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PAN-GERMANISM or PAN-GERMANICISM (German: Pangermanismus or Alldeutsche Bewegung; see also Pan-Germanicism ) is a pan-nationalist political idea . Pan-Germanists originally sought to unify all the German and possibly also Germanic-speaking peoples in a single nation-state known as Großdeutschland.

Pan-Germanism
Pan-Germanism
was highly influential in German politics in the 19th century during the unification of Germany
Germany
when the German Empire
German Empire
was proclaimed as a nation-state in 1871 but without Austria (Kleindeutsche Lösung/Lesser Germany), and the first half of the 20th century in the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the German Empire. From the late 19th century, many Pan-Germanist thinkers, since 1891 organized in the Pan-German League , had adopted openly ethnocentric and racist ideologies, and ultimately gave rise to the foreign policy Heim ins Reich pursued by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
under Austrian-born Adolf Hitler from 1938, one of the primary factors leading to the outbreak of World War II
World War II
. As a result of the disaster of World War II, Pan-Germanism
Pan-Germanism
was mostly seen as a taboo ideology in the postwar period in both West and East Germany
East Germany
. Today, Pan-Germanism
Pan-Germanism
is mostly limited to some nationalist groups in Germany
Germany
and Austria.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology * 2 Origins (before 1860) * 3 The German Question * 4 Pan-Germanism
Pan-Germanism
in Austria
Austria
* 5 Pan-Germanism
Pan-Germanism
in Scandinavia
Scandinavia
* 6 1918 to 1945 * 7 History since 1945 * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 Further reading

ETYMOLOGY

The word pan is a Greek word element meaning "all, every, whole, all-inclusive". The word "German" in this context derives from Latin "Germani" originally used by Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
referring to tribes or a single tribe in northeastern Gaul
Gaul
. In the Late Middle Ages it acquired a loose meaning referring to the speakers of Germanic languages (alongside ' Almain ' and ' Teuton ') most of whom spoke dialects ancestral to modern German . In English, "Pan-German" was first attested in 1892. In German there exists a synonym "Alldeutsche Bewegung" which is a calque using German instead of Latin and Greek roots.

ORIGINS (BEFORE 1860)

Further information: 18th-century history of Germany , German Confederation
Confederation
, and Vormärz The German Confederation in 1820. Territories of the Prussian crown are blue, territories of the Austrian crown are yellow, and independent German Confederation states are grey. The red border shows the limits of the Confederation. Note that both Prussia
Prussia
and Austria
Austria
controlled non- Confederation
Confederation
lands.

Pan-Germanism's origins began with the birth of Romantic nationalism during the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
, with Friedrich Ludwig Jahn
Friedrich Ludwig Jahn
and Ernst Moritz Arndt being early proponents. Germans
Germans
, for the most part, had been a loose and disunited people since the Reformation , when the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
was shattered into a patchwork of states following the end of the Thirty Years\' War with the Peace of Westphalia .

Advocates of the Großdeutschland (Greater Germany) solution sought to unite all the German-speaking people in Europe , under leadership of the German Austrians from the Austrian Empire . Pan-Germanism
Pan-Germanism
was widespread among the revolutionaries of 1848 , notably among Richard Wagner and the Brothers Grimm . Writers such as Friedrich List
Friedrich List
and Paul Anton Lagarde argued for German hegemony in Central and Eastern Europe, where German domination in some areas had begun as early as the 9th century AD with the Ostsiedlung , Germanic expansion into Slavic and Baltic lands. For the Pan-Germanists this movement was seen as a Drang nach Osten , in which Germans
Germans
would be naturally inclined to seek Lebensraum by moving eastwards to reunite with the German minorities there.

The Deutschlandlied ("Song of Germany"), written in 1841 by Hoffmann von Fallersleben , in its first stanza defines Deutschland as reaching "From the Meuse to the Memel / From the Adige
Adige
to the Belt ", i.e. as including East Prussia
East Prussia
and South Tyrol .

Reflecting upon the First Schleswig
Schleswig
War in 1848, Karl Marx
Karl Marx
noted that "by quarrelling amongst themselves, instead of confederating, Germans and Scandinavians, both of them belonging to the same great race, only prepare the way for their hereditary enemy, the Slav."

THE GERMAN QUESTION

Main articles: German Question and Unification of Germany

There is, in political geography, no Germany
Germany
proper to speak of. There are Kingdoms and Grand Duchies, and Duchies and Principalities, inhabited by Germans, and each separately ruled by an independent sovereign with all the machinery of State. Yet there is a natural undercurrent tending to a national feeling and toward a union of the Germans
Germans
into one great nation, ruled by one common head as a national unit. – article published in the New York Times
New York Times
on 1 July 1866

By the 1860s the Kingdom of Prussia and the Austrian Empire had become the two most powerful states dominated by German-speaking élites. Both sought to expand their influence and territory. The Austrian Empire—like the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
—was a multi-ethnic state, but the German-speaking people there did not have an absolute numerical majority; its re-shaping into the Austro-Hungarian Empire was one result of the growing nationalism of other ethnicities—especially the Hungarians
Hungarians
. Under Prussian leadership Otto von Bismarck
Otto von Bismarck
would ride on the coat-tails of nationalism to unite all of the northern German lands. After Bismarck excluded Austria
Austria
and the German Austrians from Germany
Germany
in the German war of 1866 and (following a few other events over the next few years), the unification of Germany
Germany
, established the Prussian-dominated German Empire ("Second Reich") in 1871 with the proclamation of Wilhelm I
Wilhelm I
as head of a union of German-speaking states, while disregarding millions of its non-German subjects who desired self-determination from German rule. After World War I
World War I
the Pan-Germanist philosophy changed drastically during the ascendancy of Adolf Hitler. Pan-Germanists originally sought to unify all the German-speaking populations of Europe in a single nation-state known as Großdeutschland (Greater Germany), where "German-speaking" was sometimes taken as synonymous with Germanic-speaking , to the inclusion of the Frisian - and Dutch -speaking populations of the Low Countries
Low Countries
, and the Scandinavias .

Although Bismarck had excluded Austria
Austria
and the German Austrians from his creation of the Kleindeutschland
Kleindeutschland
state in 1871, integrating the German Austrians nevertheless remained a strong desire for many people of both Austria
Austria
and Germany. The most radical Austrian pan-German Georg Schönerer (1842–1921) and Karl Hermann Wolf (1862–1941) articulated Pan-Germanist sentiments in the Austro-Hungarian Empire . There was also a rejection of Roman Catholicism with the Away from Rome! movement (ca 1900 onwards) calling for German-speakers to identify with Lutheran
Lutheran
or Old Catholic churches. The Pan-German Movement gained an institutional format in 1891, when Ernst Hasse, a professor at the University of Leipzig and a member of the Reichstag , organized the Pan-German League , an ultra-nationalist political-interest organization which promoted imperialism , anti-semitism , and support for ethnic German minorities in other countries. The organization achieved great support among the educated middle and upper class; it promoted German nationalist consciousness, especially among ethnic Germans
Germans
outside Germany
Germany
. In his three-volume work, "Deutsche Politik" (1905–07), Hasse called for German imperialist expansion in Europe. The Munich
Munich
professor Karl Haushofer , Ewald Banse, and Hans Grimm (author of the novel Volk ohne Raum ) preached similar expansionist policies.

PAN-GERMANISM IN AUSTRIA

Main article: German nationalism in Austria

After the Revolutions of 1848/49 , in which the liberal nationalistic revolutionaries advocated the Greater German solution, the Austrian defeat in the Austro-Prussian War (1866) with the effect that Austria was now excluded from Germany, and increasing ethnic conflicts in the multinational Habsburg Monarchy, a German national movement evolved in Austria. Led by the radical German nationalist and anti-semite Georg von Schönerer , organisations such as the Pan-German Society demanded the annexation of all German-speaking territories of the Danube Monarchy to the German Empire, and fervently rejected Austrian patriotism and a pan-Austrian identity. Schönerer's völkisch and racist German nationalism was an inspiration to Hitler's Nazi ideology .

In 1933, Austrian Nazis
Nazis
and the national-liberal Greater German People\'s Party formed an action group, fighting together against the Austrofascist regime which imposed a distinct Austrian national identity and in accordance said that Austrians were "better Germans", while Kurt Schuschnigg adopted a policy of appeasement towards Austrian-born Hitler's annexing of Austria
Austria
to Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
and called Austria
Austria
the "better German state", but he still struggled to keep Austria
Austria
independent. With " Anschluss " of Austria
Austria
in 1938, the historic aim of Austria's German nationalists was achieved.

After the end of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
and the events of World War II
World War II
in 1945, the ideas of pan-Germanism and an Anschluss fell out of favour due to their association with Nazism
Nazism
and allowed Austrians to develop their own national identity. Nevertheless, such notions were revived with the German national camp in the Federation of Independents and the early Freedom Party of Austria .

PAN-GERMANISM IN SCANDINAVIA

The idea of including the North Germanic -speaking Scandinavians into a Pan-German state, sometimes referred to as PAN-GERMANICISM , was promoted alongside mainstream pan-German ideas. Jacob Grimm adopted Munch's anti-Danish Pan-Germanism
Pan-Germanism
and argued that the entire peninsula of Jutland
Jutland
had been populated by Germans
Germans
before the arrival of the Danes
Danes
and that thus it could justifiably be reclaimed by Germany, whereas the rest of Denmark
Denmark
should be incorporated into Sweden
Sweden
. This line of thinking was countered by Jens Jacob Asmussen Worsaae , an archaeologist who had excavated parts of Danevirke , who argued that there was no way of knowing the language of the earliest inhabitants of Danish territory. He also pointed out that Germany
Germany
had more solid historical claims to large parts of France and England, and that Slavs —by the same reasoning—could annex parts of Eastern Germany
Germany
. Regardless of the strength of Worsaae's arguments, pan-Germanism spurred on the German nationalists of Schleswig
Schleswig
and Holstein
Holstein
and led to the First Schleswig
Schleswig
War in 1848. In turn, this likely contributed to the fact that Pan-Germanism
Pan-Germanism
never caught on in Denmark
Denmark
as much as it did in Norway. Pan-Germanic tendencies were particularly widespread among the Norwegian independence movement . Prominent supporters included Peter Andreas Munch , Christopher Bruun , Knut Hamsun , Henrik Ibsen and Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson . Bjørnson, who wrote the lyrics for the Norwegian national anthem , proclaimed in 1901:

I'm a Pan-Germanist, I'm a Teuton , and the greatest dream of my life is for the South Germanic peoples and the North Germanic peoples and their brothers in diaspora to unite in a fellow confederation . — Bjørnson,

In the 20th century the German Nazi Party sought to create a Greater Germanic Reich that would include most of the Germanic peoples of Europe within it under the leadership of Germany, including peoples such as the Danes
Danes
, the Dutch , the Swedes
Swedes
, the Norwegians , and the Flemish within it.

Anti-German Scandinavism
Scandinavism
surged in Denmark
Denmark
in the 1930s and 1940s in response to the pan-Germanic ambitions of Nazi Germany.

1918 TO 1945

Further information: Areas annexed by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
, Völkisch movement , Heim ins Reich , Generalplan Ost , and Greater Germanic Reich Administrative division of Nazi Germany, following the annexing of Austria, Sudetenland and others to form the Greater German Reich as of 1944. Map showing Nazi German plans, given to Sudeten Germans
Germans
during the Sudeten Crisis as part of an intimidation process. Re-published in the British socialist newspaper Daily Worker on 29 October 1938. Boundaries of the planned "Greater Germanic Reich " based on various, only partially systematised target projections (e.g. Generalplan Ost ) from state administration and the SS leadership sources.

World War I
World War I
became the first attempt to carry out the Pan-German ideology in practice, and the Pan-German movement argued forcefully for an expansionist imperialism.

Following the defeat in World War I
World War I
, influence of German-speaking elites over Central and Eastern Europe was greatly limited. At the Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles
, Germany
Germany
was substantially reduced in size. Austria-Hungary was split up. A Rump-Austria, which to a certain extent corresponded to the German-speaking areas of Austria-Hungary (a complete split into language groups was impossible due to multi-lingual areas and language-exclaves) adopted the name "German Austria
Austria
" (German: Deutschösterreich) in hope for union with the Germany
Germany
. Union with Germany
Germany
and the name "German Austria" was forbidden by the Treaty of St. Germain and the name had to be changed back to Austria.

It was in the post- World War I
World War I
period that the Austrian-born Adolf Hitler , under the influence of the stab-in-the-back myth , first took up German nationalist ideas in his Mein Kampf . Hitler met Heinrich Class in 1918, and Class provided Hitler with support for the 1923 Beer Hall Putsch . Hitler and his National Socialist friends shared most of the basic pan-German visions with the Pan-German League, but nonetheless differences in political style led the two groups to open rivalry. The German Workers Party
German Workers Party
of Bohemia cut its ties to the pan-German movement, which was seen as being too dominated by the upper classes, and joined forces with the German Workers Party
German Workers Party
led by Anton Drexler , which later became the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi party) that was to be headed by Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
from 1921.

Nazi propaganda also used the political slogan Ein Volk, ein Reich, ein Führer ("One people, one Reich, one leader"), in order to enforce pan-German sentiment in Austria
Austria
for an " Anschluss ".

The Heim ins Reich ("Back Home to the Reich") initiative was a policy pursued by the Nazis
Nazis
which attempted to convince the ethnic Germans living outside of Nazi germany
Nazi germany
(such as in Austria
Austria
and Sudetenland ) that they should strive to bring these regions "home" into a Greater Germany
Germany
. This notion also led the way for an even more expansive state to be envisioned, the Greater Germanic Reich
Greater Germanic Reich
, which Nazi Germany
Germany
tried to establish. This pan-Germanic empire was expected to assimilate practically all of Germanic Europe into an enormously expanded Greater Germanic Reich. Territorially speaking, this encompassed the already-enlarged Reich itself (consisting of pre-1938 Germany
Germany
plus the areas annexed into the Großdeutsche Reich ), the Netherlands
Netherlands
, Belgium
Belgium
, areas in north-eastern France considered to be historically and ethnically Germanic, Denmark
Denmark
, Norway
Norway
, Sweden
Sweden
, Iceland
Iceland
, at least the German-speaking Switzerland
German-speaking Switzerland
, and Liechtenstein . The most notable exception was the predominantly Anglo-Saxon United Kingdom, which was not projected as having to be reduced to a German province but to instead become an allied seafaring partner of the Germans.

The eastern Reichskommissariats in the vast stretches of Ukraine and Russia were also intended for future integration, with plans for them stretching to the Volga
Volga
or even beyond the Urals
Urals
. They were deemed of vital interest for the survival of the German nation, as it was a core tenet of national-socialist ideology that it needed "living space" ( Lebensraum ), creating a "pull towards the East" ( Drang nach Osten ) where that could be found and colonized , in a model that the Nazis explicitly derived from the American Manifest Destiny in the Far West and its clearing of native inhabitants.

HISTORY SINCE 1945

See also: Flight and expulsion of Germans
Germans
(1944–1950) , Expulsion of Germans
Germans
after World War II
World War II
, Former eastern territories of Germany , and Reunification of Germany

The defeat of Germany
Germany
in World War II
World War II
brought about the decline of Pan-Germanism, much as World War I
World War I
had led to the demise of Pan-Slavism . Parts of Germany
Germany
itself were devastated, and the country was divided, firstly into Soviet, French, American, and British zones and then into West Germany and East Germany
East Germany
. To add to the disaster, Germany
Germany
suffered even larger territorial losses than it did in the First World War, with huge portions of eastern Germany
Germany
directly annexed by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Poland
Poland
. The scale of the Germans' defeat was unprecedented; Pan-Germanism
Pan-Germanism
became taboo because it had been tied to racist concepts of the "master race " and Nordicism by the Nazi party . However, the reunification of Germany
Germany
in 1990 revived the old debates.

SEE ALSO

* Germany
Germany
portal * Austria
Austria
portal * Switzerland portal * Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
portal * Luxembourg portal * Netherlands
Netherlands
portal * Belgium
Belgium
portal * Norway
Norway
portal * Sweden
Sweden
portal * Denmark
Denmark
portal * Iceland
Iceland
portal

UP TO AND DURING 18TH CENTURY

* Germanic peoples * Germania
Germania
* Peace of Westphalia * Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
of the German Nation

19TH CENTURY

* German nationalism * Alldeutscher Verband * Völkisch movement * Pan-nationalism * German question (with Großdeutsche Lösung) * Scandinavism
Scandinavism
* Irredentism
Irredentism
* Romantic nationalism * Folklore
Folklore

20TH CENTURY

* German reunification (with German unity) * Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* Greater Germanic Reich
Greater Germanic Reich
* Anschluss * Versailles Treaty * Ethnic nationalism * Expansionism

REFERENCES

* ^ Timothy Kirk (8 August 2002). Nazism
Nazism
and the Working Class in Austria: Industrial Unrest and Political Dissent in the \'National Community\'. Cambridge University Press. pp. 21–. ISBN 978-0-521-52269-4 . * ^ A B " Pan-Germanism
Pan-Germanism
(German political movement) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2012-01-24. * ^ Origins and Political Character of Nazi Ideology Hajo Holborn Political Science Quarterly Vol. 79, No. 4 (Dec. 1964), p.550 * ^ A B C D "Slik ble vi germanersvermere – magasinet". Dagbladet.no. Retrieved 2012-01-24. * ^ A B Mees, Bernard (2008). The Science of the Swastika. Central European University Press. ISBN 978-963-9776-18-0 . * ^ http://www.etymonline.com (pan-, German) * ^ Marx, Karl (1994). The Eastern Question. Taylor & Francis Group . p. 90. ISBN 0-7146-1500-5 . Retrieved 1 November 2013. * ^ The Situation of Germany. (PDF ) – The New York Times
New York Times
, 1 July 1866 * ^ Nationalism and Globalisation: Conflicting Or Complementary. D. Halikiopoulou. p51. * ^ "Das politische System in Österreich (The Political System in Austria)" (PDF) (in German). Vienna: Austrian Federal Press Service. 2000. p. 24. Retrieved 9 July 2014. * ^ Eric J. Hobsbawm (1987). The age of empire, 1875–1914. Pantheon Books. p. 152. ISBN 978-0-394-56319-0 . Retrieved 22 March 2011. * ^ Drummond, Elizabeth A. (2005). "Pan-German League". In Levy, Richard S. Antisemitism: A Historical Encyclopedia of Prejudice and Persecution. Contemporary world issues. 1. ABC-CLIO. pp. 528–529. ISBN 9781851094394 . Retrieved 2016-07-15. * ^ Bauer, Kurt (2008), Nationalsozialismus: Ursprünge, Anfänge, Aufstieg und Fall (in German), Böhlau Verlag, p. 41 * ^ Wladika, Michael (2005), Hitlers Vätergeneration: Die Ursprünge des Nationalsozialismus in der k.u.k. Monarchie (in German), Böhlau Verlag, p. 157 * ^ Morgan, Philip (2003). Fascism in Europe, 1919–1945. Routledge. p. 72. ISBN 0-415-16942-9 . * ^ Bideleux, Robert; Jeffries, Ian (1998), A history of eastern Europe: Crisis and Change, Routledge, p. 355 * ^ Pelinka, Anton (2000), "Jörg Haiders "Freiheitliche" – ein nicht nur österreichisches Problem", Liberalismus in Geschichte und Gegenwart (in German), Königshausen & Neumann, p. 233 * ^ Thomas Pedersen. Germany, France, and the integration of Europe: a realist interpretation. Pinter, 1998. P. 74 * ^ Ian Adams. Political Ideology Today. Manchester, England, UK: Manchester University Press, 1993. P. 95. * ^ Rowly-Conwy, Peter (2013). "THE CONCEPT OF PREHISTORY AND THE INVENTION OF THE TERMS 'PREHISTORIC' AND 'PREHISTORIAN': THE SCANDINAVIAN ORIGIN, 1833–1850". European Journal of Archaeology. 9 (1): 103–130. doi :10.1177/1461957107077709 . * ^ NRK (20 January 2005). "Drømmen om Norge". NRK.no. Retrieved 2012-01-24. * ^ Larson, Philip E. (1999). Ibsen in Skien and Grimstad: His education, reading, and early works (PDF). Skien: The Ibsen House and Grimstad Town Museum. p. 143. * ^ Germany: The Long Road West: Volume 2: 1933–1990. Digital version. Oxford, England, UK: Oxford University Press, 2007. * ^ Stephen Barbour, Cathie Carmichael. Language and Nationalism in Europe. Oxford, England, UK: Oxford University Press, 2000. P. 111. * ^ "Utopia: The \' Greater Germanic Reich
Greater Germanic Reich
of the German Nation\'". München – Berlin: Institut für Zeitgeschichte . 1999. * ^ A B World fascism: a historical encyclopedia, Volume 1 Cyprian Blamires ABC-CLIO, 2006. pp. 499–501 * ^ Antisemitism: A Historical Encyclopedia of Prejudice and Persecution, Volume 1, Richard S. Levy, 529–530, ABC-CLIO 2005 * ^ Elvert 1999, p. 325. * ^ Rich 1974, pp. 401–402. * ^ Strobl 2000, pp. 202–208. * ^ Zeilinger, Gerhard (16 June 2011). "Straches "neue" Heimat und der Boulevardsozialismus". Der Standard (in German). Retrieved 28 June 2011.

FURTHER READING

* Kleineberg, A.; Marx Chr.; Knobloch E.; Lelgemann D.: Germania
Germania
und die Insel Thule. Die Entschlüsselung von Ptolemaios'"Atlas der Oikumene". WBG 2010. ISBN 978-3-534-23757-9 . * Jackisch, Barry Andrew. 'Not a Large, but a Strong Right': The Pan-German League, Radical Nationalism, and Rightist Party Politics in Weimar Germany, 1918–1939. Bell and Howell Information and Learning Company: Ann Arbor. 2000. * Wertheimer, Mildred. The Pan-German League, 1890–1914. Columbia University Press: New York. 1924. * Chickering, Roger. We Men Who Feel Most German: Cultural Study of the Pan-German League, 1886–1914. Harper Collins Publishers Ltd. 1984.

* v * t * e

Unification of Germany

STATES

* Austrian Empire (later Austria-Hungary ) * Kingdom of Bavaria * Kingdom of Hanover * Kingdom of Prussia * Kingdom of Saxony * Kingdom of Württemberg
Kingdom of Württemberg
* more

UNIONS

* German Confederation * Zollverein
Zollverein
* German Empire
German Empire
(1848/1849) (constitution ) * Erfurt Union * North German Confederation (constitution ) * German Empire
German Empire
(constitution )

EVENTS

* Vormärz * 1814–15 Congress of Vienna * 1819 Carlsbad Decrees * 1832 Hambach Festival * 1833 Frankfurter Wachensturm * 1848 Revolutions * 1848–49 Frankfurt Parliament * 1850 Punctation of Olmütz * 1850-51 Dresden Conference * 1862 "Blood and Iron" speech * 1864 Second Schleswig
Schleswig
War * 1866 Austro-Prussian War / Peace of Prague * 1870–71 Franco-Prussian War * 1871 Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles

PEOPLE

* Baron von Stein * Charles I of Württemberg
Charles I of Württemberg
* Christian IX of Denmark
Denmark
* Eduard von Simson * Franz I of Austria
Austria
* Franz Joseph I of Austria
Austria
* Frederick William III of Prussia
Prussia
* Frederick William IV of Prussia
Prussia
* Friedrich Daniel Bassermann * Friedrich Ferdinand von Beust * Heinrich von Gagern * Johann Gottlieb Fichte * Johann Gustav Droysen * Archduke John of Austria
Austria
* John of Saxony * Karl August von Hardenberg * Klemens Wenzel, Prince von Metternich * Ludwig II of Bavaria
Ludwig II of Bavaria
* Napoleon III
Napoleon III
of France * Otto von Bismarck
Otto von Bismarck
* Robert Blum * Wilhelm von Humboldt * Wilhelm I, German Emperor

RELATED

* Alsace-Lorraine * Burschenschaft * Das Lied der Deutschen * Die Wacht am Rhein * Flag of Germany
Flag of Germany
( Lützow Free Corps
Lützow Free Corps
) * Pan-Germanism * Kleindeutschland
Kleindeutschland
/ Großdeutschland * Frankfurt Parliament * Schleswig- Holstein
Holstein
Question * Sonderweg

GERMANY PORTAL

* v * t * e

Pan-nationalist concepts

IDEAS

* Pan-Africanism * Pan-Americanism * Pan-Arabism * Pan-Asianism * Berberism * Pan-Celticism * Czechoslovakism * Pan-Germanism * Pan-Germanicism * Pan-European nationalism * Panhispanism * Pan-Iberism * Pan-Indianism * Pan-Iranism * Pan-Islamism
Pan-Islamism
* Pan-Latinism * Pan-Mongolism * Pan-Oceanianism * Scandinavism
Scandinavism
* Pan-Serbism * Pan-Slavism * Turanism * Pan-Turkism * Yugoslavism
Yugoslavism

Territorial concepts

* Greater Albania * Greater Bulgaria * Greater Catalonia * Greater China * Greater Croatia * Greater Finland * Greater Hungary * Greater Iran * Greater Israel * Greater Italy * Greater Mexico * Greater Morocco * Greater Nepal * Greater Netherlands
Netherlands
* Greater Norway
Norway
* Greater Portugal * Greater Romania
Greater Romania
* Greater Serbia * Greater Somalia * Greater Spain * Greater Syria * Greater Ukraine * Greater Yugoslavia * Greek Megali Idea * Kurdistan
Kurdistan
* Tamazgha * Turkish Misaki Milli * United Armenia * United Ireland * United Macedonia * Whole Azerbaijan

* v * t * e

Irredentism
Irredentism

AFRICA

* Congo * Comoros * Madagascar * Mauritania * Mauritius

* Morocco

* Free Zone

* Somalia * South Africa

ASIA

* Armenia

* Nagorno-Karabakh

* Azerbaijan

* Bengal
Bengal

* Greater Bangladesh * United Bengal
Bengal

* Cambodia

* China

* Nine-Dash Line

* Georgia * Kashmir
Kashmir

* Kurdistan
Kurdistan

* Iraqi Kurdistan
Kurdistan
* Iranian Kurdistan
Kurdistan
* Turkish Kurdistan
Kurdistan
* Syrian Kurdistan
Kurdistan

* Korea

* Tsushima

* India * Indonesia

* Iran

* Iranian peoples

* Iraq

* Kuwait * Assyrian homeland

* Israel * Japan * Lebanon * Mongolia * Nepal * Philippines

* Syria

* Hatay
Hatay

* Timor

* Turkey

* Cyprus * Turkic peoples

* Yemen

EUROPE

* Albania

* Kosovo * Macedonia

* Austria
Austria
* Bulgaria * Belarus

* Croatia

* Bosnia

* Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
* Denmark
Denmark
* Finland

* France

* Wallonia

* Germany
Germany

* Germanic

* Greece

* Cyprus

* Hungary * Iceland
Iceland
* Ireland

* Italy

* Corsica * Dalmatia * Istria * Malta * Nice * Savoy * Switzerland

* Latvia * Lithuania * Macedonia * Netherlands
Netherlands
* Norway
Norway
* Poland
Poland
* Portugal

* Romania

* Moldova

* Russia

* East Slavic peoples * Crimea

* Serbia

* Kosovo * Republika Srpska

* Slovenia * Spain * Sweden
Sweden
* Switzerland * Ukraine * United Kingdom * Yugoslavia

AMERICAS

* Argentina * Bolivia * Canada * Guatemala * Mexico * Suriname * Venezuela

OCEANIA

* Australia * Papua New Guinea * Samoa * Vanuatu

Related concepts: BORDER CHANGES · PARTITIONISM · REUNIFICATION · REVANCHISM · RUMP STATE

* v * t * e

German people

HISTORICAL

* Bundesdeutsche * Reichsdeutsche * Volksdeutsche
Volksdeutsche

DIASPORA

EUROPE

Central Europe Mitteleuropa
Mitteleuropa

* Croatia

* Czech Republic

* Sudeten Germans
Germans

* Hungary

* Poland
Poland

* Walddeutsche * Galicia

* Slovakia

* Zipser

* Serbia

* Slovenia

* Gottschee

* Switzerland

EASTERN EUROPE

* Moldova

* Romania

* Transylvanian Saxons * Landler * Danube * Banat (including Walser
Walser
) * Sathmar * Bukovina * Dobruja * Regat * Zipser

* Russia ( Volga
Volga
* Caucasus )

* Ukraine

* Bessarabia * Black Sea * Russian Mennonite * Crimea * Galicia

NORTHERN EUROPE

* Denmark
Denmark

* Potato Germans
Germans

SOUTHERN EUROPE

* Bulgaria * Italy * Yugoslavia

* Turkey

* Bosporus

WESTERN EUROPE

* Belgium
Belgium
* France * Netherlands
Netherlands
* United Kingdom

MULTINATIONAL DIMENSION

* Baltic states * Central and Eastern

AMERICAS

* Argentina * Belize * Bolivia * Brazil

* Canada

* Hutterites * British Columbia

* Chile * Colombia * Costa Rica * Haiti * Jamaica * Guatemala * Mexico * Nicaragua * Paraguay * Peru

* United States

* Pennsylvania Dutch * Nebraska * Texas * Palatines * Puerto Rico * by city

* Uruguay

* Venezuela

* Colonia Tovar
Colonia Tovar

* El Salvador

AFRICA

* Namibia

* South Africa

* Afrikaners

ASIA

* India * Japan * Kazakhstan * Korea * Kyrgyzstan * Pakistan * Philippines * United Arab Emirates

OCEANIA

* Australia * New Zealand

SEE ALSO

* Ostsiedlung * Partitions of Poland
Poland
* Flight and expulsion of Germans
Germans
(1944–50)

* v * t * e

Germanic peoples

LANGUAGES

* Germanic parent language * Proto-Germanic language

* North Germanic languages
Germanic languages

* Old Norse

* West Germanic languages
Germanic languages

* Ingvaeonic languages * South Germanic

* Northwest Germanic * East Germanic languages
Germanic languages
* Germanic philology

PREHISTORY

* Nordic Bronze Age
Nordic Bronze Age
* Pre-Roman Iron Age in Northern Europe * Jastorf culture * Nordwestblock * Przeworsk culture * Wielbark culture
Wielbark culture
* Oksywie culture * Chernyakhov culture
Chernyakhov culture

ROMAN IRON AGE IN NORTHERN EUROPE

* Magna Germania
Germania
* Germanic Wars
Germanic Wars
* Battle of the Teutoburg Forest * Germania
Germania
* Irminones * Ingaevones * Istvaeones
Istvaeones
* Chatti * Marcomanni
Marcomanni
* Suebi

MIGRATION PERIOD

* Germanic Iron Age * Alemanni

* Anglo-Saxons

* Angles
Angles
* Jutes * Saxons
Saxons

* Burgundians * Danes
Danes
* Franks
Franks
* Frisii * Geats * Gepids
Gepids

* Goths

* Visigoths * Ostrogoths * Vagoth * Gothic War (376–382)

* Gotlander * Heruli * Lombards * Rugii * Scirii
Scirii
* Suebi * Swedes
Swedes
* Vandals
Vandals
* Varangians * Vikings
Vikings
* Christianization * Romanization

SOCIETY AND CULTURE

* Mead hall * Alliterative verse * Migration Period art

* Runes
Runes

* Runic calendar

* Sippe

* Ancient Germanic law

* Lawspeaker * Thing

* Germanic calendar * Germanic kingship * Germanic name * Numbers in Norse mythology * Romano-Germanic culture

RELIGION

* Odin
Odin
* Thor
Thor
* Nerthus * Veleda * Tuisto * Mannus * Sacred trees and groves

* Paganism

* Anglo-Saxon * Continental Germanic * Frankish * Norse

* Christianity

* Anglo-Saxo * Gothic

DRESS

* Bracteates * Fibula * Suebian knot

WARFARE

* Gothic and Vandal warfare * Anglo-Saxon warfare * Viking Age arms and armour * Migration Period spear * Migration Period sword

BURIAL PRACTICES

* Tumulus
Tumulus
* Ship burial * Norse funeral * Alemannic grave fields * Sutton Hoo * Spong Hill

* List of ancient Germanic peoples * Portal:Ancient Germanic culture

* v * t * e

Ethnic nationalism

AFRICA

* Acholi * Afrikaner * Algerian * Berber * Canarian * Congolese * Egyptian * Ethiopian * Hutu * Igbo * Libyan * Nigeria