The Info List - Panentheism

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Panentheism (meaning "all-in-God", from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
πᾶν pân, "all", ἐν en, "in" and Θεός Theós, "God")[1] is the belief that the divine pervades and interpenetrates every part of the universe and also extends beyond time and space. The term was coined by the German philosopher Karl Krause
Karl Krause
in 1828 to distinguish the ideas of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
(1770–1831) and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling (1775–1854) about the relation of God
and the universe from the supposed pantheism of Baruch Spinoza.[1] Unlike pantheism, which holds that the divine and the universe are identical,[2] panentheism maintains an ontological distinction between the divine and the non-divine and the significance of both.

In panentheism, God
is viewed as the soul of the universe, the universal spirit present everywhere, which at the same time "transcends" all things created. While pantheism asserts that "all is God", panentheism claims that God is greater than the universe. Some versions of panentheism suggest that the universe is nothing more than the manifestation of God. In addition, some forms indicate that the universe is contained within God,[2] like in the Kabbalah
concept of tzimtzum. Also much Hindu thought – and consequently Buddhist philosophy – is highly characterized by panentheism and pantheism.[3][4] The basic tradition however, on which Krause's concept was built, seems to have been Neoplatonic philosophy
Neoplatonic philosophy
and its successors in Western philosophy and Orthodox theology.


1 In philosophy

1.1 Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
philosophy 1.2 Modern philosophy

2 In religion

2.1 Hinduism 2.2 Taoism 2.3 Buddhism 2.4 Christianity

2.4.1 Eastern Orthodoxy 2.4.2 Panentheism in other Christian confessions

2.5 Gnosticism 2.6 Judaism 2.7 Islam 2.8 In the Pre-European Americas 2.9 Sikhism 2.10 Bahá'í Faith

3 See also 4 References 5 Bibliography 6 External links

In philosophy[edit] Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
philosophy[edit] The religious beliefs of Neoplatonism
can be regarded as panentheistic. Plotinus
taught that there was an ineffable transcendent God
("the One", to En, τὸ Ἕν) of which subsequent realities were emanations. From "the One" emanates the Divine Mind (Nous, Νοῦς) and the Cosmic Soul
(Psyche, Ψυχή). In Neoplatonism
the world itself is God
(according to Plato's Timaeus 37). This concept of divinity is associated with that of the Logos (Λόγος), which had originated centuries earlier with Heraclitus (c. 535–475 BC). The Logos
pervades the cosmos, whereby all thoughts and all things originate, or as Heraclitus
said: "He who hears not me but the Logos
will say: All is one." Neoplatonists such as Iamblichus attempted to reconcile this perspective by adding another hypostasis above the original monad of force or Dunamis
(Δύναμις). This new all-pervasive monad encompassed all creation and its original uncreated emanations. Modern philosophy[edit] Baruch Spinoza
Baruch Spinoza
later claimed that "Whatsoever is, is in God, and without God
nothing can be, or be conceived."[5] "Individual things are nothing but modifications of the attributes of God, or modes by which the attributes of God
are expressed in a fixed and definite manner."[6] Though Spinoza has been called the "prophet"[7] and "prince"[8] of pantheism, in a letter to Henry Oldenburg
Henry Oldenburg
Spinoza states that: "as to the view of certain people that I identify god with nature (taken as a kind of mass or corporeal matter), they are quite mistaken".[9] For Spinoza, our universe (cosmos) is a mode under two attributes of Thought
and Extension. God
has infinitely many other attributes which are not present in our world. According to German philosopher Karl Jaspers, when Spinoza wrote "Deus sive Natura" ( God
or Nature) Spinoza did not mean to say that God
and Nature are interchangeable terms, but rather that God's transcendence was attested by his infinitely many attributes, and that two attributes known by humans, namely Thought
and Extension, signified God's immanence.[10] Furthermore, Martial Guéroult suggested the term "panentheism", rather than "pantheism" to describe Spinoza's view of the relation between God
and the world. The world is not God, but it is, in a strong sense, "in" God. Yet, American philosopher and self-described panentheist Charles Hartshorne
Charles Hartshorne
referred to Spinoza's philosophy as "classical pantheism" and distinguished Spinoza's philosophy from panentheism.[11] In 1828, the German philosopher Karl Christian Friedrich Krause (1781–1832) seeking to reconcile monotheism and pantheism, coined the term panentheism (from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
expression πᾶν ἐν θεῷ, pān en theṓ, literally "all in god"). This conception of God
influenced New England transcendentalists such as Ralph Waldo Emerson. The term was popularized by Charles Hartshorne
Charles Hartshorne
in his development of process theology and has also been closely identified with the New Thought.[12] The formalization of this term in the West in the 19th century was not new; philosophical treatises had been written on it in the context of Hinduism
for millennia.[13] Philosophers who embraced panentheism have included Thomas Hill Green (1839–1882), James Ward (1843–1925), Andrew Seth Pringle-Pattison (1856–1931) and Samuel Alexander
Samuel Alexander
(1859–1938).[14] Beginning in the 1940s, Hartshorne examined numerous conceptions of God. He reviewed and discarded pantheism, deism, and pandeism in favor of panentheism, finding that such a "doctrine contains all of deism and pandeism except their arbitrary negations". Hartshorne formulated God
as a being who could become "more perfect": He has absolute perfection in categories for which absolute perfection is possible, and relative perfection (i. e., is superior to all others) in categories for which perfection cannot be precisely determined.[15] In religion[edit] Hinduism[edit] Earliest reference to panentheistic thought in Hindu philosophy
Hindu philosophy
is in a creation myth contained in the later section of Rig Veda
Rig Veda
called the Purusha Sukta,[16] which was compiled before 1100 BCE.[17] The Purusha Sukta gives a description of the spiritual unity of the cosmos. It presents the nature of Purusha or the cosmic being as both immanent in the manifested world and yet transcendent to it.[18] From this being the sukta holds, the original creative will proceeds, by which this vast universe is projected in space and time.[19] The most influential[20] and dominant[21] school of Indian philosophy, Advaita Vedanta, rejects theism and dualism by insisting that "Brahman [ultimate reality] is without parts or attributes...one without a second."[22] Since Brahman
has no properties, contains no internal diversity and is identical with the whole reality it cannot be understood as an anthropomorphic personal God.[23] The relationship between Brahman
and the creation is often thought to be panentheistic.[24] Panentheism is also expressed in the Bhagavad Gita.[24] In verse IX.4, Krishna

By Me all this universe is pervaded through My unmanifested form. All beings abide in Me but I do not abide in them.

Many schools of Hindu thought
Hindu thought
espouse monistic theism, which is thought to be similar to a panentheistic viewpoint. Nimbarka's school of differential monism (Dvaitadvaita), Ramanuja's school of qualified monism (Vishistadvaita) and Saiva Siddhanta
Saiva Siddhanta
and Kashmir Shaivism
Kashmir Shaivism
are all considered to be panentheistic.[25] Caitanya's Gaudiya Vaishnavism, which elucidates the doctrine of Acintya Bheda Abheda (inconceivable oneness and difference), is also thought to be panentheistic.[26] In Kashmir Shaivism, all things are believed to be a manifestation of Universal Consciousness (Cit or Brahman).[27] So from the point of view of this school, the phenomenal world (Śakti) is real, and it exists and has its being in Consciousness (Cit).[28] Thus, Kashmir Shaivism
Kashmir Shaivism
is also propounding of theistic monism or panentheism.[29] Shaktism, or Tantra, is regarded as an Indian prototype of Panentheism.[30] Shakti
is considered to be the cosmos itself – she is the embodiment of energy and dynamism, and the motivating force behind all action and existence in the material universe. Shiva is her transcendent masculine aspect, providing the divine ground of all being. "There is no Shiva without Shakti, or Shakti
without Shiva. The two ... in themselves are One."[31] Thus, it is She who becomes the time and space, the cosmos, it is She who becomes the five elements, and thus all animate life and inanimate forms. She is the primordial energy that holds all creation and destruction, all cycles of birth and death, all laws of cause and effect within Herself, and yet is greater than the sum total of all these. She is transcendent, but becomes immanent as the cosmos (Mula Prakriti). She, the Primordial Energy, directly becomes Matter. Taoism[edit] Taoism says that all is part of the eternal tao, and that all interact through qi. Buddhism[edit] The Reverend Zen Master Soyen Shaku was the first Zen Buddhist Abbot to tour the United States in 1905-6. He wrote a series of essays collected into the book Zen For Americans. In the essay titled "The God
Conception of Buddhism" he attempts to explain how a Buddhist looks at the ultimate without an anthropomorphic God
figure while still being able to relate to the term God
in a Buddhist sense:

At the outset, let me state that Buddhism is not atheistic as the term is ordinarily understood. It has certainly a God, the highest reality and truth, through which and in which this universe exists. However, the followers of Buddhism usually avoid the term God, for it savors so much of Christianity, whose spirit is not always exactly in accord with the Buddhist interpretation of religious experience. Again, Buddhism is not pantheistic in the sense that it identifies the universe with God. On the other hand, the Buddhist God
is absolute and transcendent; this world, being merely its manifestation, is necessarily fragmental and imperfect. To define more exactly the Buddhist notion of the highest being, it may be convenient to borrow the term very happily coined by a modern German scholar, "panentheism," according to which God
is πᾶν καὶ ἕν (all and one) and more than the totality of existence.[32]

The essay then goes on to explain first utilizing the term "God" for the American audience to get an initial understanding of what he means by "panentheism," and then discusses the terms that Buddhism uses in place of "God" such as Dharmakaya, Buddha
or AdiBuddha, and Tathagata. Christianity[edit] Panentheism is also a feature of some Christian philosophical theologies and resonates strongly within the theological tradition of the Orthodox Church.[33] It also appears in some Roman Catholic mysticism[citation needed] and in process theology. While process theological thinkers are generally regarded in the Christian West
Christian West
as unorthodox, process philosophical thought is widely believed to have paved the way for open theism, a movement associated primarily with the Evangelical branch of Protestantism.[citation needed] Eastern Orthodoxy[edit] See also: Omnipresence In Christianity, creation is not considered a literal "part of" God, and divinity is essentially distinct from creation (i.e., transcendent). There is, in other words, an irradicable difference between the uncreated (i. e., God) and the created (i. e., everything else). This does not mean, however, that the creation is wholly separated from God, because the creation exists in and from the divine energies. In Eastern Orthodoxy, these energies or operations are the natural activity of God
and are in some sense identifiable with God, but at the same time the creation is wholly distinct from the divine essence.[citation needed] God
creates the universe by His will and from His energies. It is, however, not an imprint or emanation of God's own essence (ousia), the essence He shares pre-eternally with His Word and Holy Spirit. Neither is it a directly literal outworking or effulgence of the divine, nor any other process which implies that creation is essentially God
or a necessary part of God. The use of the term "panentheism" to describe the divine concept in Orthodox Christian theology
Christian theology
is problematic for those who would insist that panentheism requires creation to be "part of" God. God
is not merely Creator of the universe, as His dynamic presence is necessary to sustain the existence of every created thing, small and great, visible and invisible.[34] That is, God's energies maintain the existence of the created order and all created beings, even if those agencies have explicitly rejected him. His love for creation is such that He will not withdraw His presence, which would be the ultimate form of annihilation, not merely imposing death, but ending existence altogether. By this token, the entirety of creation is fundamentally "good" in its very being, and is not innately evil either in whole or in part. This does not deny the existence of spiritual or moral evil in a fallen universe, only the claim that it is an intrinsic property of creation. Sin
results from the essential freedom of creatures to operate outside the divine order, not as a necessary consequence of having inherited human nature. Panentheism in other Christian confessions[edit] Many Christians who believe in universalism – mainly expressed in the Universalist Church of America, originating, as a fusion of Pietist
and Anabaptist
influences, from the American colonies of the 18th century – hold panentheistic views of God
in conjunction with their belief in apocatastasis, also called universal reconciliation.[citation needed] Panentheistic Christian Universalists often believe that all creation's subsistence in God
renders untenable the notion of final and permanent alienation from Him, citing Scriptural passages such as Ephesians 4:6 ("[God] is over all and through all and in all") and Romans 11:36 ("from [God] and through him and to him are all things") to justify both panentheism and universalism.[citation needed] Panentheism was also a major force in the Unitarian church for a long time, based in part on Ralph Waldo Emerson's concept of the Over-soul
(from the synonymous essay of 1841).[citation needed] Panentheistic conceptions of God
occur amongst some modern theologians. Process theology and Creation Spirituality, two recent developments in Christian theology, contain panentheistic ideas. Charles Hartshorne
Charles Hartshorne
(1897–2000), who conjoined process theology with panentheism, maintained a lifelong membership in the Methodist church but was also a Unitarian. In later years he joined the Austin, Texas, Unitarian Universalist congregation and was an active participant in that church.[35] Some argue that panentheism should also include the notion that God has always been related to some world or another, which denies the idea of creation out of nothing (creatio ex nihilo). Nazarene Methodist theologian Thomas Jay Oord
Thomas Jay Oord
(* 1965) advocates panentheism, but he uses the word "theocosmocentrism" to highlight the notion that God
and some world or another are the primary conceptual starting blocks for eminently fruitful theology. This form of panentheism helps in overcoming the problem of evil and in proposing that God's love for the world is essential to who God
is.[36] Gnosticism[edit] Main article: Gnosticism "Gnosticism" is a modern name for a variety of ancient religious ideas and systems prevalent in the first and second century AD. The teachings of the various gnostic groups were very diverse. In his Dictionary of Gnosticism, Andrew Phillip Smith has written that some branches of Gnosticism
taught a panentheistic view of reality,[37] and held to the belief that God
exists in the visible world only as sparks of spiritual "light". The goal of human existence is to know the sparks within oneself in order to return to God, who is in the Fullness (or Pleroma). Gnosticism
was panentheistic, believing that the true God
is simultaneously both separate from the physical universe and present within it.[citation needed] As Jesus states in the Gospel of Thomas, "I am the light that is over all things. I am all ... . Split a piece of wood; I am there. Lift up the stone, and you will find me there."[38] This seemingly contradictory interpretation of gnostic theology is not without controversy, since one interpretation of dualistic theology holds that a perfect God
of pure spirit would not manifest himself through the fallen world of matter. Manichaeism, being another gnostic sect, preached a very different doctrine in positioning the true Manichaean God
against matter as well as other deities, that it described as enmeshed with the world, namely the gods of Jews, Christians and pagans.[39] Nevertheless, this dualistic teaching included an elaborate cosmological myth that narrates the defeat of primal man by the powers of darkness that devoured and imprisoned the particles of light.[citation needed] Valentinian Gnosticism
taught that matter came about through emanations of the supreme being, even if to some this event is held to be more accidental than intentional.[citation needed] To other gnostics, these emanations were akin to the Sephirot
of the Kabbalists and deliberate manifestations of a transcendent God
through a complex system of intermediaries.[citation needed] Judaism[edit] While mainstream Rabbinic Judaism is classically monotheistic, and follows in the footsteps of Maimonides
(c. 1135–1204), the panentheistic conception of God
can be found among certain mystical Jewish traditions. A leading scholar of Kabbalah, Moshe Idel[40] ascribes this doctrine to the kabbalistic system of Moses ben Jacob Cordovero (1522–1570) and in the eighteenth century to the Baal Shem Tov (c. 1700–1760), founder of the Hasidic movement, as well as his contemporaries, Rabbi Dov Ber, the Maggid of Mezeritch (died 1772), and Menahem Mendel, the Maggid of Bar. This may be said of many, if not most, subsequent Hasidic masters. There is some debate as to whether Isaac Luria
Isaac Luria
(1534–1572) and Lurianic Kabbalah, with its doctrine of tzimtzum, can be regarded as panentheistic. According to Hasidism, the infinite Ein Sof
Ein Sof
is incorporeal and exists in a state that is both transcendent and immanent. This appears to be the view of non-Hasidic Rabbi Chaim of Volozhin, as well. Hasidic Judaism merges the elite ideal of nullification to a transcendent God, via the intellectual articulation of inner dimensions through Kabbalah and with emphasis on the panentheistic divine immanence in everything.[41] Many scholars would argue that "panentheism" is the best single-word description of the philosophical theology of Baruch Spinoza.[42] It is therefore no surprise, that aspects of panentheism are also evident in the theology of Reconstructionist Judaism
Reconstructionist Judaism
as presented in the writings of Mordecai Kaplan (1881–1983), who was strongly influenced by Spinoza.[43] Islam[edit] Further information: Tawheed Several Sufi
saints and thinkers, primarily Ibn Arabi, held beliefs that have been considered panentheistic.[44] These notions later took shape in the theory of wahdat ul-wujud (the Unity of All Things). Some Sufi
Orders, notably the Bektashis[45] and the Universal Sufi movement, continue to espouse panentheistic beliefs. Nizari
Ismaili follow panentheism according to Ismaili
doctrine. Nevertheless, some Shia
Muslims also do believe in different degrees of Panentheism. Al-Qayyuum is a Name of God
in the Qur'an which translates to "The Self-Existing by Whom all subsist". In Islam
the universe can not exist if Allah doesn't exist, and it is only by His power which encompasses everything and which is everywhere that the universe can exist. In Ayaẗ al-Kursii God's throne is described as "extending over the heavens and the earth" and "He feels no fatigue in guarding and preserving them". This does not mean though that the universe is God, or that a creature (like a tree or an animal) is God, because those would be respectively pantheism, which is a heresy in traditional Islam, and the worst heresy in Islam, shirk (polytheism). God
is separated by His creation but His creation can not survive without Him. In the Pre-European Americas[edit] The Central American empires of the Mayas, Aztecs as well as the South American Incas (Tahuatinsuyu) have typically been characterized as polytheistic, with strong male and female deities.[46] According to Charles C. Mann's history book 1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus, only the lower classes of Aztec society were polytheistic. Philosopher James Maffie has argued that Aztec metaphysics was pantheistic rather than panentheistic, since Teotl, the Nahuatl
term for God, and the cosmos were considered identical and coextensional.[47] Native American beliefs in North America have been characterized as panentheistic in that there is an emphasis on a single, unified divine spirit that is manifest in each individual entity.[48] (North American Native writers have also translated the word for God
as the Great Mystery[49] or as the Sacred Other[50]) This concept is referred to by many as the Great Spirit. Philosopher J. Baird Callicott has described Lakota theology as panentheistic, in that the divine both transcends and is immanent in everything.[51] One exception can be modern Cherokee
who are predominantly monotheistic but apparently not panentheistic;[52] yet in older Cherokee
traditions many observe both aspects of pantheism and panentheism, and are often not beholden to exclusivity, encompassing other spiritual traditions without contradiction, a common trait among some tribes in the Americas. Sikhism[edit] The Sikh gurus
Sikh gurus
have described God
in numerous ways in their hymns included in the Guru Granth Sahib, the holy scripture of Sikhism, but the oneness of the deity is consistently emphasized throughout. God
is described in the Mool Mantar, the first passage in the Guru Granth Sahib, and the basic formula of the faith is:

(Sri Guru Granth Sahib
Guru Granth Sahib
Ji, Ang 1) — ੴ ਸਤਿ ਨਾਮੁ ਕਰਤਾ ਪੁਰਖੁ ਨਿਰਭਉ ਨਿਰਵੈਰੁ ਅਕਾਲ ਮੂਰਤਿ ਅਜੂਨੀ ਸੈਭੰ ਗੁਰਪ੍ਰਸਾਦਿ ॥

Ik Oankar Satnaam KartaaPurakh Nirbhau Nirvair AkaalMoorat Ajooni Saibhan GurPrasad

One primal being who made the sound (oan) that expanded and created the world. Truth is the name. Creative being personified. Without fear, without hate. Image of the undying. Beyond birth, self existent. By Guru's grace~

Guru Arjan, the fifth guru of Sikhs, says, " God
is beyond colour and form, yet His/Her presence is clearly visible" (Sri Guru Granth Sahib, Ang 74), and "Nanak's Lord transcends the world as well as the scriptures of the east and the west, and yet He/She is clearly manifest" (Sri Guru Granth Sahib, Ang 397). Knowledge of the ultimate Reality is not a matter for reason; it comes by revelation of the ultimate reality through nadar (grace) and by anubhava (mystical experience). Says Guru Nanak; "budhi pathi na paiai bahu chaturaiai bhai milai mani bhane." This translates to "He/She is not accessible through intellect, or through mere scholarship or cleverness at argument; He/She is met, when He/She pleases, through devotion" (GG, 436). Guru Nanak prefixed the numeral one (ik) to it, making it Ik Oankar or Ek Oankar to stress God's oneness. God
is named and known only through his Own immanent nature. The only name which can be said to truly fit God's transcendent state is SatNam ( Sat Sanskrit, Truth), the changeless and timeless Reality. God
is transcendent and all-pervasive at the same time. Transcendence and immanence are two aspects of the same single Supreme Reality. The Reality is immanent in the entire creation, but the creation as a whole fails to contain God
fully. As says Guru Tegh Bahadur, Nanak IX, "He has himself spread out His/Her Own “maya” (worldly illusion) which He oversees; many different forms He assumes in many colours, yet He stays independent of all" (GG, 537). Bahá'í Faith[edit] Further information: God
in the Bahá'í Faith In the Bahá'í Faith, God
is described as a single, imperishable God, the creator of all things, including all the creatures and forces in the universe. The connection between God
and the world is that of the creator to his creation.[53] God
is understood to be independent of his creation, and that creation is dependent and contingent on God. Accordingly, the Bahá'í Faith
is much more closely aligned with traditions of monotheism than panentheism. God
is not seen to be part of creation as he cannot be divided and does not descend to the condition of his creatures. Instead, in the Bahá'í understanding, the world of creation emanates from God, in that all things have been realized by him and have attained to existence.[54] Creation is seen as the expression of God's will in the contingent world,[55] and every created thing is seen as a sign of God's sovereignty, and leading to knowledge of him; the signs of God
are most particularly revealed in human beings.[53] See also[edit]

Brahman Christian Universalism Conceptions of God Creation Spirituality Divine simplicity Double-aspect theory Essence-Energies distinction German idealism Henosis Kabbalah Neoplatonism Neutral monism Open theism The Over- Soul
(1841), essay by Ralph Waldo Emerson Orthodox Christian theology Pantheism Parabrahman Paramatman Philosophy of space and time Process theology Subud, a spiritual movement, founded by Muhammad Subuh Sumohadiwidjojo (1901–1987) Tawhid, the concept of indivisible oneness in Islam Universal Sufism

People associated with panentheism:

Gregory Palamas
Gregory Palamas
(1296–1359), Byzantine theologian Baruch Spinoza
Baruch Spinoza
(1632–1677), Dutch philosopher of Sephardi-Portuguese origin Alfred North Whitehead
Alfred North Whitehead
(1861–1947), English mathematician and philosopher Charles Hartshorne
Charles Hartshorne
(1897–2000), American philosopher Arthur Peacocke (1924–2006), British Anglican theologian and biochemist John B. Cobb
John B. Cobb
(* 1925), American theologian and philosopher Mordechai Nessyahu (1929–1997), Jewish-Israeli political theorist and philosopher of Cosmotheism William Luther Pierce
William Luther Pierce
(1933–2002), American political activist and self-proclaimed cosmotheist Jan Assmann
Jan Assmann
(* 1938), German Egyptologist, theorist of Cosmotheism Norman Lowell
Norman Lowell
(* 1946), Maltese writer and politician, self-proclaimed cosmotheist John Polkinghorne
John Polkinghorne
(* 1960), English theoretical physicist and theologian Michel Weber (* 1963), Belgian philosopher Thomas Jay Oord
Thomas Jay Oord
(* 1965), American theologian and philosopher


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as Hypostaic Inherence in the logos of God: Panentheism in the Eastern Orthodox Perspective", in In Whom We Live and Move and Have Our Being: Panentheistic Reflections on God's Presence in a Scientific World, edited by Philip Clayton and Arthur Robert Peacocke. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans. pp. 169–83. ISBN 978-0802809780. Retrieved 23 March 2018.  ^ St. Symeon in Practical & Theological Discourses, 1.1: “When men search for God
with their bodily eyes they find Him nowhere, for He is invisible. But for those who ponder in the Spirit
He is present everywhere. He is in all, yet beyond all.” ^ About Charles Hartshorne
Charles Hartshorne
Archived 2007-11-14 at the Wayback Machine.. ^ Baker, Vaughn W. (2013). Evangelism and the Openness of God: The Implications of Relational Theism. Eugene OR: Wipf and Stock. pp. 242–43. ISBN 9781620320471. Retrieved 1 October 2015.  ^ Smith, Andrew Phillip (2014). A Dictionary of Gnosticism. Wheaton IL: Quest Books. p. 186. ISBN 9780835608695. Retrieved 1 October 2015.  ^ Gospel of Thomas, saying 77. ^ “Now, he who spoke with Moses, the Jews, and the priests he says is the archont of Darkness, and the Christians, Jews, and pagans (ethnic) are one and the same, as they revere the same god. For in his aspirations he seduces them, as he is not the god of truth. And so therefore all those who put their hope in the god who spoke with Moses and the prophets have (this in store for themselves, namely) to be bound with him, because they did not put their hope in the god of truth. For that one spoke with them (only) according to their own aspirations.” And elsewhere: “Now God
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Ankur Barua, "God’s Body at Work: Rāmānuja and Panentheism," in: International Journal of Hindu Studies, 14,1 (2010), pp. 1–30. Philip Clayton and Arthur Peacock (eds.), In Whom We Live and Move and Have Our Being; Panentheistic Reflections on God's Presence in a Scientific World, Eerdmans (2004)

has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Panentheism.

Thomas Jay Oord, The Nature of Love: A Theology, 2010. ISBN 978-0-8272-0828-5. Joseph Bracken, " Panentheism in the context of the theology and science dialogue", in: Open Theology, 1 (2014), 1-11 (online).

External links[edit]

Look up panentheism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Culp, John. "Panentheism". In Zalta, Edward N. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.  Dr. Jay McDaniel on Panentheism Biblical Panentheism: The “Everywhere-ness” of God— God
in all things, by Jon Zuck John Polkinghorne
John Polkinghorne
on Panentheism The Bible, Spiritual authority and Inspiration – Lecture by Tom Wright at Spiritual Minded

v t e



Divinity Male Female List


Existence Gender

Agnostic theism Alatrism Animism Antitheism Apatheism Atheism

Agnostic Christian Evangelical Implicit/Explicit Jewish Negative/Positive Scientific or New atheism State atheism

Binitarianism Classical theism Deism

Ceremonial Christian Pandeism Polydeism

Dipolar theism Dystheism Egotheism Misotheism Henotheism Ietsism Kathenotheism Liberal theism Monolatry Monotheism

Ethical Post-monotheism

Mysticism Nontheism


Open theism Panentheism Pantheism

Classical Hylotheism Naturalistic

Philosophical theism Physitheism


Polytheism Skeptical theism Spiritualism Transtheism Trinitarianism Tritheism Unitarianism


v t e

List of philosophies

Abrahamism Acosmism Agnosticism Animism Antireligion Atheism Deism Dharmism Dualism Esotericism Feminist theology Gnosticism Henotheism Immanence Monism Monolatry Monotheism Mysticism Neoplatonism New Age New Thought Nondualism Pandeism Pantheism Panentheism Polytheism Process theology Religious naturalism Shamanism Shramanism Taoic Theism Transcendence more


v t e

Theology: Outline

Conceptions of God



Deism Dystheism Henotheism Hermeticism Kathenotheism Nontheism Monolatry Monotheism Mysticism Panentheism Pandeism Pantheism Polydeism Polytheism Spiritualism Theopanism


Deity Divinity Gender of God
and gods

Male deity Goddess


Singular god theologies

By faith

Abrahamic religions

Judaism Christianity Islam

the Bahá'í Faith Buddhism Hinduism Jainism Sikhism Zoroastrianism


Absolute Brahman Emanationism Logos Supreme Being


the Devil Sustainer Time


Athanasian Creed Comma Johanneum Consubstantiality Homoousian Homoiousian Hypostasis Perichoresis Shield of the Trinity Trinitarian formula Trinity Trinity
of the Church Fathers Trinitarian Universalism


Afterlife Apocalypticism Buddhist Christian Heaven Hindu Islamic Jewish Taoist Zoroastrian


Buddhism Christianity Hinduism Islam Judaism Mormonism Goddesses

Other concepts

The All Aristotelian view Attributes of God
in Christianity / in Islam Binitarianism Demiurge Divine simplicity Divine presence Egotheism Exotheology Holocaust Godhead in Christianity

Latter Day Saints

Great Architect of the Universe Great Spirit Apophatic theology Olelbis Open theism Personal god Phenomenological definition Philo's view Process Tian Unmoved mover

Names of God

Christianity Hinduism Islam Jainism Judaism

By Faith


History Outline Biblical canon Glossary Christology Cosmology Ecclesiology Ethics Hamartiology Messianism Nestorianism Philosophy Practical Sophiology Soteriology


Ayyavazhi theology Krishnology


Oneness of God Prophets Holy Scriptures Angels Predestination Last Judgment


Abrahamic prophecy Aggadah Denominations K