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''Pandanus amaryllifolius'' is a tropical plant in the ''Pandanus'' (screwpine) genus, which is commonly known as pandan (). It has fragrant leaves which are used widely for flavouring in the cuisines of Southeast Asia and South Asia.

Occurrence and habitat

''Pandanus amaryllifolius'' is a true cultigen, and is believed to have been domesticated in ancient times. It is sterile and can only reproduce vegetatively through suckers or cuttings. It was first described from specimens from the Maluku Islands, and the rare presence of male flowers in these specimens may indicate that it is the origin of the species. However, as no other wild specimens have been found, this is still conjecture. The plant is grown widely throughout Southeast Asia. It has also been introduced to South Asia via Malaysia and Indonesia, where they are grown extensively, though South Asian populations have low genetic diversity.


Botanical features


The characteristic aroma of pandan is caused by the aroma compound 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, found in the lower epidermal papillae; the compound gives white bread, jasmine rice, and basmati rice (as well as bread flowers ''Vallaris glabra'') their typical smell. Though the plant is unknown in the wild, it is widely cultivated. It is an upright, green plant with fan-shaped sprays of long, narrow, blade-like leaves and woody aerial roots. The plant is sterile, with flowers only growing very rarely, and is propagated by cuttings.


Use





Culinary


In Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines, it is commonly called ''pandan'' or ''pandan wangi'' (fragrant pandan). The green juice acquired from its leaf is used extensively in Malaysian cuisine and Indonesian cuisine as green food colouring and flavouring agents that gave pleasant aroma for ''kue'', a tapioca, flour or glutinous rice-based traditional cakes; including ''klepon'', ''kue putu'', ''dadar gulung'', ''lapis legit'', pandan cake, buko pandan salad, and buko pandan cake. The tied knot of bruised pandan leaf is also added into fragrant coconut rice to enhance the aroma. In Sri Lanka, it is called ''rampé'' and it is grown almost in every household. Most of the Sri Lankan dishes use these leaves for aroma along with curry leaves. In India it is called '' annapurna'' leaves; in Bangladesh, it is called ''pulao pata'' (পোলাও পাতা ); and in the Maldives, it is called ''ran’baa'' along with the other variety of pandan there (''Pandanus fascicularis''), and is used to enhance the flavor of ''pulao'', ''biryani'', and sweet coconut rice pudding, or ''payesh'' if basmati rice is not used. It acts as a cheap substitute for basmati fragrance, as one can use normal, nonfragrant rice and with pandan the dish tastes and smells like basmati is used. The leaves are used either fresh or dried, and are commercially available in frozen form in Asian grocery stores of nations where the plant does not grow. They have a nutty, botanical fragrance that is used as a flavor enhancer in many Asian cuisines, especially in rice dishes, desserts, and cakes. The leaves are sometimes steeped in coconut milk, which is then added to the dish. They may be tied in a bunch and cooked with the food. They may be woven into a basket which is used as a pot for cooking rice. Pandan chicken, (Thai: ไก่ห่อใบเตย, ''kai ho bai toei''), is a dish of chicken parts wrapped in pandan leaves and fried. The leaves are also used as a flavoring for desserts such as pandan cake and sweet beverages. Filipino cuisine uses pandan as a flavoring in some coconut milk-based dishes as well as desserts like ''buko pandan''. It is also used widely in rice-based pastries such as ''suman'' and numerous sweet drinks and desserts. Bottled pandan extract is available in shops, and often contains green food coloring.


Fragrance and traditional medicine


The leaves are used in the perfume industry and traditional medicine. ''P. amaryllifolius'' essence may substitute for vanilla essence. Studies have established repellent activity of ''P. amaryllifolius'' against American cockroaches (''Periplaneta americana'' L.).


Air freshener


The leaves possess a pleasant aroma and can be used as natural air fresheners. In Thailand, cab drivers sometimes use pandan for this purpose.

See also

* Domesticated plants and animals of Austronesia


References





Further reading


* Li J. and Ho S.H. (2003)
Pandan leaves (''Pandanus amaryllifolius'' Roxb.) as a Natural Cockroach Repellent
''Proceedings of the 9th National Undergraduate Research Opportunities Programme'' (2003-09-13). * Van Wyk, Ben-Erik (2005). ''Food Plants of the World''. Portland, Oregon: Timber Press, Inc. *


External links




{{Taxonbar|from=Q311090 amaryllifolius Category:Spices Category:Asian cuisine Category:Taxa named by William Roxburgh