The Info List - Panchala

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(Sanskrit: पञ्चाल, Pañcāla) was an ancient kingdom of northern India, located in the Ganges-Yamuna Doab
Ganges-Yamuna Doab
of the upper Gangetic plain. During Late Vedic times (c. 900-500 BCE), it was one of the most powerful states of the Indian subcontinent, closely allied with the Kuru Kingdom.[1] By the c. 5th century BCE, it had become an oligarchic confederacy, considered as one of the solasa (sixteen) mahajanapadas (major states) of the Indian subcontinent. After being absorbed into the Mauryan Empire
Mauryan Empire
(322-185 BCE), Panchala regained its independence until it was annexed by the Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
in the 4th century CE.


1 Geographical extent 2 History

2.1 Vedic period 2.2 Under Magadhan rule 2.3 Post-Mauryan period

3 See also 4 References 5 External links

Geographical extent[edit] The Panchalas occupied the country to the east of the Kurus, between the upper Himalayas and the river Ganges. It roughly corresponded to modern Budaun, Farrukhabad and the adjoining districts of Uttar Pradesh. The country was divided into Uttara- Panchala
and Dakshina-Panchala. The northern Panchala
had its capital at Ahichatra, (also known as Adhichhatra and Chhatravati, near present-day Ramnagar village in Aonla tehsil of Bareilly district), while southern Panchala had it capital at Kampilya or Kampil
in Farrukhabad district. The famous city of Kanyakubja or Kannauj
was situated in the kingdom of Panchala.[citation needed] History[edit] Vedic period[edit]


Coin of the Panchalas of Adhichhatra (75-50 BCE). Obv Indra
seated facing on pedestal, holding bifurcated object. Rev Idramitrasa in Brahmi, Panchala

Coin of Agnimitra, showing the depiction of Agni
with flaming hair on the obverse, and a reverse showing the three dynastic symbols of the Panchala
rulers and a legend naming the king: Agimitasa.

A bronze currency of ½ karshapana of King Indramitra (ca 75-50 BC?) Of Ahichatra
of Panchala. Obv: A inside a rectangle, a line of 3 symbols, under the name of the king. Rev: Indra
standing on a pedestal without pillars. Dimensions: 15 mm. Weight: 4.18 g.

Coin of Achyuta, the last Panchala
king, showing an 8-spoked wheel and the king's name: Achyu.

The Panchala
janapada is believed to have been formed by multiple janas (tribes). The Shatapatha Brahmana
Shatapatha Brahmana
suggests that Panchala
was the later name of the Krivi tribe (who, according to Rigveda, lived on the bank of the Indus river). The later Vedic literature uses the term Panchala
to describe the close associates of the Kurus. The Mahabharata
sometimes mentions the Srnjayas as a tribe or a family among the Panchalas, sometimes uses the two terms as synonyms, although it also mentions the two separately at some places. The Mahabharata
further mentions that the Panchala
country was divided into two territories: the northern Panchala
with its capital at Ahichchhatra, and the southern Panchala
with its capital at Kampilya.[2] According to the political scientist Sudama Misra, the name of the Panchala
janapada suggests that it was a fusion of five (pancha) janas (tribes).[3] H. C. Ray Chaudhuri theorized that these five clans were the Krivis, the Turvashas, the Keshins, the Srinjayas, and the Somakas.[4] Each of these clans is known to be associated with one or more princes mentioned in the Vedic[citation needed] texts - the Krivis with Kravya Panchala, the Turvashas with Sona Satrasaha, the Keshins with Keshin Dalavya, the Srinjayas with Sahadeva Sarnjaya, and the Somakas with Somaka Sahadevya. The names of the last two clans, the Somakas and the Srinjayas, are also mentioned in the Mahabharata and the Puranas. King Drupada, whose daughter Draupadi
was married into the Pandavas, belonged to the Somaka clan.[5] However, the Mahabharata
and the Puranas
consider the ruling clan of the northern Panchala
as an offshoot of the Bharata clan and Divodasa, Sudas, Srinjaya, Somaka, and Drupada
(also called Yajnasena) were the most notable rulers of this clan.[6] Under Magadhan rule[edit] Originally a monarchical clan, the Panchalas appear to have switched to republican corporation around 500 BCE. The Buddhist text Anguttara Nikaya mentions Panchala
as one of the sixteen mahajanapadas of the c. 6th century BCE.[7] The 4th century BCE Arthashastra
also attests the Panchalas as following the Rajashabdopajivin (king consul) constitution. Panchala
was annexed into the Magadha
empire during the reign of Mahapadma Nanda in the mid-4th century BCE.[8] Post-Mauryan period[edit] Numismatic evidence reveals the existence of independent rulers of Panchala
during the post-Mauryan period. Most of the coins issued by them are found at Ahichatra
and adjoining areas. All the coins are round, made of a copper alloy and have a set pattern on the obverse-a deeply incised square punch consisting of a row of three symbols and the ruler's name placed in a single line below them. The reverse bears depictions of the deities or sometimes of their attributes, whose names form a component of the issuers' names (for example, coins of Agnimitra bear the depiction of Agni). The names of the rulers found on these coins are Vangapala, Yajnapala, Damagupta, Rudragupta, Jayagupta, Suryamitra, Phalgunimitra, Bhanumitra, Bhumimitra, Dhruvamitra, Agnimitra, Indramitra, Vishnumitra, Jayamitra, Prajapatimitra, Varunamitra, Anamitra, Bhadraghosha and Yugasena (the reverse of the coins of Varunamitra, Yugasena and Anamitra do not exhibit any deity). Shaunakayaniputra Vangapala, ruler of Ahichatra, whom Vaidehiputra Ashadhasena mentioned as his grandfather in his Pabhosa inscription, is identified with king Vangapala, known from his coins. The name of Damagupta is also found on a clay sealing.[9][10] The last independent ruler of Ahichatra
was probably Achyuta, who was defeated by Samudragupta, after which, Panchala
was annexed into the Gupta Empire.[11] The coins of Achyuta found from Ahichatra
have a wheel of eight spokes on the reverse and the legend Achyu on the obverse.[12] See also[edit]

Kuru Kingdom Vedic period Painted Grey Ware culture Mahajanapadas Mahabharata


^ Witzel, Michael (1995), "Early Sanskritization: Origin and Development of the Kuru state", EJVS volume=1 issue=4 date=1995 ^ D. C. Sircar 1985, p. 1. ^ Sudama Misra 1973, p. 14. ^ Oroon K. Ghosh (1976). The Changing Indian Civilization: A Perspective on India. Minerva. ISBN 978-0-88386-502-6.  ^ Pargiter, F.E. (1972). Ancient Indian Historical Tradition, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, p.117 ^ Raychaudhuri, H.C. (1972) Political History of Ancient India, Calcutta: University of Calcutta, pp.65-8. ^ Raychaudhuri, H.C. (1972). Political History of Ancient India, Calcutta: University of Calcutta, p.85 ^ Raychaudhuri, H.C. (1972). Political History of Ancient India, Calcutta: University of Calcutta, p.206 ^ Lahiri, B. (1974). Indigenous States of Northern India
(Circa 200 B.C. to 320 A.D.) , Calcutta: University of Calcutta, pp.170-88 ^ Bhandare, S. (2006). Numismatics and History: The Maurya-Gupta Interlude in the Gangetic Plain in P. Olivelle ed. Between the Empires: Society in India
300 BCE to 400 CE, New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-568935-6, pp.76,88 ^ Raychaudhuri, H.C. (1972). Political History of Ancient India, Calcutta: University of Calcutta, p.473 ^ Lahiri, B. (1974). Indigenous States of Northern India
(Circa 200 B.C. to 320 A.D.) , Calcutta: University of Calcutta, p.182

External links[edit]

Coins of Panchala
janapada Coins of Post-Mauryan Panchala
Kingdom Panchal Details from IGNCA

Preceded by Panchala (850 BC–500 BC) Succeeded by Nanda Dynasty

v t e

Bareilly division
Bareilly division


Rohilkhand Doab Pilibhit Tiger Reserve Terai Sivalik Hills

Mythology, history

History of Bareilly Panchala Panchala
Kingdom Delhi Sultanate


Bareilly Budaun Pilbhit Shahjahanpur

Rivers, dams, lakes

Ramganga Ghaghara Gomti Sharda River

Languages, people

Hindustani English Khariboli Urdu Punjabi Bengali


Bareilly Airport Bareilly railway station National Highway 24 (India) National Highway 93 National Highway 74 Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
State Highway 37

Lok Sabha constituencies

Bareilly Badaun Aonla Pilbhit Shahjahanpur

See also

Cities and towns in Bareilly district Cities and towns in Budaun district Cities and towns in Pilibhit district Cities and towns in Shahjahanpur district Villages in Bareilly district Villages in Pilibhit district People from Budaun People from Bareilly People from Pilibhit People from Shahjahanpur

Other Divisions

Agra Aligarh Allahabad Azamgarh Basti Chitrakoot Devipatan Faizabad Gorakhpur Jhansi Kanpur Lucknow Meerut Mirzapur Moradabad Saharanpur Varanasi

Education in Bareilly Cities and towns in Bareilly district Historical regions of Rohilkhand

v t e

Tribes and kingdoms mentioned in the Mahabharata

Abhira Andhra Anarta Anga Anupa Assaka Asmaka Avanti Ay Bahlika Bhārata Chedi Chera Chola Chinas Dakshina Kosala Dakshinatya Danda Dasarna Dasharna Dasherka Dwaraka Gandhāra Garga Gomanta Gopa Rashtra Hara Huna Heheya Himalaya Huna Kanchi Kasmira Kalakuta Kalinga Kamboja Karnata Karusha Kashi Kekeya Kerala Khasa Kikata Kirata Kishkindha Konkana Kosala Kuninda Kunti Kuru Lanka Madra Madraka Magadha Maha Chinas Mahisha Malla Malava Matsya Mekhalas Mleccha Mudgala Mushika Nasikya Nepa Niharas Nishada Odra Pallava Panchala Pandya Parada Parama Kamboja Parasika Parvartaka Parvata Paurava Pishacha Pragjyotisha Pratyagratha Prasthala Pundra Pulinda Saka Salva Salveya Salwa Saraswata Saurashtra Sauvira Shakya Sindhu Sinhala Sivi Sonita Sudra Suhma Surparaka Surasena Tangana Trigarta Tulu Tushara Ursa Uttara Kuru Uttara Madra Utkala Vanga Vatadhana Vatsa Videha Vidarbha Yavana Yaudheya

v t e


Great Indian Kingdoms (c. 600 BCE–c. 300 BCE)

Anga Assaka
(Asmaka) Avanti Chedi Gandhara Kashi Kamboja Kosala Kuru Magadha Malla (Mallarashtra) Machcha
(Matsya) Panchala Surasena V