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The Pan Africanist Congress of Azania (once known as the Pan Africanist Congress, abbreviated as the PAC) is a South African Black Nationalist movement that is now a political party. It was founded by an Africanist group, led by Robert Sobukwe, that broke away from the African National Congress
African National Congress
(ANC).[2]

Contents

1 History 2 Ideology 3 Leadership struggles 4 Election results

4.1 National elections 4.2 Provincial elections 4.3 Municipal elections

5 See also 6 References 7 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of the Pan Africanist Congress of Azania The PAC was formally launched on 6 April 1959 at Orlando Communal Hall in Soweto. A number of African National Congress
African National Congress
(ANC) members broke away because they objected to the substitution of the 1949 Programme of Action with the Freedom Charter
Freedom Charter
adopted in 1955. Further they objected to the inclusion of other national groups such as the Communist Party of South Africa. Robert Sobukwe
Robert Sobukwe
was elected as the first president, and Potlako Leballo as the Secretary General. On 21 March 1960, the PAC organised a campaign against pass laws. People gathered in the townships of Sharpeville
Sharpeville
and Langa where Sobukwe and other top leaders were arrested and later convicted for incitement. Sobukwe was sentenced to three years and Potlako Leballo to two years in prison. Sobukwe died in Kimberley, Cape Province, 1978 of lung cancer. Immediately after the Sharpeville
Sharpeville
massacre the National Party Government banned both the ANC and PAC on 8 April 1960. The PAC responded by founding its armed wing, the Azanian People's Liberation Army. Ideology[edit] The PAC followed the idea that the South African Government should be constituted by the African people owing their allegiance only to Africa, as stated by Sobukwe in the inaugural speech of the PAC:

"We aim, politically, at government of the Africans by the Africans, for the Africans, with everybody who owes his only loyalty to Africa and who is prepared to accept the democratic rule of an African majority being regarded as an African."[3]

It is Pan Africanism with three principles of African nationalism, socialism, and continental unity. Its body of ideas drew largely from the teachings of Anton Lembede, George Padmore, Marcus Garvey, Martin Delany, Kwame Nkrumah, and W. E. B. Du Bois. Leadership struggles[edit] The PAC has been beset by infighting and has had numerous changes of leadership since its transition to a political party. In 1996, Clarence Makwetu, who led the party in the 1994 elections, was removed on the basis of "bringing the party into disrepute'.[4] In August 2013, the PAC elected Alton Mphethi as president, after previous leader Letlapa Mphahlele was expelled in May amidst allegations of attempting to cause division in the party, financial impropriety and poor quality leadership.[5][6] A faction of the PAC continued to regard Mphahlele as leader. The matter was resolved in the courts, with Mpheti eventually being confirmed as party leader for the 2014 election.[7][8] Mpheti has since been charged with murder for the death of a Swazi national, Mthunzi Mavundla.[9] Luthando Mbinda was elected president at the 2014 congress in Botshabelo, while Letlapa Mphahlele was elected in July 2015 in Manguang. Mbinda claimed that Mphahlele's election was not valid, as he was not a valid member, while Mphahlele is challenging his expulsion in court. The Independent Electoral Commission suspended the party's statutory fund’s allocations until there was clarity about who leads the party, and in October 2015 the high court confirmed that Mbinda was the recognised leader.[10][11] Conflict then arose between Mbinda and Chief Executive Officer Narius Moloto over control of the party's funds. The party split into factions, and Mbinda was then charged and later expelled for bringing the organisation into disrepute. Moloto was elected party leader in December 2017[12][13]. Election results[edit] National elections[edit]

Election Total votes Share of vote Seats +/– Government

1994 243,478 1.25%

5 / 400

– in opposition

1999 113,125 0.78%

3 / 400

2 in opposition

2004 113,512 0.73%

3 / 400

±0 in opposition

2009 48,530 0.27%

1 / 400

2 in opposition

2014 37,784 0.21%

1 / 400

±0 in opposition

Provincial elections[edit]

Election Eastern Cape Free State Gauteng Kwazulu-Natal Limpopo Mpumalanga North-West Northern Cape Western Cape

% Seats % Seats % Seats % Seats % Seats % Seats % Seats % Seats % Seats

1994 2.04% 1/56 1.81% 0/30 1.47% 1/86 0.73% 1/81 1.27% 1/40 1.63% 0/30 1.73% 0/30 0.93% 0/30 1.06% 0/42

1999 1.14% 1/63 1.15% 0/30 0.73% 0/73 0.26% 0/80 1.41% 1/49 0.66% 0/30 0.74% 0/33 0.66% 0/30 0.49% 0/42

2004 1.00% 1/63 1.18% 0/30 0.85% 1/73 0.19% 0/80 0.94% 0/49 0.69% 0/30 0.84% 0/33 0.43% 0/30 0.42% 0/42

2009 0.54% 0/63 0.33% 0/30 0.31% 0/73 0.07% 0/80 0.53% 0/49 0.32% 0/30 0.26% 0/33 0.22% 0/30 0.23% 0/42

2014 0.44% 0/63 0.21% 0/30 0.26% 0/73 0.08% 0/80 0.29% 0/49 0.23% 0/30 0.14% 0/33 0.11% 0/30 0.17% 0/42

Municipal elections[edit]

Election Votes %

1995-96 104,455 1.2%

2000

1.2%

2006 306,747 1.2%

2011 118,822 0.4%

2016[14] 74,607 0.19%

See also[edit]

South Africa
South Africa
portal Politics portal

Azanian National Youth Unity Azanian People's Liberation Army Freedom Charter History of South Africa

References[edit]

^ Pan Africanist Congress of Azania. "Contacts". www.pac.org.za. Archived from the original on 19 October 2013. Retrieved 14 September 2013.  ^ "Pan-Africanist Congress of Azania (PAC) (South African organization)". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2014-05-12. Retrieved 2014-07-06.  ^ " Robert Sobukwe
Robert Sobukwe
Inaugural Speech, April 1959". South African History Online - Towards a People's History. Retrieved 2014-07-06.  ^ "SA has moved backwards, says PAC stalwart Makwetu". Mail and Guardian. Retrieved 3 April 2016.  ^ Ntokozo Sindane (2013-08-11). "PAC Announces New Party President". The Public News Hub. Retrieved 2014-07-06.  ^ "PAC to plot a new path". The Citizen. 2013-06-09. Retrieved 2014-07-06.  ^ "PAC hits campaign trail after leadership fight ends". Herald Live. Retrieved 20 March 2015.  ^ "Pan-Africanist Congress of Azania (PAC)". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 20 March 2015.  ^ "I lied about murder to protect my wife's dignity – Alton Mphethi". City Press. Archived from the original on 20 March 2015. Retrieved 20 March 2015.  ^ Marianne Merten (10 July 2015). "PAC court bid to get its IEC funding". Independent Online. Retrieved 10 July 2015.  ^ "High Court Ruling". pac.org.za. Archived from the original on 31 March 2016. Retrieved 3 April 2016.  ^ Naki, Eric (28 April 2017). "Mbinda, Moloto war threatening to tear PAC apart". citizen.co.za.  ^ Motau, Koketšo. "PAC elects Narius Moloto as new party president". ewn.co.za.  ^ "Results Summary - All Ballots" (PDF). elections.org.za. Retrieved 11 August 2016. 

External links[edit]

Official Website of the Pan Africanist Congress Pan Africanist Congress Publications Collection 1958-1995 Archival Information can be found at the Borthwick Institute for Archives, University of York: Congress of South Africa

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