HOME
The Info List - Pandyan Kingdom



--- Advertisement ---


(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

The PANDYAN DYNASTY was an ancient Tamil dynasty , one of the three Tamil dynasties , the other two being the Chola
Chola
and the Chera . The kings of the three dynasties were referred to as the Three Crowned Kings of Tamilakam
Tamilakam
.

The Early Pandyans ruled parts of Southern India
Southern India
from at least 4th century BCE. Pandyan rule ended in the first half of the 16th century CE. They initially ruled their country Pandya Nadu from Korkai , a seaport on the southernmost tip of the Indian Peninsula, and in later times moved to Madurai
Madurai
. Fish being their flag , Pandyas
Pandyas
were experts in water management, agriculture(mostly near river banks) and fisheries and they were eminent sailors and sea traders too. Pandyan was well known since ancient times, with contacts, even diplomatic, reaching the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. The Pandyan empire was home to temples including Meenakshi Amman Temple
Meenakshi Amman Temple
in Madurai
Madurai
, and Nellaiappar Temple built on the bank of the river Thamirabarani
Thamirabarani
in Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
.

The Pandya
Pandya
kings were called either Jatavarman or Maravarman. They were Jains
Jains
in their early ages but later became Shaivaites . Strabo states that an Indian king called Pandion sent Augustus
Augustus
Caesar "presents and gifts of honour". The country of the Pandyas, Pandi Mandala, was described as Pandyan Mediterranea in the Periplus and Modura Regia Pandyan by Ptolemy.

Traditionally, the legendary Sangams were held in Madurai
Madurai
under their patronage, and some of the Pandya
Pandya
Kings were poets themselves. The early Pandyan Dynasty
Pandyan Dynasty
of the Sangam Literature faded into obscurity upon the invasion of the Kalabhras
Kalabhras
. The dynasty revived under Kadungon in the early 6th century, pushed the Kalabhras
Kalabhras
out of the Tamil country and ruled from Madurai. They again went into decline with the rise of the Cholas
Cholas
in the 9th century and were in constant conflict with them. The Pandyas
Pandyas
allied themselves with the Sinhalese and the Cheras in harassing the Chola
Chola
empire until they found an opportunity for reviving their fortunes during the late 13th century. The Later Pandyas
Pandyas
(1216–1345) entered their golden age under Maravarman Sundara Pandyan and Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan (c. 1251), who expanded the empire into Telugu country, conquered Kalinga (Orissa) and invaded and conquered Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
. They also had extensive trade links with the Southeast Asian maritime empires of Srivijaya
Srivijaya
and their successors. The Pandyas
Pandyas
excelled in both trade and literature. They controlled the pearl fisheries along the South Indian coast between Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and India which produced some of the finest pearls in the known ancient world.

During their history, the Pandyas
Pandyas
were repeatedly in conflict with the Pallavas
Pallavas
, Cholas
Cholas
, Hoysalas
Hoysalas
and finally the Muslim invaders from the Delhi Sultanate
Delhi Sultanate
. The Islamic invasion led to the end of Pandyan supremacy in South India. 1323, Jaffna Kingdom
Jaffna Kingdom
in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
declared its independence from the crumbling Pandyan Empire. The Pandyans lost their capital city Madurai
Madurai
to Madurai
Madurai
Sultanate in 1335. However they shifted their capital to Tenkasi and continued to rule the Tirulnelveli, Tuticorin, Ramanad, Sivagangai regions. Meanwhile, Madurai
Madurai
sultanate was replaced by Nayaka governors of Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
in 1378. In 1529 Nayaka governors declared independence and established Madurai
Madurai
Nayak dynasty .

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology * 2 Mythology

* 3 Sources

* 3.1 Sangam literature * 3.2 Epigraphy * 3.3 Foreign sources

* 4 History

* 4.1 Literary sources

* 4.1.1 Tamil literary sources * 4.1.2 Sanskrit
Sanskrit
literary sources

* 4.2 Early Pandyas
Pandyas
(3rd century BCE – 3rd century CE) * 4.3 First Pandyan Empire
Pandyan Empire
(6th – 10th centuries CE) * 4.4 Under Chola
Chola
Influence (10th – 13th centuries)

* 4.5 Second Pandyan Empire
Pandyan Empire
(13th and 14th centuries)

* 4.5.1 Pandyan Civil War (AD 1308 to 1311) * 4.5.2 Decline and fall

* 5 Architecture * 6 Coinage

* 7 Government and Society

* 7.1 Trade * 7.2 Pearl fishing

* 8 Religion * 9 See also * 10 Notes * 11 References

ETYMOLOGY

The word Pandya
Pandya
is derived from the Tamil word "Pandu" meaning very old. Another theory is that the word "Pandya" is derived from the Tamil word "Pandi" meaning bull. Ancient Tamils, considered the bull as a sign of masculinity and valor. The earliest Pandyans, probably used the bull as its emblem.

Another theory suggests that in Sangam Tamil lexicon the word Pandya means old country in contrast with Chola
Chola
meaning new country, Chera meaning hill country and Pallava
Pallava
meaning branch in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
. The Chera , Chola
Chola
and Pandya
Pandya
are the traditional Tamil siblings and together with the Pallavas
Pallavas
are the major Kings that ruled ancient Tamilakam
Tamilakam
.

Historians have used several sources to identify the origins of the early Pandyan dynasty
Pandyan dynasty
with the pre-Christian Era and also to piece together the names of the Pandyan kings. Pandyas
Pandyas
were the longest ruling dynasty of Indian history. Unfortunately, the exact genealogy of these kings has not been authoritatively established yet.

MYTHOLOGY

According to the Epic Mahabharatha
Mahabharatha
the legendary Malayadwaja Pandya, who sided with the Pandavas and took part in the Kurukshetra War of the Mahabharata, is described as follows in Karna Parva (verse 20.25):

"Although knowing that the shafts (arrows) of the high souled son of Drona employed in shooting were really inexhaustible, yet Pandya, that bull among men, cut them all into pieces".

Malayadwaja Pandya
Pandya
and his queen Kanchanamala had one daughter Thataathagai alias Meenakshi who succeeded her father and reigned the kingdom successfully. The Madurai
Madurai
Meenakshi Amman temple was built after her. The city of Madurai
Madurai
was built around this temple. It is also notable that the etymology of the name Meenakshi is derived from the words Meen (fish) and akshi (eyes) which collectively means "One who has eyes in the shape of a fish".

SOURCES

Main article: Early Pandyan Kingdom
Early Pandyan Kingdom

SANGAM LITERATURE

Four-armed Vishnu
Vishnu
, Pandya
Pandya
Dynasty, 8th–9th century CE.

Pandya
Pandya
kings find mention in a number of poems in the Sangam Literature. Among them Nedunjeliyan, 'the victor of Talaiyalanganam', and Mudukudimi Peruvaludi 'of several sacrifices' deserve special mention. Beside several short poems found in the Akananuru and the Purananuru
Purananuru
collections, there are two major works – Mathuraikkanci and the Netunalvatai (in the collection of Pattupattu ) – which give a glimpse into the society and commercial activities in the Pandyan kingdom during the Sangam age.

It is difficult to estimate the exact dates of these Sangam age Pandyas. The period covered by the extant literature of the Sangam is unfortunately not easy to determine with any measure of certainty. Except the longer epics Silapathikaram
Silapathikaram
and Manimekalai
Manimekalai
, which by common consent belong to an age later than the Sangam age, the poems have reached us in the forms of systematic anthologies. Each individual poem has generally attached to it a colophon on the authorship and subject matter of the poem. The name of the king or chieftain to whom the poem relates and the occasion which called forth the eulogy are also found.

It is from these colophons, and rarely from the texts of the poems themselves, that we gather the names of many kings and chieftains and the poets patronised by them. The task of reducing these names to an ordered scheme in which the different generations of contemporaries can be marked off one another has not been easy. To add to the confusions, some historians have even denounced these colophons as later additions and untrustworthy as historical documents.

Any attempt at extracting a systematic chronology from these poems should take into consideration the casual nature of these poems and the wide differences between the purposes of the anthologist who collected these poems and the historian's attempts to arrive at a continuous history.

Pandyas
Pandyas
are also mentioned by Greek Megesthenes where he writes about southern kingdom being ruled by women. Hiuen Tsang also mentions about it citing his Buddhist friend at Kanchi and callas it Malakutta or Malakotta but the capital city is not mentioned.

EPIGRAPHY

The earliest Pandya
Pandya
to be found in epigraph is Nedunjeliyan, figuring in the Minakshipuram record assigned from the 2nd to the 1st centuries BCE. The record documents a gift of rock-cut beds, to a Jain
Jain
ascetic. Punch marked coins in the Pandya
Pandya
country dating from around the same time have also been found.

Pandyas
Pandyas
are also mentioned in the Pillars of Ashoka
Pillars of Ashoka
(inscribed 273 – 232 BCE). In his inscriptions Ashoka
Ashoka
refers to the peoples of south India – the Cholas
Cholas
, Cheras, Pandyas
Pandyas
and Satiyaputras – as recipients of his Buddhist proselytism. These kingdoms, although not part of the Mauryan Empire, were on friendly terms with Ashoka:

The conquest by Dharma
Dharma
has been won here, on the borders, and even six hundred yojanas (5,400–9,600 km) away, where the Greek king Antiochos rules, beyond there where the four kings named Ptolemy , Antigonos , Magas and Alexander rule, likewise in the south among the Cholas
Cholas
, the Pandyas, and as far as Tamraparni
Tamraparni
river.

Kharavela
Kharavela
, the Kalinga king who ruled during the 2nd century BCE, in his Hathigumpha inscription
Hathigumpha inscription
, claims to have destroyed a confederacy of Tamil states (Tamiradesasanghatam) which had lasted 132 years, and to have acquired a large quantity of pearls from the Pandyas.

FOREIGN SOURCES

Temple between hill symbols and elephant coin of the Pandyas
Pandyas
Sri Lanka
Lanka
1st century CE. Muziris
Muziris
, as shown in the Tabula Peutingeriana , with a "Templum Augusti ".

Megasthenes
Megasthenes
knew of the Pandyan kingdom around 300 BCE. He described it in Indika as occupying the portion of India which lies southward and extends to the sea. According to his account, it had 365 villages, each of which was expected to meet the needs of the royal household for one day in the year. He described the Pandyan queen at the time, Pandaia as a daughter of Heracles
Heracles
.

The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (c. 60 – c. 100 CE) describes the riches of a 'Pandian Kingdom': ...Nelcynda is distant from Muziris
Muziris
by river and sea about five hundred stadia, and is of another Kingdom, the Pandian. This place also is situated on a river, about one hundred and twenty stadia from the sea....

The Chinese historian Yu Huan in his 3rd-century text, the Weilüe, mentions the Panyue kingdom: ...The kingdom of Panyue is also called Hanyuewang. It is several thousand li to the southeast of Tianzhu (Northern India)...The inhabitants are small; they are the same height as the Chinese.... John E. Hill identified Panyue as Pandya
Pandya
kingdom. However, others have identified it with an ancient state located in modern Burma
Burma
or Assam
Assam
.

The Roman emperor
Roman emperor
Julian received an embassy from a Pandya
Pandya
about 361. A Roman trading centre was located on the Pandyan coast at the mouth of the Vaigai
Vaigai
river, southeast of Madurai.

Pandyas
Pandyas
also had trade contacts with Ptolemaic Egypt
Ptolemaic Egypt
and, through Egypt, with Rome
Rome
by the 1st century, and with China by the 3rd century. The 1st-century Greek historian Nicolaus of Damascus met, at Antioch
Antioch
, the ambassador sent by a king from India "named Pandion or, according to others, Porus" to Caesar Augustus
Augustus
around 13 CE (Strabo XV.4 and 73).

According to Xuanzang
Xuanzang
, the Pandya
Pandya
country was a depot for sea pearls, its people were harsh and of different religions. They were very good at trade.

In the later part of the 13th century Venetian traveller Marco Polo visited the Pandyan kingdom and left a vivid description of the land and its people. Polo exclaimed that: The darkest man is here the most highly esteemed and considered better than the others who are not so dark. Let me add that in very truth these people portray and depict their gods and their idols black and their devils white as snow. For they say that God and all the saints are black and the devils are all white. That is why they portray them as I have described.

HISTORY

LITERARY SOURCES

Main article: Early Pandyan Kingdom
Early Pandyan Kingdom

Although there are many instances of the Pandyas
Pandyas
being referred to in surviving ancient Hindu
Hindu
texts including the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
, we currently have no way of determining a cogent genealogy of these ancient kings. We have a connected history of the Pandyas
Pandyas
from the fall of Kalabhras during the middle of the 6th century.

Tamil Literary Sources

Several Tamil literary works, such as Iraiyanar Agapporul, mention the legend of three separate Tamil Sangams
Tamil Sangams
lasting several centuries before the Christian Era and ascribe their patronage to the Pandyas.

The Sangam poem Maduraikkanci by Mankudi Maruthanaar contains a full-length description of Madurai
Madurai
and the Pandyan country under the rule of Nedunj Cheliyan III. The Nedunalvadai by Nakkirar contains a description of the king's palace. The Purananuru
Purananuru
and Agananuru collections of the 3rd century BCE contain poems sung in praise of various Pandyan kings and also poems that were composed by the kings themselves. Kalittokai mentions that many Tamil Naga tribes such as Maravar , Eyinar, Oliar, Oviar, Aruvalur and Parathavar migrated to the Pandyan kingdom and started living there in the Third Tamil Sangam period 2000 years ago.

Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Literary Sources

Sculpture of Lord Rama
Rama

The Ramayana
Ramayana
makes a few references to the Pandyas. For instance, when Sugriva
Sugriva
sends his monkey warriors to search Sita
Sita
, he mentions Chera, Chola
Chola
and Pandya
Pandya
of the Southern region. Kalidasa
Kalidasa
's Raghuvamsha
Raghuvamsha
, an epic poem about Rama
Rama
's dynasty, states that Ravana signed a peace treaty with a Pandya
Pandya
king.

The Mahabharata
Mahabharata
mentions the Pandyas
Pandyas
a number of times. It states that the Pandya
Pandya
country was located on the sea shore, and supplied troops to the Pandava king Yudhishthira
Yudhishthira
during the war (5:19). The Pandya
Pandya
king Sarangadhwaja commanded 140,000 warriors (7.23). Pandya warrior Malayadhwaja had a one-to-one fight with Drona's son Ashwatthama
Ashwatthama
(8:20). Mahabharata
Mahabharata
mentions that tirtha s (sacred places) of Agastya
Agastya
, Varuna
Varuna
and Kumari were located in the Pandya
Pandya
country. See also: Pandya
Pandya
Kingdom

EARLY PANDYAS (3RD CENTURY BCE – 3RD CENTURY CE)

Main article: Early Pandyan Kingdom
Early Pandyan Kingdom

The following is a partial list of Pandyan emperors who ruled during the Sangam age: The lists of the Pandya
Pandya
kings are based on the authoritative A History of South India
History of South India
from the Early Times to the Fall of Vijayanagar by K.A.N. Sastri, Oxford U Press, New Delhi (Reprinted 1998).

* Koon Pandyan * Nedunjeliyan I (Aariyap Padai Kadantha Nedunj Cheliyan) * Pudappandyan * Mudukudumi Paruvaludhi * Nedunjeliyan II * Nan Maran * Nedunj Cheliyan III (Talaiyaalanganathu Seruvendra Nedunj Cheliyan) * Maran Valudi * Kadalan valuthi * Musiri Mutriya Cheliyan * Kadalul Maintha Ukkirap Peruvaludi

FIRST PANDYAN EMPIRE (6TH – 10TH CENTURIES CE)

Manikkavacakar
Manikkavacakar
, Minister of Pandya
Pandya
king Varagunavarman II (c. 862 – 885 ) Jatavarman Veera Pandyan I's double fish carp black granite bas-relief of the Koneswaram temple
Koneswaram temple
in Trincomalee
Trincomalee
, reminiscent of the dynasty\'s coinage symbols found on the island from the pre-modern era , installed after defeating the usurper Chandrabhanu
Chandrabhanu
of Tambralinga
Tambralinga
. Pandyan affairs in Northern Sri Lanka grew stronger following the intervention of Srimara Srivallabha in 815

After the close of the Sangam age, the first Pandyan empire was established by Kadungon in the 6th century by defeating the Kalabhras. The following chronological list of the Pandya
Pandya
emperors is based on an inscription found on the Vaigai
Vaigai
riverbeds. Succeeding kings assumed the titles of "Sadayavarman" and "Maaravarman" alternately, denoting themselves as followers of Lord Sadaiyan (Sankan(r)/Sivan) and Lord Thiru Maal respectively.

After the defeat of the Kalabhras, the Pandya
Pandya
kingdom grew steadily in power and territory. With the Cholas
Cholas
in obscurity, the Tamil country was divided between the Pallavas
Pallavas
and the Pandyas, the river Kaveri being the frontier between them.

After Vijayalaya Chola
Chola
conquered Thanjavur
Thanjavur
by defeating the Muttarayar
Muttarayar
chieftains who were part of Pandya
Pandya
family tree around 850, the Pandyas
Pandyas
went into a period of decline. They were constantly harassing their Chola
Chola
overlords by occupying their territories. Parantaka I invaded the Pandya
Pandya
territories and defeated Rajasimha III. However, the Pandyas
Pandyas
did not wholly submit to the Cholas
Cholas
despite loss of power, territory and prestige. They tried to forge various alliances with the Cheras and the Kings of Lanka
Lanka
and tried to engage the Cholas
Cholas
in war to free themselves from Chola
Chola
supremacy. But right from the times of Parantaka I to the early 12th century up to the times of Kulottunga Chola
Chola
I the Pandyas
Pandyas
could not overpower the Cholas who right from 880–1215 remained the most powerful empire spread over South India, Deccan and the Eastern and Western Coast of India during this period.

List of kings with dates as estimated by K. A. Nilakanta Sastri
K. A. Nilakanta Sastri
:

* Kadungon (r. c. 590–620 CE) * Maravarman Avani Sulamani (r. c. 590–620 CE) * Jayantavarman alias Seliyan Sendan (r. c. 620-645 CE) * Arikesari Maravarman (r. c. 670–700 CE) * Kochadaiyan Ranadhiran (r. c. 700–730 CE) * Maravarman Rajasimha I (r. c. 735–765 CE) * Jatila Parantaka Nedunjadayan (r. c. 765–815 CE) * Maravarman Rajasimha II (r. c. 815-817 CE) * Varaguna I (r. c. 817–835 CE) * Srimara Srivallabha (r. c. 815–862 CE) * Varaguna II (r. c. 862–885 CE) * Parantaka Viranarayanan (r. c. 880–905 CE) * Maravarman Rajasimha II (r. c. 905–920 CE)

UNDER CHOLA INFLUENCE (10TH – 13TH CENTURIES)

The Chola
Chola
domination of the Tamil country began in earnest during the reign of Parantaka Chola
Chola
II . Chola
Chola
armies led by Aditya Karikala , son of Parantaka Chola
Chola
II defeated Vira Pandya
Pandya
in battle. The Pandyas were assisted by the Sinhalese forces of Mahinda IV. Pandyas
Pandyas
were driven out of their territories and had to seek refuge on the island of Sri Lanka. This was the start of the long exile of the Pandyas. They were replaced by a series of Chola
Chola
viceroys with the title Chola Pandyas
Pandyas
who ruled from Madurai
Madurai
from c. 1020. The " Chola
Chola
yoke" started from about 920 and lasted until the start of the 13th century. The following list gives the names of the Pandya
Pandya
kings who were active during the 10th century and the first half of 11th century.

* Sundara Pandya
Pandya
I * Vira Pandya
Pandya
I * Vira Pandya
Pandya
II * Amarabhujanga Tivrakopa * Jatavarman Sundara Chola
Chola
Pandya * Maravarman Vikrama Chola
Chola
Pandya * Maravarman Parakrama Chola
Chola
Pandya * Jatavarman Chola
Chola
Pandya * Seervallabha Manakulachala (1101–1124) * Maaravarman Seervallaban (1132–1161) * Parakrama Pandyan I (1161–1162) * Kulasekara Pandyan III * Vira Pandyan III * Jatavarman Srivallaban (1175–1180) * Jatavarman Kulasekaran I (1190–1216)

SECOND PANDYAN EMPIRE (13TH AND 14TH CENTURIES)

This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (June 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )

A Pandya
Pandya
Style sculpture

PART OF A SERIES ON THE

HISTORY OF INDIA

Ancient

* Madrasian Culture * Soanian
Soanian
, c. 500,000 BCE

* Neolithic , c. 7600 – c. 3300 BCE

*

* Bhirrana
Bhirrana
7570 - 6200 BCE

* Indus Valley Civilization
Indus Valley Civilization
, c. 3300 – c. 1700 BCE * Post Indus Valley Period , c. 1700 – c. 1500 BCE

* Vedic Civilization , c. 1500 – c. 500 BCE

* Early Vedic Period
Vedic Period

* Rise of Śramaṇa
Śramaṇa
movement

* Later Vedic Period
Vedic Period

* Spread of Jainism
Jainism
- Parshvanatha
Parshvanatha
* Spread of Jainism
Jainism
- Mahavira
Mahavira
* Rise of Buddhism
Buddhism

* Mahajanapadas
Mahajanapadas
, c. 500 – c. 345 BCE * Nanda Dynasty
Dynasty
, c. 345 – c. 322 BCE

Classical

* Maurya Dynasty
Dynasty
, c. 322 – c. 185 BCE * Shunga Dynasty
Dynasty
, c. 185 – c. 75 BCE * Kanva Dynasty
Dynasty
, c. 75 – c. 30 BCE * Kushan Dynasty
Dynasty
, c. 30 – c. 230 CE * Satavahana Dynasty
Dynasty
, c. 30 BCE – c. 220 CE * Gupta Dynasty
Dynasty
, c. 200 – c. 550 CE

Early Medieval

* Chalukya Dynasty
Dynasty
, c. 543 – c. 753 CE * Harsha\'s Dynasty
Dynasty
, c. 606 CE – c. 647 CE * Karakota Dynasty
Dynasty
, c. 724 – c. 760 CE * Arab Invasion , c. 738 CE

* Tripartite Struggle , c. 760 – c. 973 CE

* Gurjara-Pratihara
Gurjara-Pratihara
Dynasty
Dynasty
* Rastrakuta Dynasty
Dynasty
* Pala Dynasty
Dynasty

* Chola
Chola
Dynasty
Dynasty
, c. 848 – c. 1251 CE * 2nd Chalukya Dynasty
Dynasty
, c. 973 – c. 1187 CE

Late Medieval

* Delhi Sultanate
Delhi Sultanate
, c. 1206 – c. 1526 CE

* Slave Dynasty
Dynasty
* Khalji Dynasty
Dynasty
* Tugluq Dynasty
Dynasty
* Sayyid Dynasty
Dynasty
* Lodhi Dynasty
Dynasty

* Pandyan Dynasty
Pandyan Dynasty
, c. 1251 – c. 1323 CE * Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
, c. 1336 – c. 1646 CE * Bengal Sultanate
Bengal Sultanate
, c. 1342 – c. 1576 CE

Early Modern

* Mughal Dynasty
Dynasty
, c. 1526 – c. 1540 CE * Suri Dynasty
Dynasty
, c. 1540 – c. 1556 CE

* Mughal Dynasty
Dynasty
, c. 1556 – c. 1857 CE

* Bengal Subah
Bengal Subah
, c. 1576 – c. 1757 CE

* Maratha Empire
Maratha Empire
, c. 1674 – c. 1818 CE * Company Raj , c. 1757 – c. 1858 CE * Kingdom of Mysore
Kingdom of Mysore
, c. 1760 – c. 1799 CE * Sikh Empire
Sikh Empire
, c. 1799 – c. 1849 CE

Modern

* The Great Rebellion , c. 1857 – c. 1858 CE

* British Raj
British Raj
, c. 1858 – c. 1947 CE

* Independence Movement

* Independent India , c. 1947 CE – present

Related articles

* Timeline of Indian History * Dynasties in Indian History * Economic History * Demographic History * Linguistic History * Architectural History * Art History * Literary History * Philosophical History * History of Religion * Musical History * Education History * Coinage History * Science and Technology History * List of Inventions and Discoveries * Military History * Naval History * Wars involving India

* v * t * e

The 13th century is the greatest period in the history of the Pandyan Empire. This period saw the rise of seven prime Lord Emperors (Ellarkku Nayanar – Lord of All) of Pandyan, who ruled the kingdom alongside Pandyan princes. Their power reached its zenith under Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan in the middle of the 13th century. The foundation for such a great empire was laid by Maravarman Sundara Pandyan early in the 13th century.

* Parakrama Pandyan II (king of Polonnaruwa ) (1212–1215) * Maravarman Sundara Pandyan (1216–1238) * Sundaravarman Kulasekaran II (1238–1240) * Maravarman Sundara Pandyan II (1238–1251) * Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan (1251–1268) * Maravarman Kulasekara Pandyan I (1268–1310) * Sundara Pandyan IV (1309–1327) * Vira Pandyan IV (1309–1345)

The Pandyan kingdom was replaced by the Chola
Chola
princes who assumed the title as Chola
Chola
Pandyas
Pandyas
in the 11th century. After being overshadowed by the Pallavas
Pallavas
and Cholas
Cholas
for centuries, Pandyan glory was briefly revived by Maravarman Sundara Pandyan and by (probably his younger brother or son) the much celebrated Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan I in 1251. The Pandya
Pandya
power extended from the Telugu countries on banks of the Godavari river to the northern half of Sri Lanka, which was invaded by Sundara Pandyan I in 1258 and on his behalf by his younger brother Jatavarman Vira Pandyan I from 1262–1264. later Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan appointed his brother to rule Kongu country, Chola nadu and Hoysala
Hoysala
country. Jatavarman Vira Pandyan's clan was later called as Kongu Pandiyar and he is the first Kongu Pandiya King.

The revival of the Pandyan dynasty
Pandyan dynasty
was to coincide with the gradual but steady decline of the Chola
Chola
empire. The last two or three Chola kings who followed Kulothunga III were either very weak or incompetent. The Cholas
Cholas
of course did not lack valour but had been unable to stop the revival of the Pandyan empire from the times of Maravarman Sundara Pandyan, the revival of the Kadava Pallavas
Pallavas
at Kanchi under Kopperinchunga I and indeed the growing power and status of the Telugu Cholas, the Renanti and the Irungola Cholas
Cholas
of the Telugu country; for the last three-named had been very trusted allies of the Cholas
Cholas
up to Kulothunga III, having helped him in conquering Kalinga . The marital alliance of Kulothunga III and one of his successors, Raja Raja III, with the Hoysalas
Hoysalas
did not yield any advantage, though (initially, at least) Kulothunga III took the help of the Hoysalas
Hoysalas
in countering the Pandyan resurgence. Kulothunga III had even conquered Karur, the Cheras in addition to Madurai, Ilam and Kalinga. However, his strength rested on support from Hoysalas
Hoysalas
, whose king Veera Ballala II was his son-in-law. However, Veera Ballala II himself had lost quite a bit of his territories between 1208–1212 to his local adversaries in Kannada
Kannada
country, like the Kalachuris , Seunas etc.

The resurgent Pandyans under Maravarman Sundara Pandyan went to war against Kulothunga and first at Kandai and then near Manaparai on the outskirts of modern Tiruchirappalli, the Pandyans routed the Chola army and entered Tiruchy, Thiruvarangam and Thanjavur
Thanjavur
victorious in war. But it appears that in the Tiruchy and Thiruvarangam areas, there was renewed control of the Cholas
Cholas
, presumably with the help of the Hoysalas
Hoysalas
under Vira Someswara with the Hoysalas
Hoysalas
later shifting their allegiance to the Pandyans either during the last years of Maravarman Sundara Pandyan or the early years of his successor Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan.

Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan was a very brave, ambitious warrior king, who wanted to completely subjugate the Cholas
Cholas
. He initially tolerated the presence of the Hoysalas
Hoysalas
under Vira Someshwara with his son Visvanatha or Ramanatha ruling from Kuppam near Samayapuram on the outskirts of Thiruvarangam. This was because other feudatories of the Hoysalas
Hoysalas
were also growing in power and threatening the Hoysala kingdom itself. Besides, the Delhi Sultanate
Delhi Sultanate
invasion of the Deccan had started under Malik Kafur. The challenged Hoysalas
Hoysalas
did have a foothold in and around Tiruchy and Thiruvarangam for a few years and seemed to have indulged in some temple building activity at Thiruvarangam also. But Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan, who subdued Rajendra Chola
Chola
III in around 1258–1260 was an equal antagonist of the Hoysalas
Hoysalas
whose presence he absolutely disliked in the Tamil country. He first vanquished the Kadava Pallavas
Pallavas
under Kopperinchungan-II, who had challenged the Hoysala
Hoysala
army stationed in and around Kanchi and killed a few of their commanders.

Though Rajendra III suffered another defeat at the hands of Vira Someshwara, because of the growing power of Pandyans being felt by both Cholas
Cholas
and Hoysalas, there was a political affinity between the two which was cemented also by marital relations. At the time the Pandyans and the Kadava Pallavas,with an earlier Chola
Chola
, Raja Raja III, having been held in captivity by Kopperinchunga II and his release being secured by the Hoysalas. Ultimately, the Kadava Pallavas, Hoysalas
Hoysalas
and also the Telugu Choda Timma who invaded Kanchi were all one by one vanquished by Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan with the Cholas
Cholas
finally becoming extinct after defeat of Hoysala
Hoysala
Ramanatha as well as his ally Rajendra III around 1279 by Maravarman Kulasekhara Pandyan. Pandya
Pandya
power in South India
South India

Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan seized the opportunity with the Hoysalas being in Tiruchy and not having any ally, the rapidly weakening Cholas seeking alliance with the Kadava Pallavas
Pallavas
who were themselves being threatened by the Telugu Cholas
Cholas
. In 1254 (or 1260) Jatavarman first dragged the Hoysalas
Hoysalas
into war by routing his son Ramanatha out of Tiruchy. Vira Someshwara Hoysala, who had given the control of the empire to his sons, had to come out of his slumber and tried to challenge Jatavarman. Between Samayapuram and Tiruchy, the armies of Vira Someshwara were routed with Vira Someshwara losing his life in this battle. This ended the presence of the Hoysalas
Hoysalas
in Tamil country.

Next the Pandyan prince Jatavarman concentrated on completely wiping out the Chola
Chola
empire. Rajadhiraja III had interfered in an earlier Pandyan war of succession and defeated a confederation of Pandyan princes. The predecessors of Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan had suffered at the time of the Chola
Chola
invasion and he wanted to take revenge. This was his opportunity. Rajendra III had been counting on Hoysala assistance in case he was challenged by the Pandyans, keeping in mind the earlier marital alliance of the Cholas
Cholas
with the Hoysalas. Initially, Jatavarman consolidated the Pandyan hold on Tiruchy and Thiruvarangam and marched towards Tanjore and Kumbakonam. The Chola capital of Gangaikondacholapuram, too, was not far from reach. During the years 1270–1276 it appeared that Rajendra III ruled mainly in and around Gangaikondacholapuram and Tanjore. Tiruchy and Thiruvarangam had been lost by the Cholas
Cholas
to the Pandyas
Pandyas
forever, at least from 1254. Though Rajendra III had been opposed to the Hoysalas due to their alliance with the Pandyans, with new hostilities emerging between Hoysalas
Hoysalas
and the Pandyans, Rajendra III had hoped for renewed friendship and military alliance with the Hoysalas.

When challenged by Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan, the brave but tactically naive Rajendra III marched against the Pandyans between Tanjore and Tiruchy, hoping for assistance and participation in war from the Hoysalas. However, the already vanquished Hoysalas
Hoysalas
were in a defensive position. They did not want to go to war and risk yet another defeat by the resurgent Pandyans. Rajendra III, hopelessly isolated, was thoroughly routed and humiliated in this war, which is variously dated as between 1268–1270. The known rule of Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan is of course, up to 1268 only. Probably Rajendra III fled the battlefield and had continued in obscurity up to 1279 but without any of the erstwhile Chola
Chola
territories. By 1280, the Chola empire was no more.

Pandyan Civil War (AD 1308 To 1311)

This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (November 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )

After the death of the king Maravarman Kulashekhara , his sons Vira and Sundara fought a war of succession for control of the kingdom. Taking advantage of this situation, the neighbouring Hoysala
Hoysala
king Ballala III invaded the Pandya
Pandya
territory. However, Ballala had to retreat to his capital, when Malik Kafur
Malik Kafur
, a general of the Muslim Delhi Sultanate
Delhi Sultanate
, invaded his kingdom at the same time. After subjugating Ballala , Malik Kafur
Malik Kafur
marched to the Pandya
Pandya
territory in March 1311. His army raided a number of places in the kingdom, massacring people and destroying temples. The Pandya
Pandya
brothers fled their headquarters, and Kafur pursued them unsuccessfully, hoping to make one of them a tributary to the Delhi Sultan Alauddin Khalji
Alauddin Khalji
. Nevertheless, the invaders obtained a large number of treasures, elephants and horses.

According to the 14th century Sanskrit
Sanskrit
treatise Leelathilakam, a general named Vikrama Pandya
Pandya
defeated the Muslims. Some historians have identified Vikrama as a uncle of Vira and Sundara, and believe that he defeated Malik Kafur. However, this identification is not supported by historical evidence: Vikrama Pandya
Pandya
mentioned in Leelathilakam appears to have defeated a later Muslim army during 1365-70. By late April 1311, the rains had obstructed the operations of the Delhi forces, and the invading generals received the news that the defenders had assembled a large army against them. Kafur gave up his plans to pursue the Pandya
Pandya
brothers, and returned to Delhi with the plunder.

After Kafur's departure, Vira and Sundara resumed their conflict. Sundara Pandya
Pandya
was defeated, and sought help from the Delhi Sultanate. With their help, he regained control of the South Arcot region by 1314. An aerial view of Madurai
Madurai
city from atop the Meenakshi Amman temple

Decline And Fall

Subsequently, this there were two other expeditions from the Khalji Sultanate in 1314 led by Khusro Khan
Khusro Khan
(later Sultan Nasir-ud-din) and in 1323 by Ulugh Khan ( Muhammad bin Tughluq
Muhammad bin Tughluq
) under Sultan Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq . These invasions shattered the Pandyan empire beyond revival. While the previous invasions were content with plunder, Ulugh Khan annexed the former Pandyan dominions to the Delhi Sultanate
Delhi Sultanate
as the province of Ma'bar. Most of South India
South India
came under the Delhi's rule and was divided into five provinces – Devagiri, Tiling, Kampili , Dorasamudra and Ma'bar. Jalaluddin Ahsan Khan was appointed governor of the newly created southern-most Ma'bar province of the Delhi Sultanate
Delhi Sultanate
by Muhammad bin Tughluq
Muhammad bin Tughluq
. In 1333, Sayyid Jalaluddin Ahsan Khan declared his independence and created Madurai
Madurai
Sultanate , a short lived independent Muslim kingdom based in the city of Madurai. Hoysala
Hoysala
king Veera Ballala III, from his capital in Tiruvannamalai
Tiruvannamalai
, challenged the Madurai
Madurai
Sultans at Kannanur Kuppam near Srirangam and died fighting them in 1343. Bukkaraya I of Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
Empire conquered the city of Madurai
Madurai
in 1371, imprisoned the Sultan, released and restored Arcot's Tamil prince Sambuva Raya to the throne. Bukka I appointed his son Veera Kumara Kampana as the viceroy of the Tamil region. Later, Nayaka governors were appointed. who would continue ruling till 1736.

ARCHITECTURE

This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (June 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )

The Gopuram
Gopuram
of Nellaiappar Temple
Nellaiappar Temple

Rock cut and structural temples are significant part of pandyan architecture. Vimana, mandapa and shikhara are some of the features of the early Pandyan temples. Groups of small temples are seen at Tiruchirapalli district of Tamil Nadu. The Shiva
Shiva
temples have a Nandi in front of the maha mandapa. In the later stages of Pandyas
Pandyas
rule, finely sculptured idols, portals of temples or gopurams on "Vimanas" were developed. Gopurams are the rectangular entrance and portals of the temples. The portions above the entrance is pyramidal in shape. Gradually gopurams were given more importance than Shikharas.

Meenakshi Amman Temple
Meenakshi Amman Temple
in Madurai
Madurai
and Nellaiappar Temple
Nellaiappar Temple
in Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
were built during the reign of the Pandyas.

COINAGE

This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (April 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )

Pandyan coin depicting a temple between hill symbols and elephant, Pandyas, Sri Lanka, 1st century CE.

Coins of Pandyas
Pandyas
bear the legend of different Pandya
Pandya
ruler in different times. The Pandyas
Pandyas
had issued silver punch marked and die struck copper coins in the early period. A few gold coins were attributed to the Pandya
Pandya
rulers of this period. These coins bore the image of a fish, sometimes singly, sometimes in pairs along with symbols like a bow, a conch, a discus etc. The coins with the latter inscriptions had been found in the Kanara district. So some scholars were inclined to attribute them to the Alupa rulers. The copper coins of the pandyas also had the inscription of Chola
Chola
standing figure or the Chalukyan devices associated with a fish. These coins had the blending of symbols from various dynasties which might be indicative of their conquests and defeats.Some of the coins had the names Sundara, Sundara Pandya
Pandya
or merely the letter 'su' were etched. Some of the coins bore a boar with the doubtful legend 'Vira-Pandya' on one side and the figure of Venu-Gopala (Murlidhara Krishna) on the flip side of the coin. It had been said that those coins were issued by the Pandyas
Pandyas
and the feudatories of the Cholas
Cholas
but could not be attributed to any particular king.

The coins of Pandyas
Pandyas
were basically square. Those coins were etched with elephant on one side and the other side remained blank. The inscription on the silver and gold coins during the Pandyas, were in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and the copper coins bore the Tamil legends.

The coins of the Pandyas, which bore the fish symbols, were termed as 'Kodandaraman' and 'Kanchi' Valangum Perumal'. The Chola
Chola
standing and the seated king type coins had the titles 'Bhutala Ellamthalai', 'Parasurama', 'Kulasekhara'. Apart from these, 'Ellamthalaiyanam' was seen on coins which had the standing king on one side and the fish on the other. 'Samarakolahalam' and 'Bhuvanekaviram' were found on the coins having a Garuda, 'Konerirayan' on coins having a bull and 'Kaliyugaraman' on coins that depict a pair of feet.

GOVERNMENT AND SOCIETY

TRADE

Silk Road
Silk Road
map showing ancient trade routes.

Roman and Greek traders frequented the ancient Tamil country , present day Southern India
Southern India
and Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
, securing trade with the seafaring Tamil states of the Pandyan , Chola
Chola
and Chera dynasties and establishing trading settlements which secured trade with South Asia by the Greco-Roman world
Greco-Roman world
since the time of the Ptolemaic dynasty
Ptolemaic dynasty
a few decades before the start of the Common Era
Common Era
and remained long after the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. As recorded by Strabo
Strabo
, Emperor Augustus
Augustus
of Rome
Rome
received at Antioch
Antioch
an ambassador from a South Indian King called PANDYAN. The country of the Pandyas, Pandi Mandala, was described as Pandyan Mediterranea in the Periplus and Modura Regia Pandyan by Ptolemy. They also outlasted Byzantium
Byzantium
's loss of the ports of Egypt
Egypt
and the Red Sea
Red Sea
(c. 639-645) under the pressure of the Muslim conquests
Muslim conquests
. Sometime after the sundering of communications between the Axum and Eastern Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 7th century, the Christian kingdom of Axum fell into a slow decline, fading into obscurity in western sources. It survived, despite pressure from Islamic forces, until the 11th century, when it was reconfigured in a dynastic squabble.

PEARL FISHING

Pearl fishing was an important industry in ancient Tamilakam
Tamilakam

Pearl fishing was another industry that flourished during the Sangam age. The Pandyan port city of Korkai was the center of pearl trade. Written records from Greek and Egyptian voyagers give details about the pearl fisheries off the Pandyan coast. The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea mentions that "Pearls inferior to the Indian sort are exported in great quantity from the marts of Apologas and Omana". The inferior variety of pearls that the Tamils did not require for their use was in very great demand in the foreign markets. Pearls were woven along with nice muslin cloth, before being exported. The most expensive animal product that was imported from India by the Roman Empire was the pearl from the Gulf of Mannar
Gulf of Mannar
.

The pearls from the Pandyan kingdom were also in demand in the kingdoms of north India. Several Vedic mantras refer to the wide use of the pearls. The royal chariots were decked with pearls, as were the horses that dragged them. The use of pearls was so high that the supply of pearls from the Ganges could not meet the demand. Literary references of the pearl fishing mention how the fishermen, who dive into the sea, avoid attacks from sharks, bring up the right-whorled chank and blow on the sounding shell. Convicts were used as pearl divers in Korkai.

Megasthenes
Megasthenes
reported about the pearl fisheries of the Pandyas, indicating that the Pandyas
Pandyas
derived great wealth from the pearl trade.

RELIGION

Historical Madurai
Madurai
was a stronghold of Shaivism
Shaivism
. Following the invasion of Kalabhras
Kalabhras
, Jainism
Jainism
gained a foothold in the Pandyan kingdom. With the advent of Bhakti movements, Shaivism
Shaivism
and Vaishnavism resurfaced. The latter-day Pandyas
Pandyas
after 600 CE were Saivites who claimed to descend from Lord Shiva
Shiva
and Goddess Parvati
Parvati
. Pandyan Nedumchadayan was a staunch Vaishnavite.

SEE ALSO

* History of Tamil Nadu * History of Kerala
History of Kerala
* Economy of ancient Tamil country * Industry in ancient Tamil country

* Tamilakam
Tamilakam
* List of Tamil monarchs
List of Tamil monarchs
* Indo-Roman relations * Indo-Roman trade relations
Indo-Roman trade relations
* Indian maritime history
Indian maritime history

NOTES

* ^ Aiyar, R. Swaminatha (1987) . Dravidian Theories. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. ISBN 9788120803312 . * ^ " Pandya
Pandya
dynasty Indian dynasty". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2017-09-21. * ^ " Pandya
Pandya
dynasty". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2 June 2017. * ^ The First Spring: The Golden Age of India – Abraham Eraly – Google Books. Books.google.co.in. Retrieved on 12 July 2013. * ^ A B The cyclopædia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia By Edward Balfour * ^ A B Ancient Indian History and Civilization By Sailendra Nath Sen * ^ Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and South-East Asia: Political, Religious and Cultural Relations from A.D. C. 1000 to C. 1500, 1978 By W. M. Sirisena, 57 p. * ^ Politics of Tamil Nationalism in Sri Lanka, South Asian Publishers, 1996 By Ambalavanar Sivarajah, 22 p. * ^ The primary classical language of the world By Ñānamuttan̲ Tēvanēyan̲ * ^ "Far East Kingdoms South Asia:The Pändyas / Pandyas". historyfiles.co.uk. * ^ AALAVAI by KRA NARASIAH * ^ Mahabharata
Mahabharata
Book Eight: Karna By Adam Bowles * ^ The Mahabharata
Mahabharata
of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa translated into ..., Volume 8 By Kisari Mohan Ganguli * ^ Let's go: India & Nepal, 2004 By Let's Go, Inc. * ^ Kulke and Rothermund, p104 * ^ A B Keay, p119 * ^ S. Dhammika, The Edicts of King Ashoka: An English Rendering Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy (1994) ISBN 955-24-0104-6 * ^ India By John Keay * ^ Periplus 54. Original Greek: "Ἡ δὲ Νέλκυνδα σταδίους μὲν ἀπὸ Μουζιρέως ἀπέχει σχεδὸν πεντακοσίους, ὁμοίως διά τε ποταμοῦ (καὶ πεζῇ) καὶ διὰ θαλάσσης, βασιλείας δέ ἐστιν ἑτέρας, τῆς Πανδίονος· κεῖται δὲ καὶ αὐτὴ παρὰ ποταμὸν, ὡσεὶ ἀπὸ σταδίων ἑκατὸν εἴκοσι τῆς θαλάσσης." * ^ Hill, John * ^ Bin Yang (2009). Between winds and clouds: the making of Yunnan (second century BCE to twentieth century CE). Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-14254-0 . * ^ Yukteshwar Kumar (2005). A History of Sino-Indian Relations. APH Publishing. p. 12. ISBN 978-81-7648-798-6 . * ^ Strabo, Geography, BOOK XV., CHAPTER I., section 73. Perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved on 12 July 2013. * ^ Keay, p121 * ^ Travel and ethnology in the Renaissance: South India
South India
through European eyes, Joan-Pau Rubiés * ^ Muslim identity, print culture, and the Dravidian factor in Tamil Nadu, J. B. Prashant More * ^ Layers of blackness: colourism in the African diaspora, Deborah Gabriel * ^ Husaini, Abdul Qadir. The History of the Pandya
Pandya
Country. p. 5. * ^ Sastri. A History of South India
History of South India
from Prehistoric Times to the Fall of Vijayanagar. p. 127. * ^ The Tamils Eighteen Hundred Years Ago By V. Kanakasabhai * ^ The Ramayana, The Great Hindu
Hindu
Epic Translated by R C Dutt, RAMAYANA BOOK VII: KISHKINDHA (Part – VI THE QUEST FOR SITA) * ^ Govind Sadashiv Ghurye (1969). Caste and Race in India. Popular Prakashan. pp. 357–358. ISBN 978-81-7154-205-5 . * ^ Bibek Debroy (1 July 2012). The Mahabharata: Volume 3. Penguin Books India. p. 58. ISBN 978-0-14-310015-7 . * ^ Husaini, AQ, p 8-17 * ^ Sastri, KAN, pp 22–25 * ^ Purushottam, Vi.Pi, pp 42 * ^ Indrapala, Karthigesu (2007). The evolution of an ethnic identity: The Tamils in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
C. 300 BCE to C. 1200 CE. Colombo: Vijitha Yapa. p. 324. ISBN 978-955-1266-72-1 . * ^ K.A.Nilakanta Sastry, "Advanced History of India" (1970), Allied Publishers Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi * ^ N. Subrahmanian 1962 , pp. 133-136. * ^ A B Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 45–46. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4 . * ^ Banarsi Prasad Saksena 1992 , p. 412. * ^ Banarsi Prasad Saksena 1992 , p. 414. * ^ Banarsi Prasad Saksena 1992 , pp. 416-417. * ^ Kishori Saran Lal 1950 , pp. 208-213. * ^ K.K.R. Nair 1987 , p. 27. * ^ A B Peter Jackson 2003 , p. 207. * ^ Kishori Saran Lal 1950 , p. 212. * ^ Nilakanta Sastri, P.213 * ^ Heras and Coelho in Kamath (1980), p.129 * ^ Aiyangar, Krishnaswami S. (1991). South India
South India
and Her Muhammadan Invaders. Asian Educational Services, 1991 – India, South. pp. 67–68,110–111,167,171–174. ISBN 9788120605367 . * ^ Chatterjee, Amitava. History: UGC-NET/SET/JRF (Paper II and III), 1/e. Pearson Education India. pp. 2.34–2.35. ISBN 9789332537040 . * ^ Lindsay (2006) p. 101 * ^ Curtin 1984: 100 * ^ Holl 2003: 9 * ^ Venkata Subramanian 1988 , p. 55. * ^ Iyengar, P.T. Srinivasa (2001). History Of The Tamils: From the Earliest Times to 600 AD. Asian Educational Services. p. 22. Retrieved 2007-07-15. * ^ Caldwell, Robert (1881). A Political and General History of the District of Tinnevelly. p. 20. Retrieved 2005-07-15. * ^ Balambal. p. 55. Missing or empty title= (help ) * ^ Kulke and Rothermund, p99, p107 * ^ Lloyd V. J. Ridgeon, Major World Religions: From Their Origins to the Present

REFERENCES

Wikimedia Commons has media related to PANDYAN DYNASTY .

* Balambal, V. (1998). Studies in the History of the Sangam Age. Kalinga Publications. ISBN 978-81-85163-87-1 . * Carswell, John. 1991. "The Port of Mantai, Sri Lanka." RAI, pp. 197–203. * Curtin, Philip D. (1984). Cross-Cultural Trade in World History. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-26931-5 . * Hill, John E. 2004. The Peoples of the West from the Weilüe 魏略 by Yu Huan 魚豢: A Third Century Chinese Account Composed between 239 and 265 CE. Draft annotated English translation. * Holl, Augustin (2003). Ethnoarchaeology of Shuwa-Arab Settlements. Lexington Books. ISBN 978-0-7391-0407-1 . * Husaini, A.Q. (1972). History of The Pandya
Pandya
Country. * Keay, John (2000) . India: A history. India: Grove Press. ISBN 0-8021-3797-0 . * Kulke, Hermann; Dietmar Rothermund (2004). A History of India
History of India
(4 ed.). * Lindsay, W S (2006). History of Merchant Shipping and Ancient Commerce. Adamant Media Corporation. ISBN 0-543-94253-8 . * Nagasamy, R (1981). Tamil Coins – A study. Institute of Epigraphy, Tamil Nadu State Dept. of Archaeology. * Purushottam, Vi. Pi. (1989). Cankakala Mannar Kalanilai Varalaru. * Ray, Himanshu Prabha, ed. 1996. Tradition and Archaeology: Early Maritime Contacts in the Indian Ocean. Proceedings of the International Seminar Techno-Archaeological Perspectives of Seafaring in the Indian Ocean 4th cent. BC – 15th cent. AD New Delhi, 28 February – 4 March 1994. New Delhi, and Jean-François SALLES, Lyon. First published 1996. Reprinted 1998. Manohar Publishers & Distributors, New Delhi. * Reddy, P. Krishna Mohan. 2001. "Maritime Trade of Early South India: New Archaeological Evidences from Motupalli, Andhra Pradesh." East and West Vol. 51 – Nos. 1–2 (June 2001), pp. 143–156. * Tripathi, Rama
Rama
Sankar (1967). History of Ancient India. India: Motilal Banarsidass Publications. ISBN 81-208-0018-4 . * Sastri, K. A. Nilakanta. The Pandyan Kingdom: From the Earliest Times to the Sixteenth Century. * Shaffer, Lynda (1996). Maritime Southeast Asia to 1500 (Sources and Studies in World History). Armonk, N.Y: M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 1-56324-144-7 . * N. Subrahmanian (1962). History of Tamilnad (To A. D. 1336). Madurai: Koodal. OCLC
OCLC
43502446 . * Venkata Subramanian, T. K. (1988). Environment and Urbanisation in Early Tamilakam. Issue 92 of Tamil_p Palkalaik Kal_aka ve?iyi?u. Tamil University. p. 55. ISBN 978-81-7090-110-5 . * Banarsi Prasad Saksena (1992). "The Khaljis: Alauddin Khalji". In Mohammad Habib and Khaliq Ahmad Nizami. A Comprehensive History of India: The Delhi Sultanat (A.D. 1206-1526). 5 (Second ed.). The Indian History Congress / People's Publishing House. OCLC
OCLC
31870180 . * K.K.R. Nair (1987). "Venad: Its Early History". Journal of Kerala Studies. University of Kerala. 14 (1): 1–34. ISSN 0377-0443 . * Kishori Saran Lal (1950). History of the Khaljis (1290-1320). Allahabad: The Indian Press. OCLC
OCLC
685167335 . * Peter Jackson (2003). The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-54329-3 .

* v * t * e

Tribes and kingdoms mentioned in the Mahabharata
Mahabharata

* Abhira * Andhra * Anarta * Anga * Anupa * Assaka
Assaka
* Asmaka * Avanti * Ay * Bahlika * Bhārata * Chedi * Chera * Chola
Chola
* Chinas * Dakshina Kosala
Dakshina Kosala
* Dakshinatya * Danda * Dasarna * Dasharna * Dasherka * Dwaraka * Gandhāra * Garga * Gomanta * Gopa Rashtra
Gopa Rashtra
* Hara Huna * Heheya * Himalaya * Huna * Kanchi * Kasmira * Kalakuta * Kalinga * Kamboja * Karnata * Karusha * Kashi * Kekeya * Kerala * Khasa * Kikata * Kirata * Kishkindha
Kishkindha
* Konkana * Kosala * Kuru * Kunti * Lanka
Lanka
* Madra * Madraka * Magadha
Magadha
* Maha Chinas * Mahisha * Malla * Malava * Matsya * Mekhalas * Mleccha * Mudgala * Mushika * Nasikya * Nepa * Niharas * Nishada * Odra * Pallava
Pallava
* Panchala
Panchala
* Pandya * Parada * Parama Kamboja * Parasika * Parvartaka * Parvata * Pishacha * Pragjyotisha * Pratyagratha * Prasthala * Pundra * Pulinda * Saka * Salva * Salveya * Salwa * Saraswata * Saurashtra * Sauvira * Shakya
Shakya
* Sindhu * Sinhala * Sivi * Sonita * Sudra * Suhma * Surparaka * Surasena
Surasena
* Tangana * Trigarta * Tulu * Tushara * Ursa * Uttara Kuru * Uttara Madra * Utkala * Vidarbha * Vanga * Vatadhana * Vatsa
Vatsa
* Videha
Videha
* Vidarbha * Yavana * Youdheya

* v * t * e

Middle kingdoms of India
Middle kingdoms of India

Timeline and

cultural period Northwestern India

( Punjab
Punjab
- Sapta Sindhu
Sapta Sindhu
) Indo-Gangetic Plain
Indo-Gangetic Plain
Central India Southern India
Southern India

Western Gangetic Plain

(Kuru - Panchala
Panchala
) Northern India

(Central Gangetic Plain) Northeastern India

( Northeast India
Northeast India
)

IRON AGE

CULTURE LATE VEDIC PERIOD LATE VEDIC PERIOD

(Brahmin ideology)

Painted Grey Ware culture
Painted Grey Ware culture
LATE VEDIC PERIOD

(Kshatriya/Shramanic culture)

Northern Black Polished Ware
Northern Black Polished Ware
PRE-HISTORY

6TH CENTURY BC Gandhara
Gandhara
Kuru - Panchala
Panchala
Magadha
Magadha

Adivasi
Adivasi
(tribes)

CULTURE PERSIAN-GREEK INFLUENCES "SECOND URBANISATION "

Rise of Shramana
Shramana
movements Jainism
Jainism
- Buddhism
Buddhism
- Ājīvika
Ājīvika
- Yoga
Yoga
PRE-HISTORY

5TH CENTURY BC (Persian rule )

Shishunaga dynasty
Shishunaga dynasty

Adivasi
Adivasi
(tribes)

4TH CENTURY BC (Greek conquests )

Nanda empire Kalinga

HISTORICAL AGE

CULTURE SPREAD OF BUDDHISM PRE-HISTORY SANGAM PERIOD (300 BC – 200 AD)

3RD CENTURY BC MAURYA EMPIRE Early Cholas
Early Cholas

Early Pandyan Kingdom
Early Pandyan Kingdom

Satavahana dynasty
Satavahana dynasty

Cheras

46 other small kingdoms in Ancient Thamizhagam

CULTURE PRECLASSICAL HINDUISM - "HINDU SYNTHESIS" (ca. 200 BC - 300 AD) Epics - Puranas
Puranas
- Ramayana
Ramayana
- Mahabharata
Mahabharata
- Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
- Brahma Sutras - Smarta Tradition Mahayana Buddhism
Buddhism
Sangam period
Sangam period

(continued) (300 BC – 200 AD)

2ND CENTURY BC Indo-Greek Kingdom
Indo-Greek Kingdom
Shunga Empire
Shunga Empire

Maha-Meghavahana Dynasty
Dynasty
Early Cholas
Early Cholas

Early Pandyan Kingdom
Early Pandyan Kingdom

Satavahana dynasty
Satavahana dynasty

Cheras

46 other small kingdoms in Ancient Thamizhagam

1ST CENTURY BC

1ST CENTURY AD

Indo-Scythians
Indo-Scythians
Indo-Parthians Kuninda Kingdom
Kuninda Kingdom

2ND CENTURY Kushan Empire
Kushan Empire

3RD CENTURY Kushano-Sasanian Kingdom
Kushano-Sasanian Kingdom
Kushan Empire
Kushan Empire
Western Satraps
Western Satraps
Kamarupa
Kamarupa
kingdom Kalabhra dynasty
Kalabhra dynasty

Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

CULTURE "GOLDEN AGE OF HINDUISM"(ca. AD 320-650) Puranas
Puranas
Co-existence of Hinduism
Hinduism
and Buddhism
Buddhism

4TH CENTURY Kidarites
Kidarites
GUPTA EMPIRE

Varman dynasty
Varman dynasty
Kalabhra dynasty
Kalabhra dynasty

Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

Kadamba Dynasty
Dynasty

Western Ganga Dynasty
Dynasty

5TH CENTURY Hephthalite Empire
Hephthalite Empire
Alchon Huns
Alchon Huns
Kalabhra dynasty
Kalabhra dynasty

Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

Vishnukundina
Vishnukundina

6TH CENTURY Nezak Huns
Nezak Huns

Kabul Shahi
Kabul Shahi
Maitraka
Maitraka

Adivasi
Adivasi
(tribes) Badami Chalukyas
Badami Chalukyas

Kalabhra dynasty
Kalabhra dynasty

Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

CULTURE LATE-CLASSICAL HINDUISM (ca. AD 650-1100) Advaita Vedanta
Advaita Vedanta
- Tantra
Tantra
Decline of Buddhism
Buddhism
in India

7TH CENTURY Indo-Sassanids
Indo-Sassanids

Vakataka dynasty
Vakataka dynasty
Empire of Harsha
Empire of Harsha
Mlechchha dynasty
Mlechchha dynasty
Adivasi
Adivasi
(tribes) Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

Pandyan Kingdom(Revival)

Pallava
Pallava

8TH CENTURY Kabul Shahi
Kabul Shahi

Pala Empire
Pala Empire
Pandyan Kingdom
Pandyan Kingdom

Kalachuri
Kalachuri

9TH CENTURY

Gurjara-Pratihara
Gurjara-Pratihara

Rashtrakuta dynasty