PANCASILA (pantʃaˈsila) is the official, foundational philosophical
theory of the Indonesian state. Pancasila comprises two Old Javanese
words originally derived from
Sanskrit : "pañca" ("five") and "sīla"
("principles"). Thus it is composed of five principles and contends
that they are inseparable and interrelated:
* Belief in the One and Only God (in Indonesian "Ketuhanan Yang Maha
* A just and civilized humanity (in Indonesian "Kemanusiaan Yang
Adil dan Beradab"),
* A unified
Indonesia (in Indonesian "Persatuan Indonesia"),
Democracy , led by the wisdom of the representatives of the People
(in Indonesian "Kerakyatan Yang Dipimpin oleh Hikmat Kebijaksanaan,
Dalam Permusyawaratan Perwakilan")
Social justice for all Indonesians (in Indonesian "Keadilan Sosial
bagi seluruh Rakyat Indonesia").
* 1 History
* 1.1 First Iteration of
* 1.2 Second Iteration of the Founding Fathers
* 1.3 Interpretation by the New Order Administration
* 1.4 Political
* 2 Rationale
* 2.1 Pluralism and inclusiveness
Moderation and toleration
* 3 Criticism
* 4 See also
* 5 Notes
* 6 References
* 7 External links
FIRST ITERATION OF SUKARNO
Five Pancasila symbols on Indonesian stamps (1965)
Desirous of uniting the diverse archipelago of
Indonesia into one
state in 1945, the future President
Sukarno promulgated Pancasila as
the foundational philosophical theory of the new Indonesian state (in
Indonesian ""Dasar Negara""). His political philosophy was
fundamentally an amalgamation of elements of monotheism , nationalism
, and socialism .
Sukarno consistently stated that Pancasila was a
philosophy of Indonesian indigenous origin that he developed under the
inspiration of Indonesian historical philosophical traditions,
including indigenous Indonesian, Indian Hindu, Western Christian, and
Arab Islamic traditions. "Ketuhanan" to him was originally indigenous,
while "Kemanusiaan" was derived from the Hindu concept of "Tat Twam
Asi", the Islamic concept of "fardhukifayah", and the Christian
concept of neighborly love.
Sukarno further explained that "Keadilan
sosial", i. e. social justice , was derived from the Javanese concept
of "Ratu Adil", i. e., the Just Leader, being a messianic Javanese
ruler who would liberate that people from all kinds of oppression.
Pancasila was intended to resolve contrasting Indonesian
nationalist , and
The iteration of Pancasila that
Sukarno presented on 1 June 1945 to
the Investigating Committee for Preparatory Work for Independence
(Badan Penyelidik Usaha Persiapan Kemerdekaan (BPUPK)) in a speech
titled "The Birth of the Pancasila" originally defined the Pancasila
* Kebangsaan Indonesia: Indonesian patriotism;
* Internasionalisme: Internationalism emphasizing justice and the
virtue of humanity ,
* Musyawarah Mufakat: Deliberative consensus emphasizing a form of
representative democracy in which ethnic dominance is absent and each
member of the council possesses equal voting power,
* Kesejahteraan Sosial:
Social Welfare premised on the theory of the
welfare state and emphasizing popular socialism , and
* Ketuhanan yang Maha Esa: A Divinity that is an ultimate unity" (A
formulation that can be seen as implying both monotheism or pantheism
, thereby allowing space for all of Indonesia's major religions).
SECOND ITERATION OF THE FOUNDING FATHERS
Sukarno gave the first iteration of the Pancasila in his speech of 1
June 1945 to the Investigating Committee for Preparatory Work for
Independence (BPUPK), and omitted the word "Indonesia". The
Committee of Nine (Panitia Sembilan), composed of Sukarno, Mohammad
Mohammad Yamin ,
Alexander Andries Maramis , Ahmad Subardjo,
Ki Hadikusumo, Wachid Hasyim,
Agus Salim , and Abikusno, formulated
the second iteration of the Pancasila for the
Jakarta Charter and the
Preamble of the Constitution of
Indonesia of 1945 by reordering their
original enumeration by
Sukarno thus: the fifth sila of monotheism and
religiosity was promoted as the first sila; the second sila remained,
the original first sila was re-numbered as the third sila, and the
original third and fourth sila were re-numbered as the fourth and
Sukarno accepted this proposition of the other members.
Further, the first sila of the
Jakarta Charter and the Preamble of the
Indonesia of 1945, being the first of the original
sila of Sukarno, was amended to read "Ketuhanan dengan kewajiban
Islam bagi pemeluk-pemeluknya" ("Belief in
Almighty God with the obligation for its
Muslim adherents to carry out
the Islamic law/Syari'ah"). On 18 August 1945 the BPUPK amended it
further by deleting "with the obligation for its
Muslim adherents to
carry out the Islamic law/Syari'ah" and therefore left the first sila
as simply "Ketuhanan Yang Maha Esa".
The Constitution of
Indonesia of 1945 defined the Pancasila as the
fundamental principles of the independent Indonesian state.
INTERPRETATION BY THE NEW ORDER ADMINISTRATION
Pancasila democracy endeavors to strike a balance between the
interests of the individual and those of society. It seeks to prevent
the oppression of the weak by the strong, whether by economic or
political means. Therefore, we hold that Pancasila is a
socio-religious society. Briefly its major characteristics are its
rejection of poverty, backwardness, conflicts, exploitation,
capitalism, feudalism, dictatorship, colonialism and imperialism. This
is the policy I have chosen with confidence. —
The New Order administration of
Suharto , the second President of
Indonesia, strongly supported the Pancasila. His government promoted
them as a sacrosanct national ideology that represented the ancient
wisdom of the Indonesian people pre-dating the introduction of foreign
religions such as
Islam . In a July 1982 speech which
reflected his affiliation with
Javanese beliefs ,
the Pancasila as a key to reach the perfect life ("ilmu kasampurnaning
hurip") of harmony with God and fellow men.
After initially being careful not to offend the sensitivities of
Muslim scholars who feared that the Pancasila might develop into a
quasi religious cult,
Suharto secured a parliamentary resolution in
1983, Tap MPR No. 11/1983, that obligated all organizations in
Indonesia to adhere to the Pancasila. He also instituted a mandatory
program to indoctrinate all Indonesians, from primary school students
to office workers, in the Pancasila, which program was denominated
"Penataran P4". In practice, however, the administration of Suharto
exploited the vagueness of the Pancasila to justify its acts and to
condemn opponents as "anti-Pancasila".
POLITICAL ISLAM UNDER SUHARTO
Suharto political Islamists were suppressed, and religious
Muslims carefully watched by the Indonesian government. Several
Christian Generals who served under
Suharto like Leonardus Benjamin
Moerdani actively persecuted religious Muslims in the Indonesian
military, which was described as being "anti-Islamic", denying
religious Muslims promotions, and preventing them from praying in the
barracks and banning them from even using the Islamic greeting "Salaam
Aleikum", and these anti-Islamic polices were entirely supported by
Suharto being a
Muslim himself, since he considered
Islam a threat to his power. The
Christian General Theo
Syafei, who also served under Suharto, spoke out against political
Islam coming to power in Indonesia, and insulted the Qur'an and Islam
in remarks which were described as Islamophobic.
The formulation of Pancasila took place in the mid-20th century near
the end of the
Second World War . Thus, the ideology reflects the
socio-political condition of the late colonial period in
the ensuing great war. Its concept derived and synthesized from the
ideas and ideals of Indonesia's founding fathers, most prominently
Sukarno's. The historical period that influenced Indonesia's founding
fathers, was the socio-political conditions of
Dutch East Indies in
the early 20th century all the way to the outbreak of the Second World
By the first half of 20th century, some ideologies had been
established or made their way into
Dutch East Indies includes;
imperialism and its antithesis anti-colonial nationalism , traditional
Islamism , democracy , socialism and communism .
Proponents of these ideologies had formed political organization or
party to forward their cause.
Islam was established
in 1905 followed by
Masyumi in 1943. Communist Party was established
in 1914, while Sukarno's nationalist
Indonesian National Party was
established in 1927. Favouring one ideology over another would not
satisfy the whole components of Indonesian people, thus it was decided
that the new republic need to compose a new ideology derived from
indigenous Indonesian values as well as common shared values derived
from various ideologies.
PLURALISM AND INCLUSIVENESS
Indonesia is a multicultural nation, a diverse country composed of
numbers of ethnic groups with different languages, culture, religions
and way of life. The founding fathers has decided that the state
ideology should encompass and shelter the whole spectrum of Indonesian
society, in which consensus for common good must be strived to achieve
and justice is served and satisfied. As the result, Pancasila is often
viewed as a form pluralism and moderation , a potpourri of different
ideologies, ranged from the socialist, nationalist to religiousity.
Some compromises were made during the formation of Pancasila to
satisfy elements of Indonesian society. For example, despite its
Muslim population ,
Indonesia did not adopt political
Islam nor proclaim
Islam as its official religion. Other than Islam,
Indonesia also recognizes several world religions: Christianity
(Catholicism and Protestanism),
Hinduism and Buddhism, with
Confucianism added early in the 21st century. The adoption of Bahasa
Indonesia instead of Javanese as the national language had practical
value as a lingua franca and reduced concerns about favouring the
Pancasila is believed being influenced and has borrowed some aspects
of world's values and ideologies, including nationalism , humanity ,
democracy , socialism and religiosity . The sila or principles reflect
this influence, which argues that religiosity, humanity, unity,
democracy and social justice as the shared values among Indonesians.
The need to unify this diverse country also has led to the formulation
of national motto
Bhinneka Tunggal Ika , which can be translated as
unity in diversity . It declares the essential unity of its members
despite ethnic, regional, social or religious differences.
MODERATION AND TOLERATION
In 1945, during the formation of Pancasila, there was much debate
between nationalists who called for a pluralistic state and Islamists
who wanted a religious state ruled by Islamic law or sharia . The
nation's founders chose religious tolerance. Pancasila encourage its
proponent to practice moderation and toleration , thus radicalism and
extremism are discouraged. In order to live harmoniously in a plural
society, one's membership to a religious, ethnic or social group does
not mean that they could dominate, discriminate or being prejudice in
their relations with other groups.
International Humanist and Ethical Union (IHEU) has criticized
the first sila because it does not define a right to atheism , i. e.,
a rejection of theistic belief, and enables a culture of repression
against atheists . The IHEU argued that as long as Indonesian law only
recognized the monotheistic religions of
Protestantism , and the
Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church ,
persons who did not identify with any of them, including atheists,
would "continue to experience official discrimination." Similar to
the controversy surrounding the United States
Pledge of Allegiance 's
wording, the sila has been employed as a tool to repress against
people falling outside of the government's classification system.
LGBT people are also routinely attacked under the guise
of enforcing it in the courts and in other public spheres by
organizations of all positions on the political spectrum and even by
(at the time) a sitting Supreme Court justice, Patrialis Akbar .
* National emblem of
* ^ "Pancasila Plan to Affect Foreigners". The Jakarta Globe.
Retrieved 22 September 2013.
* ^ Saafroedin Bahar et al. (1995), pp. 55-72.
* ^ Smith, Roger M. (editory) (1974). Southeast Asia: Documents of
Political Development and Change. Ithaca and London. pp. 174–83.
* ^ A B Saafroedin Bahar et al. (1995), pp. 63-84.
* ^ Kusuma (2004), p. 1.
* ^ Saafrudin Bahar et al., 1995 and Kusuma, 2004.
* ^ Saafroedin Bahar et al. (1995), p. 301.
* ^ Kusuma (2004), pp. 150-66.
Suharto to G. Dwipayana and Ramadhan K. H., in Soeharto: My
Thoughts, Words and Deeds: An Autobiography, p. 194.
* ^ A B Ken Ward. "\'2 Soeharto’s Javanese Pancasila\' in
Soeharto’s New Order and Its Legacy: Essays in Honour of Harold
Crouch, edited by Edward Aspinall and Greg Fealy ANUE Press".
Epress.anu.edu.au. Retrieved 22 September 2013. (
Harold Crouch )
* ^ http://www.trincoll.edu/depts/csrpl/rinvol3no1/east_timor.htm
* ^ A B Nanda Prasandi (25 September 2014). "Keunggulan Ideologi
* ^ "The Invention of ‘Lingua Franca’, Language and Indonesian
Nationalist Movement". Bahasa Kita. May 11, 2012.
* ^ "Bhineka Tunggal Ika". Bahasa Kita. January 29, 2011.
* ^ A B Jayshree Bajoria (7 July 2011). "Indonesia\'s view of
tolerance is a blueprint for others". The National.
* ^ "Pancasila Blasted for Repression of Atheists". The Jakarta
Globe. 11 December 2012. Retrieved 24 May 2014.
* ^ "
Muslim organization: Same-sex marriage is contrary to religion
and Pancasila Republika Online". Republika Online. Retrieved
* Department of Information, Republic of