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PANENTHEISM (from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
expression πᾶν ἐν θεῷ, pān en theṓ, literally “all in God” ) is the belief that the divine pervades and interpenetrates every part of the universe and also extends beyond time and space. The term was coined by the German philosopher Karl Krause in 1828 to distinguish the ideas of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770–1831) and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling (1775–1854) about the relation of God
God
and the universe from the supposed pantheism of Baruch Spinoza
Baruch Spinoza
. Unlike pantheism , which holds that the divine and the universe are identical , panentheism maintains an ontological distinction between the divine and the non-divine and the significance of both.

In panentheism, God
God
is viewed as the soul of the universe, the universal spirit present everywhere, which at the same time "transcends " all things created. While pantheism asserts that "all is God", panentheism claims that God
God
is greater than the universe. Some versions of panentheism suggest that the universe is nothing more than the manifestation of God. In addition, some forms indicate that the universe is contained within God, like in the Kabbalah
Kabbalah
concept of tzimtzum . Also much Hindu thought – and consequently Buddhist philosophy – is highly characterized by panentheism and pantheism . The basic tradition however, on which Krause's concept was built, seems to have been Neoplatonic philosophy and its successors in Western philosophy
Western philosophy
and Orthodox theology .

CONTENTS

* 1 In philosophy

* 1.1 Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
philosophy * 1.2 Modern philosophy

* 2 In religion

* 2.1 Hinduism
Hinduism
* 2.2 Taoism * 2.3 Buddhism

* 2.4 Christianity
Christianity

* 2.4.1 Eastern Orthodoxy * 2.4.2 Panentheism in other Christian confessions

* 2.5 Gnosticism
Gnosticism
* 2.6 Judaism * 2.7 Islam
Islam
* 2.8 In the Pre-European Americas * 2.9 Sikhism
Sikhism
* 2.10 Bahá\'í Faith
Faith

* 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Bibliography * 6 External links

IN PHILOSOPHY

ANCIENT GREEK PHILOSOPHY

The religious beliefs of Neoplatonism
Neoplatonism
can be regarded as panentheistic. Plotinus
Plotinus
taught that there was an ineffable transcendent God
God
("the One ", τὸ Ἕν) of which subsequent realities were emanations. From "the One" emanates the Divine Mind ( Nous
Nous
, Νοῦς) and the Cosmic Soul
Soul
(Psyche, Ψυχή). In Neoplatonism
Neoplatonism
the world itself is God
God
(according to Plato
Plato
's Timaeus 37). This concept of divinity is associated with that of the Logos (Λόγος), which had originated centuries earlier with Heraclitus (ca. 535–475 BC). The Logos
Logos
pervades the cosmos , whereby all thoughts and all things originate, or as Heraclitus
Heraclitus
said: "He who hears not me but the Logos
Logos
will say: All is one." Neoplatonists such as Iamblichus attempted to reconcile this perspective by adding another hypostasis above the original monad of force or Dunamis (Δύναμις). This new all-pervasive monad encompassed all creation and its original uncreated emanations.

MODERN PHILOSOPHY

Baruch Spinoza
Baruch Spinoza
later claimed that "Whatsoever is, is in God, and without God
God
nothing can be, or be conceived." "Individual things are nothing but modifications of the attributes of God, or modes by which the attributes of God
God
are expressed in a fixed and definite manner." Though Spinoza has been called the "prophet" and "prince" of pantheism , in a letter to Henry Oldenburg Spinoza states that: "as to the view of certain people that I identify god with nature (taken as a kind of mass or corporeal matter), they are quite mistaken" For Spinoza, our universe (cosmos) is a mode under two attributes of Thought
Thought
and Extension . God
God
has infinitely many other attributes which are not present in our world.

According to German philosopher Karl Jaspers
Karl Jaspers
, when Spinoza wrote " Deus
Deus
sive Natura" ( God
God
or Nature) Spinoza did not mean to say that God
God
and Nature are interchangeable terms, but rather that God's transcendence was attested by his infinitely many attributes, and that two attributes known by humans, namely Thought
Thought
and Extension, signified God's immanence . Furthermore, Martial Guéroult suggested the term "panentheism", rather than "pantheism" to describe Spinoza’s view of the relation between God
God
and the world. The world is not God, but it is, in a strong sense, "in" God. Yet, American philosopher and self-described panentheist Charles Hartshorne referred to Spinoza's philosophy as "classical pantheism " and distinguished Spinoza's philosophy from panentheism.

In 1828, the German philosopher Karl Christian Friedrich Krause (1781–1832) seeking to reconcile monotheism and pantheism , coined the term panentheism (from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
expression πᾶν ἐν θεῷ, pān en theṓ, literally “all in god”). This conception of God
God
influenced New England transcendentalists such as Ralph Waldo Emerson . The term was popularized by Charles Hartshorne in his development of process theology and has also been closely identified with the New Thought
Thought
. The formalization of this term in the West in the 19th century was not new; philosophical treatises had been written on it in the context of Hinduism
Hinduism
for millennia.

Philosophers who embraced panentheism have included Thomas Hill Green (1839–1882), James Ward (1843–1925), Andrew Seth Pringle-Pattison (1856–1931) and Samuel Alexander (1859–1938). Beginning in the 1940s, Hartshorne examined numerous conceptions of God. He reviewed and discarded pantheism, deism , and pandeism in favor of panentheism, finding that such a "doctrine contains all of deism and pandeism except their arbitrary negations." Hartshorne formulated God
God
as a being who could become "more perfect": He has absolute perfection in categories for which absolute perfection is possible, and relative perfection (i. e., is superior to all others) in categories for which perfection cannot be precisely determined.

IN RELIGION

HINDUISM

Earliest reference to panentheistic thought in Hindu philosophy
Hindu philosophy
is in a creation myth contained in the later section of Rig Veda called the Purusha Sukta , which was compiled before 1100 BCE. The Purusha Sukta gives a description of the spiritual unity of the cosmos. It presents the nature of Purusha or the cosmic being as both immanent in the manifested world and yet transcendent to it. From this being the sukta holds, the original creative will proceeds, by which this vast universe is projected in space and time.

The most influential and dominant school of Indian philosophy
Indian philosophy
, Advaita Vedanta , rejects theism and dualism by insisting that “ Brahman
Brahman
is without parts or attributes…one without a second.” Since Brahman
Brahman
has no properties, contains no internal diversity and is identical with the whole reality it cannot be understood as an anthropomorphic personal God. The relationship between Brahman
Brahman
and the creation is often thought to be panentheistic.

Panentheism is also expressed in the Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
. In verse IX.4, Krishna
Krishna
states:

By Me all this universe is pervaded through My unmanifested form. All beings abide in Me but I do not abide in them.

Many schools of Hindu thought espouse monistic theism , which is thought to be similar to a panentheistic viewpoint. Nimbarka 's school of differential monism ( Dvaitadvaita ), Ramanuja
Ramanuja
's school of qualified monism ( Vishistadvaita
Vishistadvaita
) and Saiva Siddhanta and Kashmir Shaivism are all considered to be panentheistic. Caitanya 's Gaudiya Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
, which elucidates the doctrine of Acintya Bheda Abheda (inconceivable oneness and difference), is also thought to be panentheistic. In Kashmir Shaivism , all things are believed to be a manifestation of Universal Consciousness (Cit or Brahman). So from the point of view of this school, the phenomenal world (Śakti) is real, and it exists and has its being in Consciousness (Cit). Thus, Kashmir Shaivism is also propounding of theistic monism or panentheism.

Shaktism
Shaktism
, or Tantra, is regarded as an Indian prototype of Panentheism. Shakti is considered to be the cosmos itself – she is the embodiment of energy and dynamism, and the motivating force behind all action and existence in the material universe. Shiva is her transcendent masculine aspect, providing the divine ground of all being. "There is no Shiva without Shakti, or Shakti without Shiva. The two in themselves are One." Thus, it is She who becomes the time and space, the cosmos, it is She who becomes the five elements , and thus all animate life and inanimate forms. She is the primordial energy that holds all creation and destruction, all cycles of birth and death, all laws of cause and effect within Herself, and yet is greater than the sum total of all these. She is transcendent, but becomes immanent as the cosmos (Mula Prakriti). She, the Primordial Energy, directly becomes Matter.

TAOISM

Taoism says that all is part of the eternal tao , and that all interact through qi .

BUDDHISM

The Reverend Zen Master Soyen Shaku was the first Zen Buddhist Abbot to tour the United States in 1905-6. He wrote a series of essays collected into the book Zen For Americans. In the essay titled "The God
God
Conception of Buddhism" he attempts to explain how a Buddhist looks at the ultimate without an anthropomorphic God
God
figure while still being able to relate to the term God
God
in a Buddhist sense:

At the outset, let me state that Buddhism is not atheistic as the term is ordinarily understood. It has certainly a God, the highest reality and truth, through which and in which this universe exists. However, the followers of Buddhism usually avoid the term God, for it savors so much of Christianity, whose spirit is not always exactly in accord with the Buddhist interpretation of religious experience. Again, Buddhism is not pantheistic in the sense that it identifies the universe with God. On the other hand, the Buddhist God
God
is absolute and transcendent; this world, being merely its manifestation, is necessarily fragmental and imperfect. To define more exactly the Buddhist notion of the highest being, it may be convenient to borrow the term very happily coined by a modern German scholar, "panentheism," according to which God
God
is πᾶν καὶ ἕν (all and one) and more than the totality of existence.

The essay then goes on to explain first utilizing the term "God" for the American audience to get an initial understanding of what he means by "panentheism," and then discusses the terms that Buddhism uses in place of "God" such as Dharmakaya , Buddha
Buddha
or Adi Buddha
Buddha
, and Tathagata .

CHRISTIANITY

Panentheism is also a feature of some Christian philosophical theologies and resonates strongly within the theological tradition of the Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
. It also appears in some Roman Catholic mysticism and in process theology . While process theological thinkers are generally regarded in the Christian West as unorthodox, process philosophical thought is widely believed to have paved the way for open theism , a movement associated primarily with the Evangelical branch of Protestantism
Protestantism
.

Eastern Orthodoxy

See also: Omnipresence
Omnipresence

In Christianity
Christianity
, creation is not considered a literal "part of" God, and divinity is essentially distinct from creation (i.e., transcendent ). There is, in other words, an irradicable difference between the uncreated (i. e., God) and the created (i. e., everything else). This does not mean, however, that the creation is wholly separated from God, because the creation exists in and from the divine energies . In Eastern Orthodoxy , these energies or operations are the natural activity of God
God
and are in some sense identifiable with God, but at the same time the creation is wholly distinct from the divine essence. God
God
creates the universe by His will and from His energies. It is, however, not an imprint or emanation of God's own essence (ousia ), the essence He shares pre-eternally with His Word and Holy Spirit
Spirit
. Neither is it a directly literal outworking or effulgence of the divine, nor any other process which implies that creation is essentially God
God
or a necessary part of God. The use of the term "panentheism" to describe the divine concept in Orthodox Christian theology is problematic for those who would insist that panentheism requires creation to be "part of" God.

God
God
is not merely Creator of the universe, as His dynamic presence is necessary to sustain the existence of every created thing, small and great, visible and invisible. That is, God's energies maintain the existence of the created order and all created beings, even if those agencies have explicitly rejected him. His love for creation is such that He will not withdraw His presence, which would be the ultimate form of annihilation , not merely imposing death, but ending existence altogether. By this token, the entirety of creation is fundamentally "good" in its very being, and is not innately evil either in whole or in part. This does not deny the existence of spiritual or moral evil in a fallen universe, only the claim that it is an intrinsic property of creation. Sin
Sin
results from the essential freedom of creatures to operate outside the divine order, not as a necessary consequence of having inherited human nature.

Panentheism In Other Christian Confessions

Many Christians who believe in universalism – mainly expressed in the Universalist Church of America , originating, as a fusion of Pietist and Anabaptist
Anabaptist
influences, from the American colonies of the 18th century – hold panentheistic views of God
God
in conjunction with their belief in apocatastasis , also called universal reconciliation . Panentheistic Christian Universalists often believe that all creation's subsistence in God
God
renders untenable the notion of final and permanent alienation from Him, citing Scriptural passages such as Ephesians 4:6 (" is over all and through all and in all") and Romans 11:36 ("from and through him and to him are all things") to justify both panentheism and universalism. Panentheism was also a major force in the Unitarian church for a long time, based in part on Ralph Waldo Emerson 's concept of the Over-soul (from the synonymous essay of 1841).

Panentheistic conceptions of God
God
occur amongst some modern theologians. Process theology and Creation Spirituality , two recent developments in Christian theology , contain panentheistic ideas. Charles Hartshorne (1897–2000), who conjoined process theology with panentheism, maintained a lifelong membership in the Methodist church but was also a Unitarian . In later years he joined the Austin, Texas , Unitarian Universalist congregation and was an active participant in that church.

Some argue that panentheism should also include the notion that God has always been related to some world or another, which denies the idea of creation out of nothing (creatio ex nihilo ). Nazarene Methodist theologian Thomas Jay Oord (* 1965) advocates panentheism, but he uses the word "theocosmocentrism" to highlight the notion that God
God
and some world or another are the primary conceptual starting blocks for eminently fruitful theology. This form of panentheism helps in overcoming the problem of evil and in proposing that God's love for the world is essential to who God
God
is.

GNOSTICISM

Main article: Gnosticism
Gnosticism

"Gnosticism" is a modern name for a variety of ancient religious ideas and systems prevalent in the first and second century AD. The teachings of the various gnostic groups were very diverse. In his Dictionary of Gnosticism, Andrew Phillip Smith has written that some branches of Gnosticism
Gnosticism
taught a panentheistic view of reality, and held to the belief that God
God
exists in the visible world only as sparks of spiritual "light". The goal of human existence is to know the sparks within oneself in order to return to God, who is in the Fullness (or Pleroma ).

Gnosticism
Gnosticism
was panentheistic, believing that the true God
God
is simultaneously both separate from the physical universe and present within it. As Jesus states in the Gospel of Thomas
Gospel of Thomas
, "I am the light that is over all things. I am all . Split a piece of wood; I am there. Lift up the stone, and you will find me there." This seemingly contradictory interpretation of gnostic theology is not without controversy, since one interpretation of dualistic theology holds that a perfect God
God
of pure spirit would not manifest himself through the fallen world of matter.

Manichaeism
Manichaeism
, being another gnostic sect, preached a very different doctrine in positioning the true Manichaean God
God
against matter as well as other deities, that it described as enmeshed with the world, namely the gods of Jews, Christians and pagans. Nevertheless, this dualistic teaching included an elaborate cosmological myth that narrates the defeat of primal man by the powers of darkness that devoured and imprisoned the particles of light.

Valentinian Gnosticism
Gnosticism
taught that matter came about through emanations of the supreme being, even if to some this event is held to be more accidental than intentional. To other gnostics, these emanations were akin to the Sephirot of the Kabbalists and deliberate manifestations of a transcendent God
God
through a complex system of intermediaries.

JUDAISM

While mainstream Rabbinic Judaism is classically monotheistic, and follows in the footsteps of Maimonides
Maimonides
(ca. 1135–1204), the panentheistic conception of God
God
can be found among certain mystical Jewish traditions. A leading scholar of Kabbalah
Kabbalah
, Moshe Idel
Moshe Idel
ascribes this doctrine to the kabbalistic system of Moses ben Jacob Cordovero (1522–1570) and in the eighteenth century to the Baal Shem Tov (ca. 1700–1760), founder of the Hasidic movement , as well as his contemporaries, Rabbi Dov Ber, the Maggid of Mezeritch (died 1772), and Menahem Mendel, the Maggid of Bar. This may be said of many, if not most, subsequent Hasidic masters. There is some debate as to whether Isaac Luria (1534–1572) and Lurianic Kabbalah
Kabbalah
, with its doctrine of tzimtzum , can be regarded as panentheistic.

According to Hasidism , the infinite Ein Sof is incorporeal and exists in a state that is both transcendent and immanent . This appears to be the view of non-Hasidic Rabbi Chaim of Volozhin , as well. Hasidic Judaism merges the elite ideal of nullification to a transcendent God, via the intellectual articulation of inner dimensions through Kabbalah
Kabbalah
and with emphasis on the panentheistic divine immanence in everything.

Many scholars would argue that "panentheism" is the best single-word description of the philosophical theology of Baruch Spinoza
Baruch Spinoza
. It is therefore no surprise, that aspects of panentheism are also evident in the theology of Reconstructionist Judaism
Reconstructionist Judaism
as presented in the writings of Mordecai Kaplan (1881–1983), who was strongly influenced by Spinoza.

ISLAM

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Further information: Tawheed

Several Sufi
Sufi
saints and thinkers, primarily Ibn Arabi , held beliefs that have been considered panentheistic. These notions later took shape in the theory of wahdat ul-wujud (the Unity of All Things). Some Sufi
Sufi
Orders, notably the Bektashis and the Universal Sufi
Sufi
movement, continue to espouse panentheistic beliefs. Nizari Ismaili
Ismaili
follow panentheism according to Ismaili
Ismaili
doctrine .

IN THE PRE-EUROPEAN AMERICAS

The Central American empires of the Mayas , Aztecs as well as the South American Incas (Tahuatinsuyu ) have typically been characterized as polytheistic , with strong male and female deities. According to Charles C. Mann 's history book 1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus , only the lower classes of Aztec society were polytheistic. Philosopher James Maffie has argued that Aztec metaphysics was pantheistic rather than panentheistic, since Teotl , the Nahuatl
Nahuatl
term for God, and the cosmos were considered identical and coextensional.

Native American beliefs in North America have been characterized as panentheistic in that there is an emphasis on a single, unified divine spirit that is manifest in each individual entity. (North American Native writers have also translated the word for God
God
as the Great Mystery or as the Sacred Other ) This concept is referred to by many as the Great Spirit
Spirit
. Philosopher J. Baird Callicott has described Lakota theology as panentheistic, in that the divine both transcends and is immanent in everything.

One exception can be modern Cherokee
Cherokee
who are predominantly monotheistic but apparently not panentheistic; yet in older Cherokee traditions many observe both aspects of pantheism and panentheism, and are often not beholden to exclusivity, encompassing other spiritual traditions without contradiction, a common trait among some tribes in the Americas.

SIKHISM

The Sikh gurus
Sikh gurus
have described God
God
in numerous ways in their hymns included in the Guru Granth Sahib
Guru Granth Sahib
, the holy scripture of Sikhism
Sikhism
, but the oneness of the deity is consistently emphasized throughout. God
God
is described in the Mool Mantar , the first passage in the Guru Granth Sahib , and the basic formula of the faith is:

(Sri Guru Granth Sahib
Guru Granth Sahib
Ji, Ang 1) — ੴ ਸਤਿ ਨਾਮੁ ਕਰਤਾ ਪੁਰਖੁ ਨਿਰਭਉ ਨਿਰਵੈਰੁ ਅਕਾਲ ਮੂਰਤਿ ਅਜੂਨੀ ਸੈਭੰ ਗੁਰਪ੍ਰਸਾਦਿ ॥

Ik Oankar Satnaam KartaaPurakh Nirbhau Nirvair AkaalMoorat Ajooni Saibhan GurPrasad

One primal being who made the sound (oan) that expanded and created the world. Truth is the name. Creative being personified. Without fear, without hate. Image of the undying. Beyond birth, self existent. By Guru's grace~

Guru Arjan, the fifth guru of Sikhs, says, " God
God
is beyond colour and form, yet His/Her presence is clearly visible" (Sri Guru Granth Sahib , Ang 74), and "Nanak's Lord transcends the world as well as the scriptures of the east and the west, and yet He/She is clearly manifest" (Sri Guru Granth Sahib
Guru Granth Sahib
, Ang 397).

Knowledge of the ultimate Reality is not a matter for reason; it comes by revelation of the ultimate reality through nadar (grace) and by anubhava (mystical experience). Says Guru Nanak; "budhi pathi na paiai bahu chaturaiai bhai milai mani bhane." This translates to "He/She is not accessible through intellect, or through mere scholarship or cleverness at argument; He/She is met, when He/She pleases, through devotion" (GG, 436).

Guru Nanak prefixed the numeral one (ik) to it, making it Ik Oankar or Ek Oankar to stress God's oneness. God
God
is named and known only through his Own immanent nature. The only name which can be said to truly fit God's transcendent state is SatNam ( Sat Sanskrit, Truth), the changeless and timeless Reality. God
God
is transcendent and all-pervasive at the same time. Transcendence and immanence are two aspects of the same single Supreme Reality. The Reality is immanent in the entire creation, but the creation as a whole fails to contain God fully. As says Guru Tegh Bahadur, Nanak IX, "He has himself spread out His/Her Own “maya” (worldly illusion) which He oversees; many different forms He assumes in many colours, yet He stays independent of all" (GG, 537).

BAHá\'í FAITH

Further information: God
God
in the Bahá\'í Faith
Faith

In the Bahá\'í Faith
Faith
, God
God
is described as a single, imperishable God, the creator of all things, including all the creatures and forces in the universe. The connection between God
God
and the world is that of the creator to his creation . God
God
is understood to be independent of his creation, and that creation is dependent and contingent on God. Accordingly, the Bahá\'í Faith
Faith
is much more closely aligned with traditions of monotheism than panentheism. God
God
is not seen to be part of creation as he cannot be divided and does not descend to the condition of his creatures. Instead, in the Bahá\'í understanding , the world of creation emanates from God, in that all things have been realized by him and have attained to existence. Creation is seen as the expression of God's will in the contingent world, and every created thing is seen as a sign of God's sovereignty, and leading to knowledge of him; the signs of God
God
are most particularly revealed in human beings .

SEE ALSO

* Brahman
Brahman
* Christian Universalism
Christian Universalism
* Conceptions of God
God
* Creation Spirituality * Divine simplicity
Divine simplicity
* Double-aspect theory * Essence-Energies distinction * German idealism * Henosis
Henosis
* Kabbalah
Kabbalah
* Neoplatonism
Neoplatonism
* Neutral monism
Neutral monism
* Open theism * The Over- Soul
Soul
(1841), essay by Ralph Waldo Emerson
Ralph Waldo Emerson
* Orthodox Christian theology * Pantheism
Pantheism
* Parabrahman * Paramatman * Philosophy of space and time * Process theology * Subud , a spiritual movement, founded by Muhammad Subuh Sumohadiwidjojo (1901–1987) * Tawhid
Tawhid
, the concept of indivisible oneness in Islam
Islam
* Universal Sufism

PEOPLE ASSOCIATED WITH PANENTHEISM:

* Gregory Palamas (1296–1359), Byzantine theologian * Baruch Spinoza
Baruch Spinoza
(1632–1677), Dutch philosopher of Sephardi-Portuguese origin * Alfred North Whitehead (1861–1947), English mathematician and philosopher * Charles Hartshorne (1897–2000), American philosopher * Arthur Peacocke (1924–2006), British Anglican theologian and biochemist * John B. Cobb (* 1925), American theologian and philosopher * Mordechai Nessyahu (1929–1997), Jewish-Israeli political theorist and philosopher of Cosmotheism * William Luther Pierce (1933–2002), American political activist and self-proclaimed cosmotheist * Jan Assmann (* 1938), German Egyptologist, theorist of Cosmotheism * Norman Lowell (* 1946), Maltese writer and politician, self-proclaimed cosmotheist * John Polkinghorne (* 1960), English theoretical physicist and theologian * Michel Weber (* 1963), Belgian philosopher * Thomas Jay Oord (* 1965), American theologian and philosopher

REFERENCES

* ^ A B John Culp (2013): “Panentheism”, in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 18 March 2014. * ^ The Buddhist Zen master Soyen Shaku (see below ) proposed another, equally plausible interpretation of the term, deriving it from the expression πᾶν καὶ ἕν (pân kai hen), meaning “all and one”. * ^ A B Erwin Fahlbusch; Geoffrey William Bromiley; David B. Barrett (2005). The Encyclopedia of Christianity. 4. William B. Eerdmans. p. 21. ISBN 0-8028-2416-1 . * ^ “ Pantheism
Pantheism
and Panentheism in non-Western cultures”, in: Britannica. * ^ Whiting, Robert. Religions for Today. Stanley Thomes, London 1991, p. viii. ISBN 0-7487-0586-4 . * ^ Ethics, part I, prop. 15. * ^ Ethics, part I, prop. 25S. * ^ Picton, J. Allanson, "Pantheism: Its Story and Significance", 1905. * ^ Fraser, Alexander Campbell, "Philosophy of Theism", William Blackwood and Sons, 1895, p. 163. * ^ Correspondence of Benedict de Spinoza, Wilder Publications, 2009, ISBN 978-1-60459-156-9 , letter 73. * ^ Karl Jaspers, Spinoza (Great Philosophers), Harvest Books, 1974, ISBN 978-0-15-684730-8 , pp. 14 and 95. * ^ Charles Hartshorne and William Reese, Philosophers Speak of God, Humanity Books, 1953, ch. 4. * ^ Smith, David L. (2014). Theologies of the 21st Century: Trends in Contemporary Theology. Eugene OR: Wipf and Stock. p. 228. ISBN 1625648642 . Retrieved 29 September 2015. * ^ Southgate, Christopher (2005). God, Humanity and the Cosmos: A Companion to the Science- Religion
Religion
Debate. London: T&T Clark. pp. 246–47. ISBN 0567030164 . Retrieved 29 September 2015. * ^ John W. Cooper Panentheism, the other God
God
of the philosophers: from Plato
Plato
to the present Baker Academic, 2006, ISBN 0-8010-2724-1 . * ^ Charles Hartshorne, Man's Vision of God
God
and the Logic of Theism (1964) ISBN 0-208-00498-X p. 348; cf. Michel Weber , Whitehead’s Pancreativism. The Basics. Foreword by Nicholas Rescher
Nicholas Rescher
, Ontos Verlag, Frankfurt am Main and Paris, 2006. * ^ Nigal, Sahebrao Genu (2009). Vedic Philosophy of Values. New Delhi: Northern Book Centre. p. 81. ISBN 8172112807 . Retrieved 1 October 2015. * ^ Oberlies (1998:155) gives an estimate of 1100 BC for the youngest hymns in book 10. Estimates for a terminus post quem of the earliest hymns are more uncertain. Oberlies (p. 158) based on 'cumulative evidence' sets wide range of 1700–1100 * ^ The Purusha Sukta in Daily Invocations by Swami Krishnananda * ^ Krishnananda, Swami. A Short History of Religious and Philosophic Thought
Thought
in India. Divine Life Society. P. 19 * ^ "Consciousness in Advaita Vedānta ," By William M. Indich, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, 1995, ISBN 81-208-1251-4 . * ^ "Gandhi And Mahayana Buddhism". Class.uidaho.edu. Retrieved 2011-06-10. * ^ Wainwright, William. "Concepts of God". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 1 October 2015. * ^ Wainwright, William, "Concepts of God", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2010 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.) * ^ A B Southgate, Christopher. God, Humanity, and the Cosmos. T Sharma Arvind. Hermeneutics and Hindu Thought: Toward a Fusion of Horizons. Springer, 2008 edition (December 1, 2010). P. 192. ISBN 9048178002 . * ^ Caitanya Caritamrita, A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, Bhaktivedanta Book Trust * ^ The Doctrine of Vibration: An Analysis of Doctrines and Practices of Kashmir Shaivism, By Mark S. G. Dyczkowski, p.44 * ^ Ksemaraja, trans. by Jaidev Singh, Spanda Karikas: The Divine Creative Pulsation, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, p.119 * ^ The Trika Śaivism of Kashmir, Moti Lal Pandit * ^ Vitsaxis, Vassilis. Thought
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and Faith: The concept of divinity. Somerset Hall Press. P. 167. ISBN 978-1-935244-03-5 . * ^ Subramanian, V. K., Saundaryalahari of Sankaracarya: Sanskrit Text in Devanagari with Roman Transliteration, English Translation, Explanatory Notes, Yantric Diagrams and Index. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Pvt. Ltd. (Delhi, 1977; 6th ed. 1998). P. ix. * ^ Zen For Americans by Soyen Shaku, translated by Daisetz Teitaro Suzuki, 1906, pages 25-26. http://www.sacred-texts.com/bud/zfa/zfa04.htm * ^ St. Symeon in Practical & Theological Discourses, 1.1: “When men search for God
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with their bodily eyes they find Him nowhere, for He is invisible. But for those who ponder in the Spirit
Spirit
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, saying 77. * ^ “Now, he who spoke with Moses, the Jews, and the priests he says is the archont of Darkness, and the Christians, Jews, and pagans (ethnic) are one and the same, as they revere the same god. For in his aspirations he seduces them, as he is not the god of truth. And so therefore all those who put their hope in the god who spoke with Moses and the prophets have (this in store for themselves, namely) to be bound with him, because they did not put their hope in the god of truth. For that one spoke with them (only) according to their own aspirations.” And elsewhere: “Now God
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BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Ankur Barua, "God’s Body at Work: Rāmānuja and Panentheism," in: International Journal of Hindu Studies , 14,1 (2010), pp. 1–30. * Philip Clayton and Arthur Peacock (eds.), In Whom We Live and Move and Have Our Being; Panentheistic Reflections on God's Presence in a Scientific World, Eerdmans (2004) * Culp, John. "Panentheism". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy .

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article PANENTHEISM .

* Thomas Jay Oord, The Nature of Love: A Theology, 2010. ISBN 978-0-8272-0828-5 . * Joseph Bracken, " Panentheism in the context of the theology and science dialogue", in: Open Theology, 1 (2014), 1-11 (online).

EXTERNAL LINKS

Look up PANENTHEISM in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

* Dr. Jay McDaniel on Panentheism * Biblical Panentheism: The “Everywhere-ness” of God— God
God
in all things, by Jon Zuck * John Polkinghorne on Panentheism * The Bible, Spiritual authority and Inspiration – Lecture by Tom Wright at Spiritual Minded

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