Coordinates : 9°N 80°W / 9°N 80°W / 9; -80
Republic of Panama
_República de Panamá_ (Spanish )
Flag Coat of arms
MOTTO: "Pro Mundi Beneficio"
"For the Benefit of the World"
Himno Istmeño_ (Spanish )
Hymn of the Isthmus
and largest city
8°58′N 79°32′W / 8.967°N 79.533°W / 8.967; -79.533
* 12.3% Native
* 6.7% White
Unitary presidential constitutional republic
Juan Carlos Varela
Juan Carlos Varela
• VICE PRESIDENT
Isabel Saint Malo
• FROM SPAIN
28 November 1821
• FROM COLOMBIA
3 November 1903
74,177.3 km2 (28,640.0 sq mi)
• WATER (%)
• NOVEMBER 2016 ESTIMATE
• 2010 CENSUS
45.9/km2 (118.9/sq mi)
• PER CAPITA
• PER CAPITA
high · 37th
* Balboa (PAB )
United States dollar
United States dollar(USD )
EST (UTC −5)
DRIVES ON THE
PANAMA (/ˈpænəmɑː/ (_ listen ) PAN-ə-mah_ ; Spanish: _Panamá_
), officially called the REPUBLIC OF PANAMA (Spanish : _República de
Panamá_), is a country in
Central America. It is bordered by Costa
Rica to the west,
South America) to the southeast, the
Caribbean Seato the north and the
Pacific Oceanto the south. The
capital and largest city is
Panama City, whose metropolitan area is
home to nearly half of the country's 4 million people.
Panamawas inhabited by several indigenous tribes prior to settlement
by the Spanish in the 16th century.
Panamabroke away from
1821 and joined a union of Nueva Granada ,
Ecuador, and Venezuela
named the Republic of Gran
Colombia. When Gran
Panamaand Nueva Granada remained joined, eventually becoming
the Republic of Colombia. With the backing of the United States,
Venezuelain 1903, allowing the
Panama Canalto be
built by the
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
U.S. Army Corps of Engineersbetween 1904 and 1914. In
1977 an agreement was signed for the total transfer of the Canal from
the United States to
Panamaby the end of the 20th century, which
culminated on 31 December 1999.
Revenue from canal tolls continues to represent a significant portion
GDP, although commerce, banking, and tourism are major
and growing sectors. In 2015
Panamaranked 60th in the world in terms
Human Development Index
Human Development Index. Since 2010,
second most competitive economy in Latin America, according to the
World Economic Forum
World Economic Forum's Global Competitiveness Index. Covering around
40 percent of its land area, Panama's jungles are home to an abundance
of tropical plants and animals – some of them to be found nowhere
else on the planet.
* 1 Etymology
* 2 History
* 2.1 Pre-Columbian period
* 2.2 Conquest to 1799
* 2.2.1 1800s
* 2.3 Post-colonial
* 2.3.1 Post-1970
* 2.3.2 U.S. invasion (1989)
* 2.4 Post-intervention era
* 3 Geography
* 3.1 Waterways
* 3.2 Harbors
* 3.3 Climate
* 4 Politics
* 4.1 Political culture
* 4.2 Foreign relations
* 4.3 Military
* 4.4 Administrative divisions
* 5 Economy
* 5.1 Economic sectors
Panamaas an IFC
* 5.3 Transportation
* 5.4 Tourism
* 5.5 Currency
* 5.6 International trade
* 6 Society
* 6.1 Demographics
* 6.3 Languages
* 6.4 Largest cities
* 6.5 Religion
* 6.6 Education
* 7 Culture
* 7.1 Handicraft
* 7.2 Holidays and festivities
* 7.3 Traditional cuisine
* 7.4 Traditional clothing
* 7.5 Literature
* 7.6 Sports
* 7.7 Climate change
* 8 See also
* 9 References
* 10 Further reading
* 11 External links
There are several theories about the origin of the name "Panama".
Some believe that the country was named after a commonly found species
of tree (_
Sterculia apetala_, the
Panamatree). Others believe that
the first settlers arrived in
Panamain August, when butterflies
abound, and that the name means "many butterflies" in an indigenous
The best-known version is that a fishing village and its nearby beach
bore the name "Panamá", which meant "an abundance of fish". Captain
Antonio Tello de Guzmán, while exploring the Pacific side in 1515,
stopped in the small indigenous fishing town. In 1517 Don Gaspar De
Espinosa, a Spanish lieutenant, decided to settle a post there. In
1519 Pedrarias Dávila decided to establish the Empire's Pacific city
in this site. The new settlement replaced Santa María La Antigua del
Darién, which had lost its function within the Crown's global plan
after the beginning of the Spanish exploitation of the riches in the
Blending all of the above together,
Panamaniansbelieve in general
that the word
Panamameans "abundance of fish, trees and butterflies".
This is the official definition given in social studies textbooks
approved by the Ministry of Education in Panama. However, others
believe the word _Panama_ comes from the Kuna word "bannaba" which
means "distant" or "far away".
History of Panama
At the time of the arrival of the Spanish in the 16th century, the
known inhabitants of
Panamaincluded the Cuevas and the Coclé tribes.
These people have nearly disappeared, as they had no immunity from
European infectious diseases.
_ Amphibian Pendant_, Walters Art Museum Embera girl
dressed for a dance
Isthmus of Panama
Isthmus of Panamawas formed about three million years ago when
the land bridge between North and
South Americafinally became
complete, and plants and animals gradually crossed it in both
directions. The existence of the isthmus affected the dispersal of
people, agriculture and technology throughout the American continent
from the appearance of the first hunters and collectors to the era of
villages and cities.
The earliest discovered artifacts of indigenous peoples in Panama
include Paleo-Indian projectile points . Later central
to some of the first pottery -making in the Americas, for example the
cultures at Monagrillo , which date back to 2500–1700 BC. These
evolved into significant populations best known through their
spectacular burials (dating to c. 500–900 AD) at the Monagrillo
archaeological site , and their beautiful
Gran Cocléstyle polychrome
pottery . The monumental monolithic sculptures at the Barriles
(Chiriqui) site are also important traces of these ancient isthmian
Before Europeans arrived
Panamawas widely settled by
Chocoan, and Cueva peoples. The largest group were the Cueva (whose
specific language affiliation is poorly documented). The size of the
indigenous population of the isthmus at the time of European
colonization is uncertain. Estimates range as high as two million
people, but more recent studies place that number closer to 200,000.
Archaeological finds and testimonials by early European explorers
describe diverse native isthmian groups exhibiting cultural variety
and suggesting people developed by regular regional routes of
Panamawas colonized, the indigenous peoples fled into the
forest and nearby islands. Scholars believe that infectious disease
was the primary cause of the population decline of American natives.
The indigenous peoples had no acquired immunity to diseases which had
been chronic in Eurasian populations for centuries.
CONQUEST TO 1799
Vasco Núñez de Balboa, a recognized and popular figure of
Panamanian history "New Caledonia", the ill-fated Scottish
Darien schemecolony in the Bay of Caledonia, west of the Gulf of
Rodrigo de Bastidassailed westward from
Venezuelain 1501 in search
of gold, and became the first European to explore the isthmus of
Panama. A year later,
Christopher Columbusvisited the isthmus, and
established a short-lived settlement in the Darien . Vasco Núñez de
Balboa 's tortuous trek from the Atlantic to the Pacific in 1513
demonstrated that the isthmus was, indeed, the path between the seas,
Panamaquickly became the crossroads and marketplace of Spain's
empire in the
New World. Gold and silver were brought by ship from
South America, hauled across the isthmus, and loaded aboard ships for
Spain. The route became known as the Camino Real, or Royal Road,
although it was more commonly known as Camino de Cruces (Road of
Crosses) because of the number of gravesites along the way.
Panamawas under Spanish rule for almost 300 years (1538–1821), and
became part of the
Viceroyalty of Peru
Viceroyalty of Peru, along with all other Spanish
possessions in South America. From the outset, Panamanian identity was
based on a sense of "geographic destiny", and Panamanian fortunes
fluctuated with the geopolitical importance of the isthmus. The
colonial experience also spawned Panamanian nationalism as well as a
racially complex and highly stratified society, the source of internal
conflicts that ran counter to the unifying force of nationalism.
In 1538 the Real Audiencia de
Panamawas established, initially with
Cape Hornbefore the conquest of Peru.
A Real Audiencia (royal audiencia) was a judicial district that
functioned as an appeals court. Each audiencia had an _oidor _
(Spanish: hearer, a judge).
Spanish authorities had little control over much of the territory of
Panama. Large sections managed to resist conquest and missionization
until very late in the colonial era. Because of this, indigenous
people of the area were often referred to as "indios de guerra" (war
Indians) and resisted Spanish attempts to conquer them or missionize
Panamawas enormously important to
because it was the easiest way to transship silver mined in Peru to
Europe. Silver cargoes were landed at
Panamaand then taken overland
to Portobello or Nombre de Dios on the Caribbean side of the isthmus
for further shipment.
Because of the incomplete Spanish control, the
vulnerable to attack from pirates (mostly Dutch and English), and from
'new world' Africans called cimarrons who had freed themselves from
enslavement and lived in communes or palenques around the Camino Real
in Panama's Interior, and on some of the islands off Panama's Pacific
coast. One such famous community amounted to a small kingdom under
Bayano, which emerged in the 1552 to 1558. Sir
famous raids on
Panamain 1572–73 and
John Oxenham's crossing to
Pacific Oceanwere aided by
Panamacimarrons, and Spanish
authorities were only able to bring them under control by making an
alliance with them that guaranteed their freedom in exchange for
military support in 1582.
The prosperity enjoyed during the first two centuries (1540–1740)
while contributing to colonial growth; the placing of extensive
regional judicial authority (Real Audiencia) as part of its
jurisdiction; and the pivotal role it played at the height of the
Spanish Empire– the first modern global empire – helped define a
distinctive sense of autonomy and of regional or national identity
Panamawell before the rest of the colonies.
The end of the encomienda system in Azuero , however, sparked the
Veraguasin that same year. Under the leadership of
Francisco Vázquez, the region of
Veraguaspassed into Castilian rule
in 1558. In the newly conquered region, the old system of encomienda
was imposed. On the other hand, the Panamanian movement for
independence can be indirectly attributed to the abolition of the
encomienda system in the
Azuero Peninsula, set forth by the Spanish
Crown, in 1558 because of repeated protests by locals against the
mistreatment of the native population. In its stead, a system of
medium and smaller-sized landownership was promoted, thus taking away
the power from the large landowners and into the hands of medium and
Panamawas the site of the ill-fated
Darien scheme, which set up a
Scottish colony in the region in 1698. This failed for a number of
reasons, and the ensuing debt contributed to the union of England and
Scotland in 1707.
In 1671, the privateer
Henry Morgan, licensed by the English
government, sacked and burned the city of
Panama– the second most
important city in the Spanish
New Worldat the time. In 1717 the
viceroyalty of New Granada (northern South America) was created in
response to other Europeans trying to take Spanish territory in the
Caribbean region. The
Isthmus of Panama
Isthmus of Panamawas placed under its
jurisdiction. However, the remoteness of New Granada's capital, Santa
Fe de Bogotá (the modern capital of
Colombia) proved a greater
obstacle than the Spanish crown anticipated as the authority of New
Granada was contested by the seniority, closer proximity, and previous
ties to the viceroyalty of Lima and even by Panama's own initiative.
This uneasy relationship between
Panamaand Bogotá would persist for
In 1744 Bishop Francisco Javier de Luna Victoria DeCastro established
the College of San Ignacio de Loyola and on June 3, 1749, founded La
Real y Pontificia Universidad de San Javier. By this time, however,
Panama's importance and influence had become insignificant as Spain's
power dwindled in Europe and advances in navigation technique
increasingly permitted to round
Cape Hornin order to reach the
Pacific. While the
Panamaroute was short it was also labor-intensive
and expensive because of the loading and unloading and laden-down trek
required to get from the one coast to the other.
During the last half of the 18th century and the first half of the
19th century, migrations to the countryside decreased
population and the isthmus' economy shifted from the tertiary to the
Santo Domingo Church
Spanish American wars of independence
Spanish American wars of independencewere heating up all
across Latin America,
Panama Citywas preparing for independence;
however, their plans were accelerated by the unilateral Grito de La
Villa de Los Santos (Cry From the Town of Saints), issued on November
10, 1821, by the residents of Azuero without backing from
to declare their separation from the Spanish Empire. In both Veraguas
and the capital this act was met with disdain, although on differing
levels. To Veraguas, it was the ultimate act of treason, while to the
capital, it was seen as inefficient and irregular, and furthermore
forced them to accelerate their plans.
Nevertheless, the Grito was an event that shook the isthmus to its
very core. It was a sign, on the part of the residents of Azuero, of
their antagonism toward the independence movement in the capital.
Those in the capital region in turn regarded the Azueran movement with
contempt, since the separatists in
Panama Citybelieved that their
counterparts in Azuero were fighting not only for independence from
Spain, but also for their right to self-rule apart from
once the Spaniards were gone.
It was an incredibly brave move on the part of Azuero, which lived in
fear of Colonel José Pedro Antonio de Fábrega y de las Cuevas
(1774–1841), and with good reason. The Colonel was a staunch
loyalist and had all of the isthmus' military supplies in his hands.
They feared quick retaliation and swift retribution against the
What they had counted on, however, was the influence of the
separatists in the capital. Ever since October 1821, when the former
Governor General, Juan de la Cruz Murgeón, left the isthmus on a
campaign in Quito and left the Veraguan colonel in charge, the
separatists had been slowly converting Fábrega to the separatist
side. So, by November 10, Fábrega was now a supporter of the
independence movement. Soon after the separatist declaration of Los
Santos, Fábrega convened every organization in the capital with
separatist interests and formally declared the city's support for
independence. No military repercussions occurred because of the
skillful bribing of royalist troops.
See also: Panama–
Panamanian general election, 1968; and
History of Panama(1964–77)
Theodore Rooseveltsitting on a steam shovel at
In the first 80 years following independence from Spain,
department of Colombia, after voluntarily joining it at the end of
The people of the isthmus made several attempts to secede and came
close to success in 1831, and again during the Thousand Days\' War of
Thousand Days' Waris understood among indigenous
Panamaniansas a struggle for land rights under the leadership of
The US intention to influence the area, especially the
's construction and control, led to the separation of
Colombiain 1903 and its establishment as a nation. When the Senate of
Hay–Herrán Treatyon January 22, 1903, the
United States decided then to support and encouraged the Panamanian
In November 1903
Panamaproclaimed its independence and concluded
Hay–Bunau-Varilla Treatywith the United States. The treaty
granted rights to the United States "as if it were sovereign" in a
zone roughly 16 km (10 mi) wide and 80 km (50 mi) long. In that zone,
the U.S. would build a canal, then administer, fortify, and defend it
"in perpetuity". Construction work on the
Gaillard Cutof the
In 1914 the United States completed the existing 83-kilometre-long
From 1903 to 1968,
Panamawas a constitutional democracy dominated by
a commercially oriented oligarchy . During the 1950s, the Panamanian
military began to challenge the oligarchy's political hegemony. The
early 1960s saw also the beginning of sustained pressure in
the renegotiation of the Hay–Bunau-Varilla Treaty.
Amid negotiations for the Robles–Johnson treaty,
elections in 1968. The candidates were
Arnulfo AriasMadrid, Unión Nacional ("National Union")
* Antonio González Revilla, Democracia Cristiana ("Christian
* engineer David Samudio, Alianza del Pueblo ("People's Alliance")
who had the government's support.
(see Pizzurno Gelós and Araúz, Estudios sobre el Panamá
Arias Madrid was declared the winner of elections that were marked by
violence and accusations of fraud against Alianza del Pueblo. On
October 1, 1968, Arias Madrid took office as president of Panama,
promising to lead a government of "national union" that would end the
reigning corruption and pave the way for a new Panama. A week and a
half later, on October 11, 1968, the National Guard (Guardia Nacional)
ousted Arias and initiated the downward spiral that would culminate
with the United States' invasion in 1989. Arias, who had promised to
respect the hierarchy of the National Guard, broke the pact and
started a large restructuring of the Guard. To preserve the Guard's
interests, Lieutenant Colonel
Omar TorrijosHerrera and Major Boris
Martínez commanded the first military coup against a civilian
government in Panamanian republican history.
The military justified itself by declaring that Arias Madrid was
trying to install a dictatorship, and promised a return to
constitutional rule. In the meantime, the Guard began a series of
populist measures that would gain support for the coup. Among them
* Price freezing on food, medicine and other goods until January
* rent level freeze
* legalization of the permanence of squatting families in boroughs
surrounding the historic site of
Parallel to this, the military began a policy of repression against
the opposition, who were labeled communists. The military appointed a
Provisional Government Junta that was to arrange new elections.
However, the National Guard would prove to be very reluctant to
abandon power and soon began calling itself El Gobierno Revolucionario
("The Revolutionary Government").
Omar Torrijos(right) with farmers in the Panamanian
countryside. The Torrijos government was well known for its policies
of land redistribution .
This section RELIES LARGELY OR ENTIRELY ON A SINGLE SOURCE .
Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page . Please help
improve this article by introducing citations to additional sources.
Omar Torrijos's control, the military regime transformed the
political and economic structure of the country by initiating massive
coverage of social security services and expanding public education.
The constitution was changed in 1972. For the reform to the
constitution, the military created a new organization, the Assembly of
Corregimiento Representatives, which replaced the National Assembly.
The new assembly, also known as the Poder Popular ("Power of the
People"), was composed of 505 members selected by the military with no
participation from political parties, which the military had
eliminated. The new constitution proclaimed
Omar Torrijosthe "Maximum
Leader of the Panamanian Revolution", and conceded him unlimited power
for six years, although, to keep a façade of constitutionality,
Demetrio B. Lakaswas appointed president for the same period
(Pizzurno Gelós and Araúz, _Estudios sobre el Panamá republicano_
In 1981 Torrijos died in a mysterious plane crash. Torrijos' death
altered the tone of Panama's political evolution. Despite the 1983
constitutional amendments, which proscribed a political role for the
PanamaDefense Forces (PDF), as they were then known,
continued to dominate Panamanian political life. By this time, General
Manuel Antonio Noriega was firmly in control of both the PDF and the
civilian government. U.S. President
Jimmy Cartershakes hands
Omar Torrijosafter signing the
Panama CanalTreaties .
In the 1984 elections, the candidates were
Nicolás Ardito Barletta Vallarino, supported by the military in
a union called UNADE
Arnulfo AriasMadrid, for the opposition union ADO
Rubén Darío Paredes, who had been forced to an early
retirement by Noriega, running for Partido Nacionalista Popular PNP
("Popular Nationalist Party")
* Carlos Iván Zúñiga, running for Partido Acción Popular (PAPO)
meaning "Popular Action Party"
Barletta was declared the winner of elections that had been clearly
won by Madrid. Ardito Barletta inherited a country in economic ruin
and hugely indebted to the
International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fundand the World
Bank . Amid the economic crisis and Barletta's efforts to calm the
country's creditors, street protests arose, and so did military
Meanwhile, Noriega's regime had fostered a well-hidden criminal
economy that operated as a parallel source of income for the military
and their allies, providing revenues from drugs and money laundering .
Toward the end of the military dictatorship, a new wave of Chinese
migrants arrived on the isthmus in the hope of migrating to the United
States. The smuggling of Chinese became an enormous business, with
revenues of up to 200 million dollars for Noriega's regime (see Mon
The military dictatorship, at that time supported by the United
States, perpetrated the assassination and torture of more than one
Panamaniansand forced at least a hundred more dissidents into
exile. (see Zárate 15). Noriega also began playing a double role in
Central Americaunder the supervision of the CIA. While the Contadora
group conducted diplomatic efforts to achieve peace in the region,
Noriega supplied Nicaraguan
Contrasand other guerrillas in the region
with weapons and ammunition.
On June 6, 1987, the recently retired Colonel Roberto Díaz Herrera,
resentful that Noriega's broke the agreed "Torrijos Plan" of
succession that would have made him the chief of the military after
Noriega, decided to denounce the regime. He revealed details of the
electoral fraud, accused Noriega of planning Torrijos's death and
declared that Torrijos had received 12 million dollars from the Shah
of Iran for giving the exiled Iranian leader asylum. He also accused
Noriega of the assassination by decapitation of then opposition leader
On the night of June 9, 1987, the Cruzada Civilista ("Civic Crusade")
was created and began organizing actions of civil disobedience. The
Crusade called for a general strike. In response, the military
suspended constitutional rights and declared a state of emergency in
the country. On July 10, the Civic Crusade called for a massive
demonstration that was violently repressed by the "Dobermans", the
military's special riot control unit. That day, later known as El
Viernes Negro ("Black Friday"), left six hundred people injured and
another six hundred detained, many of whom were later tortured and
United States President
Ronald Reaganbegan a series of sanctions
against the military regime.
The United States
The United Statesfroze economic and
military assistance to
Panamain the middle of 1987 in response to the
domestic political crisis in
Panamaand an attack on the U.S. Embassy.
Yet these sanctions did little to overthrow Noriega but instead
severely damaged Panama's economy. The sanctions hit the Panamanian
population hard and caused the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) to decline
almost 25% between 1987–1989 (see Acosta n.p.).
On February 5, 1988, General Manuel Antonio Noriega was accused of
drug trafficking by federal juries in Tampa and Miami.
In April 1988, the U.S. President
Ronald Reaganinvoked the
International Emergency Economic Powers Act, freezing Panamanian
government assets in all U.S. organizations. In May 1989 Panamanians
voted overwhelmingly for the anti-Noriega candidates. The Noriega
regime promptly annulled the election and embarked on a new round of
repression. The aftermath of urban warfare during the U.S.
U.S. Invasion (1989)
United States invasion of Panama
United States invasion of Panama
The United States
The United Statesgovernment said
Operation Just Cause
Operation Just Cause, which
commenced on December 20, 1989, was "necessary to safeguard the lives
of U.S. citizens in Panama, defend democracy and human rights, combat
drug trafficking, and secure the neutrality of the
required by the
Torrijos–Carter Treaties" (_New York Times_, A
Transcript of President Bush's Address n.p.). Human Rights Watch
wrote in the 1989 report: "Washington turned a blind eye to abuses in
Panamafor many years until concern over drug trafficking prompted
indictments of the general by two grand juries in Florida in February
1988". The U.S. reported 23 servicemen killed and 324 wounded, with
Panamanian casualties estimated around 450. Described as a surgical
maneuver, the action led to civilian deaths whose estimated numbers
range from 400 to 4,000 during the two weeks of armed activities. This
surgical maneuver represented the largest United States military
operation to that date since the end of the Vietnam War (Cajar Páez
22) The United Nations put the Panamanian civilian death toll at 500,
while other sources had higher statistics. The number of U.S.
civilians (and their dependents), who had worked for the
Commission and the U.S. Military, and were killed by the Panamanian
Defense Forces, has never been fully disclosed.
On December 29, the UN General Assembly approved a resolution calling
the intervention in
Panamaa "flagrant violation of international law
and of the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of the
States". A similar resolution was vetoed in the Security Council by
the United States, the United Kingdom, and France.
The urban population, with many living below the poverty level, was
greatly affected by the 1989 intervention. As pointed out in 1995 by a
UN Technical Assistance Mission to Panama, the bombardments during the
invasion caused the displacement of 20,000 people. The most heavily
affected district was impoverished
El Chorrillo, where several blocks
of apartments were completely destroyed.
El Chorrillohad been built
in days of Canal construction, a series of wooden barracks which
easily caught fire under the United States attack. The economic
damage caused by the intervention has been estimated to be between 1.5
and 2 billion dollars. n.p. Most
The skyline of
Panama's Electoral Tribunal moved quickly to restore the civilian
constitutional government, reinstated the results of the May 1989
election on December 27, 1989, and confirmed the victory of President
Guillermo Endaraand Vice Presidents Guillermo Ford and Ricardo Arias
During its five-year term, the often-fractious government struggled
to meet the public's high expectations. Its new police force was a
major improvement over its predecessor but was not fully able to deter
Ernesto Pérez Balladareswas sworn in as President on
September 1, 1994, after an internationally monitored election
Perez Balladares ran as the candidate for a three-party coalition
dominated by the
Democratic Revolutionary Party(PRD), the erstwhile
political arm of military dictatorships. Perez Balladares worked
skillfully during the campaign to rehabilitate the PRD's image,
emphasizing the party's populist Torrijos roots rather than its
association with Noriega. He won the election with only 33% of the
vote when the major non-PRD forces splintered into competing factions.
His administration carried out economic reforms and often worked
closely with the U.S. on implementation of the Canal treaties.
On September 1, 1999,
Mireya Moscoso, the widow of former President
Arnulfo AriasMadrid , took office after defeating PRD candidate
Martin Torrijos, son of
Omar Torrijos, in a free and fair election.
During her administration, Moscoso attempted to strengthen social
programs, especially for child and youth development, protection, and
general welfare. Moscoso's administration successfully handled the
Panama Canaltransfer and was effective in the administration of the
Martin Torrijoswon the presidency and a legislative
majority in the National Assembly in 2004. Torrijos ran his campaign
on a platform of, among other pledges, a "zero tolerance" for
corruption, a problem endemic to the Moscoso and Perez Balladares
administrations. After taking office, Torrijos passed a number of laws
which made the government more transparent. He formed a National
Anti-Corruption Council whose members represented the highest levels
of government and civil society, labor organizations, and religious
leadership. In addition, many of his closest Cabinet ministers were
non-political technocrats known for their support for the Torrijos
government's anti-corruption aims. Despite the Torrijos
administration's public stance on corruption, many high-profile cases,
particularly involving political or business elites, were never acted
Conservative supermarket magnate
Ricardo Martinelliwas elected to
Martin Torrijoswith a landslide victory in the May 2009
presidential election. Mr. Martinelli's business credentials drew
voters worried by slowing growth due to the world financial crisis.
Standing for the four-party opposition Alliance for Change, Mr.
Martinelli gained 60% of the vote, against 37% for the candidate of
the governing left-wing Democratic Revolutionary Party.
On May 4, 2014,
Juan Carlos Varela
Juan Carlos Varelawon the 2014 presidential election
with over 39% of the votes, against the party of his former political
partner Ricardo Martinelli, Cambio Democrático, and their candidate
José Domingo Arias. He was sworn in on July 1, 2014
A map of
Panama Main article:
Geography of Panama La
Panamais located in Central America, bordering both the Caribbean
Sea and the Pacific Ocean, between
Colombiaand Costa Rica. It mostly
lies between latitudes 7° and 10°N , and longitudes 77° and 83°W
(a small area lies west of 83°).
Its location on the
Isthmus of Panama
Isthmus of Panamais strategic. By 2000, Panama
Panama Canalwhich connects the Atlantic Ocean and the
Caribbean Seato the North of the Pacific Ocean. Panama's total area
is 74,177.3 km2.
The dominant feature of Panama's geography is the central spine of
mountains and hills that forms the continental divide. The divide does
not form part of the great mountain chains of North America, and only
near the Colombian border are there highlands related to the Andean
system of South America. The spine that forms the divide is the highly
eroded arch of an uplift from the sea bottom, in which peaks were
formed by volcanic intrusions.
The mountain range of the divide is called the Cordillera de
Talamanca near the Costa Rican border. Farther east it becomes the
Serranía de Tabasará, and the portion of it closer to the lower
saddle of the isthmus, where the
Panama Canalis located, is often
called the Sierra de Veraguas. As a whole, the range between Costa
Rica and the canal is generally referred to by geographers as the
Cordillera Central .
The highest point in the country is the
Volcán Barú, which rises
to 3,475 metres (11,401 feet). A nearly impenetrable jungle forms the
Colombiawhere Colombian guerrilla and
drug dealers are operating with hostage-taking . This and forest
protection movements create a break in the
which otherwise forms a complete road from
Panama's wildlife holds the most diversity of all the countries in
Central America. It is home to many South American species as well as
North American wildlife. The
Nearly 500 rivers lace Panama's rugged landscape. Mostly unnavigable,
many originate as swift highland streams, meander in valleys, and form
coastal deltas. However, the
Río Chagres(_Chagres River_), located
in central Panama, is one of the few wide rivers and a source of
enormous hydroelectric power. The central part of the river is dammed
Gatun Damand forms
Gatun Lake, an artificial lake that
constitutes part of the
Panama Canal. The lake was created between
1907 and 1913 by the building of the
Gatun Damacross the Río
Chagres. When it was created,
Gatun Lakewas the largest man-made lake
in the world, and the dam was the largest earth dam. The river drains
northwest into the Caribbean. The Kampia and Madden Lakes (also filled
from the Río Chagres) provide hydroelectricity for the area of the
former Canal Zone.
The Río Chepo, another source of hydroelectric power, is one of the
more than 300 rivers emptying into the Pacific. These Pacific-oriented
rivers are longer and slower running than those of the Caribbean side.
Their basins are also more extensive. One of the longest is the Río
Tuira , which flows into the
Golfo de San Migueland is the nation's
only river navigable by larger vessels.
The Caribbean coastline is marked by several good natural harbors.
However, Cristóbal, at the Caribbean terminus of the canal, had the
only important port facilities in the late 1980s. The numerous islands
of the Archipiélago de Bocas del Toro, near the Beaches of Costa
Rica, provide an extensive natural roadstead and shield the banana
Almirante. The over 350
San Blas Islands, near Colombia, are
strung out for more than 160 kilometres (99 miles) along the sheltered
Caribbean coastline. Colón Harbor , 2000
Currently, the terminal ports located at each end of the Panama
Canal, namely the Port of Cristobal and the Port of Balboa, are ranked
second and third respectively in Latin America in terms of numbers of
containers units (TEU ) handled. The Port of Balboa covers 182
hectares and contains four berths for containers and two multi-purpose
berths. In total, the berths are over 2,400 metres (7,900 feet) long
with alongside depth of 15 metres (49 feet). The Port of Balboa has 18
Panamaxquay cranes and 44 gantry cranes. The
Port of Balboa also contains 2,100 square metres (23,000 square feet )
of warehouse space.
The Ports of Cristobal (encompassing the container terminals of
PanamaPorts Cristobal, Manzanillo International Terminal and Colon
Container Terminal) handled 2,210,720 TEU in 2009, second only to the
Port of Santos, Brazil, in Latin America.
Excellent deep water ports capable of accommodating large
Large Crude Oil Carriers) are located at
Charco Azul, Chiriquí
Chiriquí Grande, Bocas del Toro (Atlantic) near
Panama's western border with Costa Rica. The
running across the isthmus with a length of 131 kilometres (81 miles),
has been operating between
Climate of Panama
Panamamap of Köppen climate
classification. A cooler climate is common in the Panamanian
Panamahas a tropical climate. Temperatures are uniformly high—as
is the relative humidity—and there is little seasonal variation.
Diurnal ranges are low; on a typical dry-season day in the capital
city, the early morning minimum may be 24 °C (75.2 °F) and the
afternoon maximum 30 °C (86.0 °F). The temperature seldom exceeds 32
°C (89.6 °F) for more than a short time. Temperatures on the Pacific
side of the isthmus are somewhat lower than on the Caribbean, and
breezes tend to rise after dusk in most parts of the country.
Temperatures are markedly cooler in the higher parts of the mountain
ranges, and frosts occur in the
Cordillera de Talamancain western
Climatic regions are determined less on the basis of temperature than
on rainfall, which varies regionally from less than 1,300 millimeters
(51.2 in) to more than 3,000 millimeters (118.1 in) per year. Almost
all of the rain falls during the rainy season, which is usually from
April to December, but varies in length from seven to nine months. In
general, rainfall is much heavier on the Caribbean than on the Pacific
side of the continental divide. The annual average in
little more than half of that in Colón. Although rainy-season
thunderstorms are common, the country is outside the hurricane belt.
Panama's tropical environment supports an abundance of plants.
Forests dominate, interrupted in places by grasslands, scrub, and
crops. Although nearly 40% of
Panamais still wooded, deforestation is
a continuing threat to the rain-drenched woodlands. Tree cover has
been reduced by more than 50% since the 1940s. Subsistence farming,
widely practiced from the northeastern jungles to the southwestern
grasslands, consists largely of corn, bean, and tuber plots. Mangrove
swamps occur along parts of both coasts, with banana plantations
occupying deltas near Costa Rica. In many places, a multi-canopied
rain forest abuts the swamp on one side of the country and extends to
the lower reaches of slopes in the other.
Politics of Panama
Politics of Panama The National Assembly of
Panama's politics take place in a framework of a presidential
representative democratic republic, whereby the
President of Panama
President of Panamais
both head of state and head of government , and of a multi-party
Executive poweris exercised by the government. Legislative
power is vested in both the government and the National Assembly . The
judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.
For all people national elections are universal and mandatory for all
citizens 18 years and older. National elections for the executive and
legislative branches take place every five years. Members of the
judicial branch (justices) are appointed by the head of state.
Panama's National Assembly is elected by proportional representation
in fixed electoral districts, so many smaller parties are represented.
Presidential elections do not require a simple majority; out of the
four last presidents only one, incumbent president Ricardo Martinelli,
was elected with over 50% of the popular vote.
Since the end of
Manuel Noriega's military dictatorship in 1989,
Panamahas successfully completed four peaceful transfers of power to
opposing political factions. The political landscape is dominated by
two major parties and many smaller parties, many of which are driven
by individual leaders more than ideologies. Former President Martin
Torrijos is the son of general
Omar Torrijos. He succeeded Mireya
Moscoso , the widow of
Arnulfo Arias. Panama's most recent national
elections occurred on May 4, 2014 with Incumbent Vice-President Juan
Carlos Varela declared the victor.
Foreign relations of Panama Panama's
Juan Carlos Varela
Juan Carlos Varelaand Vice President
Isabel Saint Malowith
former U.S. Secretary of State
The United States
The United Statescooperates with the Panamanian government in
promoting economic, political, security, and social development
through U.S. and international agencies. Cultural ties between the two
countries are strong, and many
Panamanianscome to the United States
for higher education and advanced training.
Panamanian Public Forces
Panamanian Public Forcesare the national security forces of
Panamais the second country in Latin America (the other being
Costa Rica) to permanently abolish standing armies.
armed police and security forces, and small air and maritime forces.
They are tasked with law enforcement and can perform limited military
Bocas del Toro Coclé Colón Chiriquí Darién Herrera Los
Santos Panamá West Panamá
Guna Yala Comarca
Ngäbe-Buglé Comarca Kuna
Kuna de Wargandí Main article: Provinces and regions
Panamais divided into ten provinces with their respective local
authorities (governors), which are divided into districts and
_corregimientos_ (townships). Also, there are five _Comarcas_
(literally: "Shires") populated by a variety of indigenous groups.
* Bocas del Toro
* Los Santos
* West Panamá
Kuna de Madugandí
Kuna de Wargandí
Economy of Panama
This article needs to be UPDATED. Please update this article to
reflect recent events or newly available information. (May 2016)_
Panamaxship in transit through the Miraflores locks, Panama
According to the
CIA World Factbook
CIA World Factbook, as of 2012
unemployment rate of 2.7%. A food surplus was registered in August
2008. On the
Human Development Index
Human Development Index,
Panamaranked 60th in 2015. In
recent years, Panama's economy has experienced a boom, with growth in
real gross domestic product (GDP) averaging over 10.4% in the
2006–2008 period. Panama's economy has been among the fastest
growing and best managed in Latin America. The Latin Business
Chronicle predicted that
Panamawould be the fastest growing economy
in Latin America during the five years period 2010–14, matching
Brazil's 10% rate.
The expansion project on the
Panama Canaland the free trade
agreement with the United States are expected to boost and extend
economic expansion for some time.
Despite Panama's upper-middle per capita GDP, it remains a country of
stark contrasts. Perpetuated by dramatic educational disparities, over
25% of Panama's population lived in national poverty in 2013 and 3% of
the population lives in extreme poverty, according to latest reports
World Bank. The Marine bridge viaduct
Panama's economy, because of its key geographic location, is mainly
based on a well developed service sector especially commerce, tourism,
and trading. The handover of the Canal and military installations by
the United States has given rise to large construction projects.
A project to build of a third set of locks for the
Panama CanalA was
overwhelmingly approved in referendum (with low voter turnout,
however) on October 22, 2006. The official estimated cost of the
project is US$5.25 billion. The canal is of major economic importance
because it provides millions of dollars of toll revenue to the
national economy and provides massive employment. Transfer of control
of the Canal to the Panamanian government completed in 1999, after
being controlled by the US for 85 years.
Copper and gold deposits are being developed by foreign investors, to
the dismay of some environmental groups, as all of the projects are
located within protected areas.
PANAMA AS AN IFC
Panama as a tax haven
Since the early
Panamahas built, thanks to the
revenues of the canal, the largest International Financial Center
(IFC) in the
Central Americaregion, with consolidated assets
representing more than three times Panama’s GDP. The banking sector
employs more than 24,000 people directly. Financial intermediation
contributed 9.3 percent of GDP. Stability has been a key strength to
Panamafinancial sector, which has benefited from the country's
favorable economic and business climate. The banking institutions have
continued to report sound growth and solid financial earnings. The
banking supervisory regime is largely compliant with the Basel Core
Principles for Effective Banking Supervision. As an international
Panamaexports its services mainly to Central and
Latin America and is a fundamental part of the connectivity of the
Panamahad a reputation worldwide for being a tax haven but have
agreed for enhanced transparency especially since the release in 2016
Panama Papers. Significant progress have been made to improve
full compliance to anti-money laundering recommendations.
removed from the FATFGAFI gray list in February 2016. However efforts
remain to be made, the IMF repeatedly mentions the need to strengthen
financial transparency and fiscal structure.
Tocumen International Airport
Tocumen International Airport, Central America's largest
airport Main article:
Transport in Panama
Panamais home to
Tocumen International Airport
Tocumen International Airport, Central America's
largest airport. Additionally there are more than 20 smaller airfields
in the country. See list of airports in
Panama's roads, traffic and transportation systems are generally
safe, though night driving is difficult and in many cases, restricted
by local authorities. This usually occurs in informal settlements.
Panamamoves on the right, and Panamanian law requires that
drivers and passengers wear seat belts. Highways are generally
well-developed for a Latin American country.
Panamahas modern buses known as Metrobuses, along with a
Metro line. Formerly, the system was dominated by colorfully painted
_diablos rojos_, with some remaining. A _diablo rojo_ is usually
"customized" or painted with bright colors, usually depicting famous
actors, politicians or singers.
PanamaCity's streets experience
frequent traffic jams due to poor planning for the now extensive
private vehicle fleet.
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Panama Cityas seen from the Corredor Sur highway.
Tourism in Panamais rapidly growing. It has maintained its growth
over the past five years due to government tax and price discounts to
foreign guests and retirees. These economic incentives have caused
Panamato be regarded as a relatively good place to retire in the
world. Real estate developers in
Panamahave increased the number of
tourism destinations in the past five years because of the interest
for these visitor incentives. 2,200,000 tourists arrived in 2012.
The number of tourists from Europe grew by 23.1% during the first
nine months of 2008. According to the Tourism Authority of Panama
(ATP), from January to September, 71,154 tourists from Europe entered
Panama, which is 13,373 more than figures for same period the previous
year. Most of the European tourists were Spaniards (14,820), followed
by Italians (13,216), French (10,174) and British (8,833). There were
6997 from Germany, the most populous country in the European Union.
Europe has become one of the key markets to promote
In 2012, 4.345.5 million entered into the Panamanian economy as a
result of tourism. This accounted for 9.5% of gross domestic product
in the country, surpassing other productive sectors.
Fortifications on the Caribbean Side of Panama: Portobelo-San Lorenzo
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Siteby
Panamaenacted Law No. 80 in 2012 for the promotion of foreign
investment in tourism. Law 80 replaced an older Law 8 of 1994. Law 80
provides 100% exemption from income tax and real estate taxes for 15
years, duty-free imports for construction materials and equipment for
five years, and capital gains tax exemption for five years.
The Panamanian currency is officially the balboa , fixed at a rate of
1:1 with the
United States dollar
United States dollarsince Panamanian independence in
1903. In practice
Panamais dollarized : US dollars are legal tender
and used for all paper currency, while
Panamahas its own coinage.
Because of the tie to US dollars,
Panamahas traditionally had low
inflation. According to the Economic Commission for Latin American and
the Caribbean, Panama's inflation in 2006 was 2.0% as measured by
Consumer Price Index
Consumer Price Index(CPI).
The balboa replaced the
Colombian pesoin 1904 after Panama's
independence. Balboa banknotes were printed in 1941 by President
Arnulfo Arias. They were recalled several days later, giving them the
name "The Seven Day Dollar". The notes were burned by the new
government, but occasionally balboa notes can be found in collections.
These were the only banknotes ever issued by
Panamaand U.S. notes
have circulated both before and since.
The high levels of Panamanian trade are in large part from the Colón
Free Trade Zone , the largest free trade zone in the Western
Hemisphere . Last year the zone accounted for 92% of Panama's exports
and 64% of its imports, according to an analysis of figures from the
Colon zone management and estimates of Panama's trade by the United
Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean .
Panama's economy is also very much supported by the trade and export
of coffee and other agricultural products.
The Bilateral Investment Treaty (BIT) between the governments of the
United States and
Panamawas signed on October 27, 1982. The treaty
protects US investment and assists
Panamain its efforts to develop
its economy by creating conditions more favorable for US private
investment and thereby strengthening the development of its private
sector. The BIT was the first such treaty signed by the US in the
Western Hemisphere. A
Panama- United States Trade Promotion
Agreement (TPA) was signed in 2007, approved by
Panamaon July 11,
2007 and by US President Obama on October 21, 2011, and the agreement
entered into force on October 31, 2012.
Demographics of Panama Panama's population,
Panamarecorded a population of 4,058,374 in its 2016 census. The
proportion of the population aged below 15 in 2010 was 29%. 64.5% of
the population were aged between 15 and 65, with 6.6% of the
population being 65 years or older.
More than half the population lives in the
metropolitan corridor, which spans several cities. Panama's urban
population exceeds 75%, making Panama's population the most urbanized
In 2010 the population was 65%
Mestizo(mixed white, Native
American), 12.3% Native Americans, 9.2% Black or African descent, 6.8%
Mulatto, and 6.7% White.
Mestizopeople, who are a mix of
European and native ancestry. Black, or Afro-
15–20% of the population. Most Afro-
Panamanianslive on the
Panama-Colón metropolitan area, the Darien Province,
La Palma, and
Bocas Del Toro. Neighborhoods in
Panama Citythat have large black
populations include: Curundu, El Chorrillo, Rio Abajo, San Joaquín,
El Marañón, San Miguelito, and Santa Ana. Black
descendants of African slaves brought to the Americas on the Atlantic
Slave Trade . The second wave of black people brought to
from the Caribbean during the construction of the
Panamaalso has a considerable Chinese and Indian (
They were brought to work on the canal during its construction. Most
Panamaniansreside in the province of Chiriquí . Europeans
Panamaniansare a minority in Panama.
Panamais also home to
a small Arab community that have
The Amerindian population includes seven ethnic groups: the Ngäbe ,
Kuna (Guna), Emberá , Buglé ,
Wounaan, Naso Tjerdi (Teribe), and
Bri Bri .
Spanish is the official and dominant language. The Spanish spoken in
Panamais known as Panamanian Spanish. About 93% of the population
speak Spanish as their first language, though many citizens who hold
jobs at international levels, or who are a part of business
corporations speak both English and Spanish. Native languages, such as
Ngäbere , are spoken throughout the country, mostly in their native
grounds. Over 400,000
Panamanianshold their native languages and
customs. Some new statistics show that as second language, English is
spoken by 8%, French by 4% and Arabic by 1%.
List of cities in Panama
These are the 10 largest Panamanian cities and towns. Most of
Panama's largest cities are part of the
Panama CityMetropolitan Area
Religion in Panama Plaza de la independencia,
The government of
Panamadoes not collect statistics on the religious
affiliation of citizens, but various sources estimate that 75% to 85%
of the population identifies itself as
Roman Catholicand 15%–25% as
Protestant. The Bahá\'í Faith community of
Panamais estimated at
2.00% of the national population, or about 60,000 including about 10%
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints(LDS Church) claim
more than 40,000 members. Smaller religious groups include
Seventh-day Adventists, Jehovah\'s Witnesses , Episcopalians with
between 7,000 and 10,000 members,
Jewishand Muslim communities with
approximately 10,000 members each, Hindus , Buddhists , and other
Christians. Indigenous religions include Ibeorgun (among Kuna ) and
Ngobe). There are also a small number of
Education in Panama
Originally, during the 16th century, education in
by Jesuit priests. Public education, as a national and governmental
institution, began in 1903. The principles underlying this early
education system were that children should receive different types of
education in accordance with their social class and therefore the
position they were expected to occupy in society.
Public educationbegan in
Panamasoon after the separation from
Colombiain 1903. The first efforts were guided by an extremely
paternalistic view of the goals of education, as evidenced in comments
made in a 1913 meeting of the First Panamanian Educational Assembly,
"The cultural heritage given to the child should be determined by the
social position he will or should occupy. For this reason education
should be different in accordance with the social class to which the
student should be related." This elitist focus changed rapidly under
United States influence.
In 2010, it was estimated that 94.1% of the population was literate
(94.7% of males and 93.5% of females).
Education in Panamais
compulsory for the children of age group between 6 and 18. In recent
decades, school enrollment at all levels, but especially at upper
levels, has increased significantly.
Panamaused to participate in the
PISA exams but due to debts and unsatisfactory exam results is
postponing participation until 2018.
Culture of Panama See also:
Music of Panama
Pollera. A couple dancing Panamanian Cumbia.
The culture of
Panamaderived from European music , art and
traditions brought over by the Spanish to Panama.
have created hybrid forms of this by blending African and Native
American culture with European culture . For example, the _tamborito _
is a Spanish dance that was blended with African rhythms, themes and
Dance is a symbol of the diverse cultures that have coupled in
Panama. The local folklore can be experienced through a multitude of
festivals, dances and traditions that have been handed down from
generation to generation. Local cities host live _reggae en español
_, _reggaeton _, _haitiano (compas )_, jazz , blues , _salsa _, reggae
, and rock music performances.
PanamaCity, regional festivals take place throughout the
year featuring local musicians and dancers. Panama's blended culture
is reflected in traditional products, such as woodcarvings ,
ceremonial masks and pottery , as well as in Panama's architecture,
cuisine and festivals. In earlier times, baskets were woven for
utilitarian uses, but now many villages rely almost exclusively on the
baskets they produce for tourists.
An example of undisturbed, unique culture in
Panamais that of the
Guna who are known for _molas _. _Mola_ is the Guna word for blouse,
but the term _mola_ has come to mean the elaborate embroidered panels
made by Guna women, that make up the front and back of a Guna woman's
blouse. They are several layers of cloth, varying in color, that are
loosely stitched together, made using a reverse appliqué process.
HOLIDAYS AND FESTIVITIES
Public holidays in Panama
The Christmas parade, known as _El desfile de Navidad_, is celebrated
in the capital,
PanamaCity. This holiday is celebrated on December
25. The floats in the parade are decorated with the Panamanian colors,
and the women dress in dresses called _
Pollera_ while the men dress
in the traditional _Montuno_. In addition, the marching band in the
parade, consisting of drummers, keeps the crowds entertained. In the
city, a big Christmas tree is lit with Christmas lights, and everybody
surrounds the tree and sings Christmas carols.
Panamanian Cuisine is a mix of African, Spanish, and Native American
techniques, dishes, and ingredients, reflecting its diverse
Panamais a land bridge between two continents, it
has a large variety of tropical fruits, vegetables and herbs that are
used in native cooking.
Typical Panamanian foods are mild-flavored, without the pungency of
some of Panama's Latin American and Caribbean neighbors. Common
ingredients are maize , rice , wheat flour, plantains , _yuca_
(cassava ), beef, chicken, pork and seafood.
Panamanian men's traditional clothing, called _Montuno_, consists of
white cotton shirts, trousers and woven straw hat.
The traditional women's clothing is the _Pollera_. It originated in
Spainin the 16th century, and by the early 1800s it was a typical in
Panama, worn by women servants, especially wet nurses (_De Zarate_ 5).
Later, it was adopted by upper-class women.
A _pollera_ is made of "cambric " or "fine linen" (Baker 177). It is
white, and is usually about 13 yards of material.
The original _pollera_ consists of a ruffled blouse worn off the
shoulders and a skirt is on the waistline with gold buttons. The skirt
is also ruffled, so that when it is lifted up, it looks like a
peacock's tail or a _mantilla _ fan. The designs on the skirt and
blouse are usually flowers or birds. Two large matching pom poms
(_mota_) are on the front and back, four ribbons hang from the front
and back on the waist line, five gold chains (_caberstrillos_) hang
from the neck to the waist, a gold cross or medallion on a black
ribbon is worn as a choker , and a silk purse is worn on the
waistline. Earrings (_zaricillos_) are usually gold or coral. Slippers
usually match the color of the _pollera_. Hair is usually worn in a
bun, held by three large gold combs that have pearls (_tembleques_)
worn like a crown. Quality _pollera_ can cost up to $10,000, and may
take a year to complete.
Today, there are different types of _polleras_; the _pollera de gala_
consists of a short-sleeved ruffle skirt blouse, two full-length
skirts and a petticoat . Girls wear _tembleques_ in their hair. Gold
coins and jewelry are added to the outfit. The _pollera montuna_ is a
daily dress, with a blouse, a skirt with a solid color, a single gold
chain, and pendant earrings and a natural flower in the hair. Instead
of an off-the-shoulder blouse is a fitted white jacket with, shoulder
pleats, and a flared hem.
Traditional clothing in
Panamacan be worn in parades, where the
females and males do a traditional dance. Females do a gentle sway and
twirl their skirts, while the men hold their hats in their hands and
dance behind the females.
According to Professor Rodrigo Miró , the first story about Panama
was written by
Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo y Valdésand published as
part of the _Historia General y Natural de Las Indias _ in 1535. Some
poets and novelists born in Panamá are:
* Manuel María Ayala (1785–1824)
Amelia Denis de Icaza(1836–1911)
* Gaspar Octavio Hernández (1893–1918)
* Demetrio Korsi (1899–1957)
* Ricardo Bermúdez (1914–2000)
* Mario Augusto Rodriguez (1917–2008)
* José María Sánchez (1918–1973)
* Ramón H. Jurado (1922–1978)
Carlos Francisco Changmarín(1922– )
* Joaquín Beleño (1922–1988)
* Tristán Solarte (1924– )
* Pedro Rivera (1939– )
* Moravia Ochoa López (1941– )
Gloria Guardia(1940– )
* Dimas Lidio Pitty (1941– )
* Roberto Fernández Iglesias (1941– )
* Jarl Ricardo Babot (1946– )
* Manuel Orestes Nieto (1951– )
* Moisés Pascual (1955– )
* Héctor Miguel Collado (1960– )
* David Robinson Orobio (1960– )
* Katia Chiari (1969– )
* Carlos Oriel Wynter Melo (1971– )
José Luis Rodríguez Pittí(1971– )
* Sofía Santim (1982– ).
Panamanian baseball catcher Carlos Ruiz during 2007 Spring
The U.S. influence in
Panamacan be seen in the country's sports.
Baseball is Panama's national sport and the country has regional teams
and a national team that represents it in international events. At
least 140 Panamanian players have played professional baseball in the
United States, more than any other Central American country. Notable
Manny Sanguillén, and Carlos Ruiz .
In boxing, four
Panamaniansare in the International Boxing Hall of
Brown . In August 2016
Panamahad two reigning world boxing champions
Since the end of the 20th century, football has become a popular
sport for Panamanians, the national league and the national team has
featured a good progress, their legendary players are such as Luis
Ernesto Tapia ,
Rommel Fernández, the Dely Valdes Brothers: Armando
, Julio and Jorge ; and recent players as
Jaime Penedo, Felipe Baloy
Basketball is popular in Panama. There are regional teams as well as
a squad that competes internationally. Two of Panama's prominent
basketball players are
Rolando Blackman, a four-time NBA All-Star,
Kevin Daley, a 10-year captain and showman of the Harlem
Other popular sports include volleyball , taekwondo , golf , and
tennis . A long-distance hiking trail called the Trans
being built from
Colombiato Costa Rica.
Other non-traditional sports in the country have had great importance
such as the triathlon that has captured the attention of many athletes
nationwide and the country has hosted international competitions. Flag
football has also been growing in popularity in both men and women and
with international participation in world of this discipline being
among the best teams in the world, the sport was introduced by
Americans residing in the Canal Zone for veterans and retirees who
even had a festival called the Turkey Ball. Other popular sports are
American football, rugby , hockey , softball and other amateur sports
including skateboarding ,
BMXand surfing , because the many beaches
Panamasuch as Santa Catalina and Venao that have hosted events the
likes of ISA World
Irving Saladinobecame the first Panamanian Olympic gold
medalist in 2008. In 2012 eight different athletes represented Panama
London 2012 Olympics
London 2012 Olympics:
Irving Saladinoin the long jump, Alonso
Andrea Ferrisin track and field,
swimming, and the youngest on the team,
Carolena Carstenswho was 16
competing in taekwondo. She was the first representative to compete
Panamain that sport.
Panamawas one of the few countries that did not enter an INDC at
* Latin America portal
Index of Panama-related articles
Outline of Panama
Water supply and sanitation in Panama
* ^ "Panama". _CIA World Factbook_.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Datos generales e históricos de la República de
Panamá" (PDF) (in Spanish). INEC . Retrieved 22 December 2015.
FilePOP/1-1: Total population (both sexes combined) by major
area, region and country, annually for 1950–2100 (thousands). _World
Population Prospects: The 2015 Revision_ (Report). United Nations,
Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. April
2016. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Distribución territorial y migración interna en
Panamá: Censo 2010 (PDF) (Report) (in Spanish). INEC . 2014. p. 2.
Retrieved 22 December 2015.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "World Economic Outlook Database: Panama".
International Monetary Fund. October 2014. Retrieved 3 January 2015.
* ^ "Gini Index". World Bank. Retrieved January 3, 2015.
* ^ "2015 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations
Development Programme. 2015. Retrieved 15 December 2015.
* ^ "National Geographic Education".
National Geographic Society
National Geographic Society.
_National Geographic Atlas (list)_. National Geographic Society.
2010. p. 4.
_Webster's New Geographical Dictionary (list and map)_.
Merriam-Webster Inc. 1984. pp. 856, 859.
"Americas" _Standard Country and Area Codes Classifications (M49)_,
United Nations Statistics Division
"North America" _Atlas of Canada_
North AmericaAtlas National Geographic * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Panama".
_CIA – The World Factbook_. Retrieved December 23, 2010.
UNDPHuman Development Report 2015. _Table 1: Human development
index 2015 and its components_ (PDF).
UNDP. p. 144. Retrieved
November 6, 2010.
* ^ "Country profile: Panama". _BBC News_. June 30, 2010.
* ^ "Origen del Nombre Panamá". República de Panamá. Archived
from the original on February 14, 2007. Retrieved July 25, 2010.
* ^ Austin Alchon, Suzanne (2003). _A pest in the land: new world
epidemics in a global perspective_. University of New
pp. 67–74. ISBN 0-8263-2871-7 .
* ^ Mayo, J. (2004). _La Industria prehispánica de conchas marinas
en Gran Coclé_, Panamá. Diss. U Complutense de Madrid, pp. 9–10.
* ^ Piperno, D. R. (1984). _The Application of Phytolith Analysis
to the Reconstruction of Plant Subsistence and Environments in
Prehistoric Panama_. Dissertation, Temple University. Philadelphia,
vol. 8 pp. 21–43.
* ^ Hays, J. N. (2005). _Epidemics and pandemics: their impacts on
human history_, ABC-CLIO, pp. 82–83, ISBN 1-85109-658-2
* ^ Pike, Ruth (2007). "Black Rebels: Cimarrons in Sixteenth
Century Panama". _The Americas_. 64 (2): 243–66. doi
* ^ "The Darien Scheme – The Fall of Scotland", Historic UK
* ^ Müller-Schwarze, Nina K. (2015). _The Blood of Victoriano
Lorenzo: An Ethnography of the Cholos of Northern Coclé Province_.
Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland Press.
* ^ "Separación de Panamá: la historia desconocida".
banrepcultural.org. Retrieved 2016-04-09.
* ^ "The 1903 Treaty and Qualified Independence". U.S. Library of
Congress . 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-01.
* ^ "Panamá: el último año". banrepcultural.org. Retrieved
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ Pizzurno Gelós, Patricia and Celestino
Andrés Araúz (1996) _Estudios sobre el Panamá Republicano
(1903–1989)_. Colombia: Manfer S.A.
* ^ Pizzurno Gelós, Patricia and Celestino Andrés Araúz (1996)
_Estudios sobre el Panamá Republicano (1903–1989)_. Colombia:
Manfer S.A., p. 529.
* ^ Mon Pinzón, Ramón Arturo (1979). _Historia de la Migración
China Durante la Construcción del Ferrocarril de Panamá_. Masters
Thesis. México: El Colegio de México.
* ^ Zárate, Abdiel (November 9, 2003). "Muertos y desaparecidos
durante la época militar." Extra-centennial issue of _La Prensa_.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Acosta, Coleen (October 24, 2008). "Iraq: a Lesson from
PanamaImperialism and Struggle for Sovereignty". _Journals of the
Stanford Course on Prejudice and Poverty_.
* ^ _New York Times_. A Transcript of President Bush's Address on
the Decision to Use Force, December 21, 1989. Web. Jan. 2, 2008.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Panama". _Human Rights Watch World Report 1989_.
* ^ Cajar Páez, Aristides. "La invasion." Extra-centennial issue
of La Prensa,Nov.9 (2003): 22. Print.
* ^ John Pike. "Operation Just Cause". Retrieved October 25, 2014.
* ^ "Effects of the military intervention by the United States of
Panamaon the situation in Central America".
* ^ "Fighting in Panama: United Nations; Security Council
Condemnation of Invasion Vetoed".
* ^ "Panama" (PDF).
* ^ "The
PanamaDeception. Dir. Barbara Trent. Empowerment Project,
* ^ Blum, William. Killing Hope: U.S. Military and C.I.A.
Interventions Since World War II -Common Courage Press, 2008.
* ^ Pastor, Robert A. (2001) _Exiting the Whirlpool: U.S. Foreign
Policy Toward Latin America and the Caribbean_, p. 96, ISBN 0813338115
* ^ _A_ _B_ "
Panama(11/07)". _U.S. Department of State_. Retrieved
* ^ "
PanamaCountry Profile". BBC. June 30, 2010. Retrieved July
* ^ CEPAL – Naciones Unidas (March 22, 2010). "Ranking 2009 de
Actividad portuaria de contenedores en América Latina y el Caribe".
Eclac.cl. Retrieved December 23, 2010.
* ^ "Port of Balboa". World Port Source. Retrieved December 23,
* ^ "Our History". Petroterminal.com. February 9, 1997. Retrieved
December 23, 2010.
* ^ Tycoon elected Panama\'s president Retrieved July 25, 2010
* ^ "Latin Business Chronicle". Latin Business Chronicle. October
7, 2009. Retrieved June 26, 2010.
* ^ Sullivan M.P. 2011 February 2. Panama: Politics and Economic
Conditions and U.S. Relations. Congressional Research Service.
* ^ "Panama". World Bank. April 15, 2010. Retrieved July 25, 2010.
* ^ "Poverty headcount ratio at $1.25 a day (PPP) (% of
population)". World Bank. Retrieved October 25, 2013.
* ^ Oancea, Dan (January 2009). Mining in Central America.
Magazine.mining.com, pp. 10–12.
* ^ Park, Yoon S.; Essayyad, Musa (2012-12-06). _International
Banking and Financial Centers_. Springer Science & Business Media.
ISBN 9789400925045 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Committee of Independent Experts" (PDF). Presidency of
the Republic of Panama. November 18, 2016.
* ^ "Offshore Financial Centers (OFCs): IMF Staff Assessments
(OFCA)". _www.imf.org_. Retrieved 2017-06-04.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Panama: Country-specific information". U.S. Department
of State (March 18, 2009). _ This article incorporates text from this
source, which is in the public domain ._
* ^ "MiBus ". _mibus.com.pa_. Retrieved 2016-02-26.
* ^ "El Metro de Panamá". _El Metro de Panamá_ (in Spanish).
* ^ Redfrogbeach.com, Isla Palenque, examples
* ^ Juan José Espino Sagel.
Panamaenacts new Tourism Law: Law 80
of 2012. pardinilaw.com
* ^ "CEPAL.org" (PDF). Retrieved June 26, 2010.
* ^ "List of BITs currently in effect". Tcc.export.gov. Retrieved
June 26, 2010.
* ^ "The United States-
PanamaTrade Promotion Agreement (TPA)".
trade.gov. Retrieved October 31, 2012.
* ^ "Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social
Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects:
The 2012 Revision". Esa.un.org. Retrieved 2016-04-09.
* ^ "Corredor Transístmico Panamá -Colón". Retrieved August 5,
Missing or empty title= (help )
* ^ "Update 2011 – Panama". Iwgia.org. Retrieved 2013-06-15.
* ^ "Panama". Retrieved August 5, 2010.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "The World Factbook". Retrieved October 25, 2014.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ International Religious Freedom Report 2007:
Panama. United States Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor
(September 14, 2007). _This article incorporates text from this
source, which is in the public domain ._
* ^ "Panama". _World Council of Churches: WCC Member Churches_.
World Council of Churches. January 1, 2006. Retrieved July 1, 2008.
* ^ International Community, Bahá\'í (October–December 1994).
"In Panama, some Guaymis blaze a new path". _One Country_. 1994
* ^ Panama. LDS Newsroom. Retrieved December 13, 2008
* ^ This article incorporates public domain material from the
Library of Congress
Library of Congressdocument: Kluck, Patricia (December 1987). Sandra
W. Meditz and Dennis M. Hanratty, ed. "Panama: A country study".
Federal Research Division. Education.
* ^ "Panamá sin pruebas Pisa hasta 2018". Impresa.prensa.com.
* ^ "The online almanac of
Panamaculture with travel links".
PanamaCulture. Retrieved December 23, 2010.
* ^ "Panama". Bureau of
Western HemisphereAffairs. June 23, 2010.
* ^ Celebremos Panama!. Discovery Theater and Smithonian Latino
* ^ "Baseball in Panama". The Baseball Cube. Retrieved December 23,
* ^ "Carbon Markets Are Making a Slow, But Steady, Comeback".
Bloomberg. Retrieved 2016-04-09.
* ^ "INDC – Submissions". .unfccc.int. Retrieved 2016-04-09.
* Buckley, Kevin, _Panama_, Touchstone, 1992. ISBN 0-671-77876-5
* Diaz Espino, Ovidio, _How Wall Street Created a Nation_, Four
Walls Eight Windows, 2001. ISBN 1-56858-196-3
* Harding, Robert C., _The History of Panama_, Greenwood Publishing,
* Harding, Robert C., _Military Foundations of Panamanian Politics_,
Transaction Publishers, 2001. ISBN 0-393-02696-5
* Joster, R.M. and Sanchez, Guillermo, _In the Time of the Tyrants,
Panama: 1968–1990_, W.W. Norton Nelly Maldonado Mellander (1999).
Charles Edward Magoon: The
PanamaYears. Río Piedras, Puerto Rico:
Editorial Plaza Mayor. ISBN 1-56328-155-4 . OCLC 42970390.
* Mellander, Gustavo A. (1971).
The United States
The United Statesin Panamanian
Politics: The Intriguing Formative Years. Danville, Ill.: Interstate
Publishers. OCLC 138568.
* Porras, Ana Elena, _Cultura de la Interoceanidad: Narrativas de
Identidad Nacional de
Panama(1990–2002)_, Editorial Carlos Manuel
Gasteazoro, 2005. ISBN 9962-53-131-4
* Serrano, Damaris, _La Nación Panamena en sus Espacios: Cultura
Popular, Resistencia y Globalización_, Editorial Mariano Arosemena,
2005. ISBN 9962-659-01-9
* Villarreal, Melquiades, _Esperanza o Realidad: Fronteras de la
Identidad Panamena_, Editorial Mariano Arosemena, 2004. ISBN
* Weeks, John and Gunson, Phil, _Panama. Made in the USA_, 1992.
* Government of Panama
Panamafrom _UCB Libraries GovPubs_
* "Panama". _
The World Factbook
The World Factbook_.
Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency.
* _ Wikimedia Atlas of Panama
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