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* v * t * e
In India, the PANCHAYATI RAJ generally refers to the system
introduced by constitutional amendment in 1992, although it is based
upon the traditional panchayat system of
South Asia . The modern
Panchayati Raj and its
Gram Panchayats are not to be confused with the
Khap Panchayats (or Caste Panchayats ) found in
northern India. The
Panchayati Raj system was formalized in 1992,
following a study conducted by a number of Indian committees on
various ways of implementing more decentralized administration.
Open Panchayat near Narsingarh,
Madhya Pradesh ,
Mahatma Gandhi advocated
Panchayati Raj as the foundation of India's
political system, as a decentralized form of government in which each
village would be responsible for its own affairs. The term for such
a vision was Gram
Swaraj ("village self-governance"). Instead, India
developed a highly centralized form of government. However, this has
been moderated by the delegation of several administrative functions
to the local level, empowering elected gram panchayats. There are
significant differences between the traditional
Panchayati Raj system,
that was envisioned by Gandhi, and the system formalized in
In India, the Panchayati Raj now functions as a system of governance in which gram panchayats are the basic units of local administration . The system has three levels: Gram Panchayat (village level), Mandal Parishad or Block Samiti or Panchayat Samiti (block level), and Zila Parishad (district level). It was formalized in 1992 by the 73rd amendment to the Indian Constitution.
VARIOUS COMMITTEES ON PANCHAYATI RAJ:
* Balwant Rai Mehta: established 1957 * V.T. Krishnammachari: 1960 * Takhatmal Jain Study Group: 1966 * Ashok Mehta Committee: 1977 * G.V.K. Rao Committee: 1985 * Dr. L.M. Singhvi Committee: 1986
* 1 Recommendations of Balwant Rai Mehta Committee
* 2 Block level panchayat
* 2.1 Constituency * 2.2 Departments * 2.3 Functions
* 3 District level panchayat
* 3.1 Composition * 3.2 Functions * 3.3 Sources of income
* 4 Village level panchayat
* 5 Reservation for women in PRIs in
* 7 Notes and references
* 7.1 Further reading * 7.2 External links
RECOMMENDATIONS OF BALWANT RAI MEHTA COMMITTEE
The Balwant Rai Mehta Committee , headed by MP Balwantrai Mehta , was a committee appointed by the Government of India in January 1957 to examine the work of the Community Development Programme (1952) and the National Extension Service (1953), to suggest measures to improve their work. The committee's recommendation of the committee by NDC in January 1958, and this set the stage for the launching of Panchayati Raj Institutions throughout the country. The committee recommended the establishment of the scheme of ‘democratic decentralisation’, which finally came to be known as Panchayati Raj.
The Panchayat Raj system was first adopted by the state of Rajasthan
The Act aims to provide a three-tier systems of Panchayati Raj for all states having a population of over 2 million, to hold Panchayat elections regularly every five years, to provide seats reserved for scheduled castes , scheduled tribes and women; to appoint a State Finance Commission to make recommendations regarding the financial powers of the Panchayats and to constitute a District Planning Committee, to prepare a development plan draft for the district.
The Panchayats receive funds from three sources:
* Local body grants, as recommended by the Central Finance Commission * Funds for implementation of centrally sponsored schemes * Funds released by the state governments on the recommendations of the State Finance Commissions
In the history of Panchayati Raj, in India, on 24 April 1993, the
Constitutional (73rd Amendment) Act 1992 came into force to provide
constitutional status to the
Panchayati Raj institutions. This act was
extended to Panchayats in the tribal areas of eight states, namely:
BLOCK LEVEL PANCHAYAT
Panchayat Samiti (block panchayat) is a local government body at
the tehsil level. This body works for the villages of the tehsil that
together are called a "development block". The
Panchayat Samiti is the
link between the
Gram Panchayat and the district administration. Just
as the tehsil goes by other names in various parts of India, notably
mandal and taluka, there are a number of variations in nomenclature
for the block panchayat. For example, it is known as Mandal Praja
Membership in the block panchayat is mostly ex-official; it is composed of: all of the Sarpanchas (gram panchayat chairmen) in the Panchayat Samiti area, the MPs and MLAs of the area, the sub-district officer (SDO) of the subdivision, co-opt members (representatives of the SC/ST and women), associate members (a farmer from the area, a representative of the cooperative societies and one from marketing services), and some elected members.
The Panchayat Samiti is elected for a term of five years and is headed by a chairman and a deputy chairman.
The common departments in the Samiti are as follows:
* General Administration * Finance * Public Works * Agriculture * Health * Education * Social Welfare * Information Technology * Water Supply Department * Animal Husbandry and others
There is an officer for every department. A government-appointed Block Development Officer (BDO) is the executive officer to the Samiti and the chief of its administration, and is responsible for his work to the CEO of ZP.
* Implementation of schemes for the development of agriculture and infrastructure * Establishment of primary health centres and primary schools * Supply of drinking water, drainage and construction/repair of roads * Development of a cottage and small-scale industries, and the opening of cooperative societies * Establishment of youth organisations
DISTRICT LEVEL PANCHAYAT
Main article: District Councils of India
The governing of the advance system at the district level in Panchayat Raj is also popularly known as Zila Parishad. The chief of administration is an officer of the IAS cadre.
The membership varies from 40 to 60 and usually comprises- Deputy Commissioner of the District. Presidents of all Panchayat Samitis in the district, and heads of all Government Departments in the district;members of Parliament and Members of Legislative Assemblies in the district; a representative of each cooperative society ;some women and Scheduled Caste members if not adequately represented; and co-opted members having extraordinary experience and achievements in public service.
* Provide essential services and facilities to the rural population * Supply improved seeds to farmers and inform them of new farming techniques * Set up and run schools and libraries in rural areas * Start primary health centers and hospitals in villages; start vaccination drives against epidemics * Execute plans for the development of the scheduled castes and tribes; run ashram shalas for Adivasi children; set up free hostels for them * Encourage entrepreneurs to start small-scale industries and implement rural employment schemes * Construct bridges, roads and other public facilities and their maintenance * Provide employment
SOURCES OF INCOME
* Taxes collected locally such as on water, place of pilgrimage, local mandirs (temples), and markets * A fixed grant from the State Government in proportion to the land revenue and money for works and schemes assigned to the Parishes
VILLAGE LEVEL PANCHAYAT
Main article: Gram panchayat
A gram panchayat is a village level administrative body, with a Sarpanch as its elected head. The members of the gram panchayat are elected for a period of five years by the members of Gram Sabha.
RESERVATION FOR WOMEN IN PRIS IN INDIA
On August 27, 2009, the Union Cabinet of the Government of India
approved 50% reservation for women in PRIs (Panchayati Raj
Institutions). The Indian states
Panchayati Raj Day
Local self-government in India
NOTES AND REFERENCES
* ^ Mullick, Rohit & Raaj, Neelam (9 September 2007). "Panchayats turn into kangaroo courts". The Times of India. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
* ^ Sisodia, R. S. (1971). "Gandhiji's Vision of Panchayati Raj".
Panchayat Aur Insan. 3 (2): 9–10.
* ^ Sharma, Manohar Lal (1987). Gandhi and Democratic
Decentralization in India. New Delhi: Deep and Deep Publications. OCLC
17678104 . Hathi Trust copy, search only
* ^ Hardgrave, Robert L. & Kochanek, Stanley A. (2008). India:
Government and Politics in a Developing Nation (seventh ed.). Boston,
Massachusetts: Thomson/Wadsworth. p. 157. ISBN 978-0-495-00749-4 .
* ^ Singh, Vijandra (2003). "Chapter 5: Panchayate Raj and Gandhi".
Panchayati Raj and Village Development: Volume 3, Perspectives on
Panchayati Raj Administration. Studies in public administration. New
Delhi: Sarup & Sons. pp. 84–90. ISBN 978-81-7625-392-5 .
* ^ Nath, Akshaya (24 April 2015). "National
Panchayati Raj Day:
Here are few things that you need to know about Panchayati Raj".
* ^ "The Constitution (Seventy-third Amendment) Act, 1992".
Government of India. Archived from the original on 5 May 2003.
* ^ A B
* Nepal glossary, United States Library of Congress * Article 333357, zeenews.com * Article India994-07, hrw.org * Panchayati raj Recruitment, Exambuzzer.com
Subrata K. Mitra and V.B. Singh. 1999. Democracy and Social Change
in India: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the National Electorate. New
Delhi: Sage Publications. ISBN 81-7036-809-X (