity, and the Cosmos. T&T
Clark Int'l, New York. P. 246. ISBN 0567030164.
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Thought: Toward a Fusion of Horizons. Springer, 2008 edition (December
1, 2010). P. 192. ISBN 9048178002.
Caitanya Caritamrita, A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada,
Bhaktivedanta Book Trust
^ The Doctrine of Vibration: An Analysis of Doctrines and Practices of
Kashmir Shaivism, By Mark S. G. Dyczkowski, p.44
^ Ksemaraja, trans. by Jaidev Singh, Spanda Karikas: The Divine
Creative Pulsation, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, p.119
^ The Trika Śaivism of Kashmir, Moti Lal Pandit
^ Vitsaxis, Vassilis.
Thought and Faith: The concept of divinity.
Somerset Hall Press. P. 167. ISBN 978-1-935244-03-5.
^ Subramanian, V. K., Saundaryalahari of Sankaracarya: Sanskrit Text
in Devanagari with Roman Transliteration, English Translation,
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^ Zen For Americans by Soyen Shaku, translated by Daisetz Teitaro
Suzuki, 1906, pages 25-26.
^ Nesteruk, Alexei V. (2004). "The
Universe as Hypostaic Inherence in
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^ St. Symeon in Practical & Theological Discourses, 1.1: “When
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^ “Now, he who spoke with Moses, the Jews, and the priests he says
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aspirations he seduces them, as he is not the god of truth. And so
therefore all those who put their hope in the god who spoke with Moses
and the prophets have (this in store for themselves, namely) to be
bound with him, because they did not put their hope in the god of
truth. For that one spoke with them (only) according to their own
aspirations.” And elsewhere: “Now
God has no part in this cosmos
nor does he rejoice over it.” Classical Texts: Acta Archelai, p. 76
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Philip Clayton and Arthur Peacock (eds.), In Whom We Live and Move and
Have Our Being; Panentheistic Reflections on God's Presence in a
Scientific World, Eerdmans (2004)
Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article
Thomas Jay Oord, The Nature of Love: A Theology, 2010.
Joseph Bracken, "
Panentheism in the context of the theology and
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Look up panentheism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Culp, John. "Panentheism". In Zalta, Edward N. Stanford Encyclopedia
Dr. Jay McDaniel on Panentheism
Biblical Panentheism: The “Everywhere-ness” of God—
God in all
things, by Jon Zuck
John Polkinghorne on Panentheism
The Bible, Spiritual authority and Inspiration – Lecture by Tom
Wright at Spiritual Minded
Scientific or New atheism
List of philosophies
Conceptions of God
God and gods
the Bahá'í Faith
Shield of the Trinity
Trinity of the Church Fathers
God in Christianity / in Islam
Godhead in Christianity
Latter Day Saints
Great Architect of the Universe
Oneness of God