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PAN-ARABISM or ARABISM is an ideology espousing the unification of the countries of North Africa and West Asia from the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
, referred to as the Arab world
Arab world
. It is closely connected to Arab nationalism
Arab nationalism
, which asserts that the Arabs constitute a single nation. Its popularity was at its height during the 1950s and 1960s. Advocates of pan-Arabism have often espoused socialist principles and strongly opposed Western political involvement in the Arab world. It also sought to empower Arab states against outside forces by forming alliances and – to a lesser extent – economic co-operation.

CONTENTS

* 1 Origins and development * 2 Attempts at Arab union * 3 Decline * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links

ORIGINS AND DEVELOPMENT

Part of a series on

ARAB LEAGUE

Issues

* Arab Winter

* Syrian Civil War

* Somali Civil War * Western Sahara
Sahara
conflict * Arab–Israeli conflict * Pan-Arabism

WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION

* Egypt
Egypt
* Iraq * Libya
Libya
* Syria
Syria

Geography

REGIONS

* Maghreb
Maghreb
* Mashriq
Mashriq
* Nile
Nile
Valley * Gulf states * Bab-el-Mandeb
Bab-el-Mandeb

DESERTS

* Sahara
Sahara

* (Libyan * Nubian * Egyptian * Bayuda )

* Arabian

* (Rub\' al Khali * Syrian Desert
Syrian Desert
* An Nafud )

* ad-Dahna Desert

Governance

* Founding Charter * Human Rights Charter

* Secretary-General ( Ahmed Aboul Gheit )

INSTITUTIONS

* Council * Summits * Parliament

Unity

ARAB LEADERS

* King Salman * King Abdullah * Fattah el-Sisi

IDEOLOGY

*

* Arab nationalism
Arab nationalism
* Nasserism
Nasserism

*

* Arab socialism
Arab socialism
* Ba\'athism

* Third International Theory
Third International Theory

ATTEMPTS AT POLITICAL UNION

* Arab Federation * Arab Islamic Republic * Federation of Arab Republics * Unified Political Command * United Arab Republic
United Arab Republic
* United Arab States

ORGANIZATIONAL UNIONS

* Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (GCC) * Arab Maghreb
Maghreb
Union

Foreign relations

MULTILATERAL

* African Union * ASEAN * European Union * Latin America

BILATERAL

* Brazil * China * Eritrea * France * India * Eritrea * Iran * Israel
Israel
* Pakistan * Russia * Turkey * United States * Uzbekistan * Venezuela

Military

* Expenditure * Arab Revolt
Arab Revolt

JOINT DEFENCE

* Joint Defence Council * United Arab Command * Peninsula Shield

* Arab Organization for Industrialization (AOI)

Economy

* Economic and Social Council * Council of Arab Economic Unity (CAEU) * Arab Monetary Fund

* Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development (AFESD) * Union for the Mediterranean * Greater Arab Free Trade Area (GAFTA) * Chambers of Commerce * Arab Customs Union
Arab Customs Union

* International Confederation of Arab Trade Unions (ICATU) * Federation of Arab Trade Unions and Labor Societies (FATULS) * Qualifying Industrial Zone (QIZ)

Transportation

* Aviation

RAILWAYS

* Berlin-Baghdad * ONCF * Palestine Railways * Hejaz Railway
Hejaz Railway

BRIDGES

* Dubai Smile * Qatar Bahrain Causeway * King Fahd Causeway * Sheikh Rashid bin Saeed Crossing * Saudi–Egypt Causeway * Bridge of the Horns

Culture

MEDIA

* Arab-SAT * Nile-SAT * Arab Media Group * Arabian Television Network * Arab International Media Services * Al Arabiya
Al Arabiya
* Al Jazeera
Al Jazeera

ARAB CAPITAL OF CULTURE

* Algiers (2007) * Jerusalem (2008) * Damascus (2009) * Doha (2010)

* Arabic
Arabic
language * Cuisine * Art * Literature Mu\'allaqat ) * Dress

SPORT

* Pan Arab Games
Pan Arab Games

* Arab Champions League (Cup Winners\' Cup ) * Gulf Cup of Nations * Arab Nations Cup

Demographics

RELIGION

* Muslims (majority) * Christians * Jews * Yazidis
Yazidis
* Shabaks * Mandaeans
Mandaeans
* Hinduism

ETHNICITIES

* Arabs
Arabs
(majority) * Berbers
Berbers
* Kurds
Kurds
* Nubians
Nubians
* Somalis * other

* ARAB DIASPORA

LIFESTYLES

* Bedouin
Bedouin
* Marsh Arabs
Arabs

LANGUAGE

* Arabic
Arabic
(majority)

* Afar * Armenian * Berber * Hebrew * Kurdish * Nubian * Persian * Somali

* v * t * e

The origins of pan-Arabism are often attributed to Jurji Zaydan (1861–1914) and his Nahda (Revival) movement. Zaydan had critical influence on acceptance of a modernized version of the Quranic Arabic language (Modern Standard Arabic
Arabic
) as the universal written and official language throughout the Arab world, instead of adoption of local dialects in the various countries. He also popularized through his historical novels certain heroes from Arab history. Pan-Arabism was first pressed by Sharif Hussein ibn Ali , the Sharif of Mecca , who sought independence for the Mashreq Arabs
Arabs
from the Ottoman Empire , and the establishment of a unified Arab state in the Mashreq. In 1915 and 1916, the Hussein-McMahon Correspondence resulted in an agreement between the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the Sharif that if the Mashreq Arabs
Arabs
revolted successfully against the Ottomans, the United Kingdom would support claims for Mashreq Arab independence. In 1916, however, the Sykes-Picot Agreement between the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and France determined that parts of the Mashreq would be divided between those powers rather than forming part of an independent Arab state. When the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
surrendered in 1918, the United Kingdom refused to keep to the letter of its arrangements with Hussein, and the two nations assumed guardianship of Mesapotamia, Lebanon, Palestine and what became modern Syria. Ultimately, Hussein became King of only Hijaz
Hijaz
, in the then less strategically valuable south, but lost his Caliphate
Caliphate
throne when the kingdom was sacked by the Najdi Ikhwan
Ikhwan
forces of the Saudites and forcefully incorporated into the newly created Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
.

A more formalized pan-Arab ideology than that of Hussein was first espoused in the 1930s, notably by Syrian thinkers such as Constantin Zureiq , Sati\' al-Husri , Zaki al-Arsuzi
Zaki al-Arsuzi
, and Michel Aflaq . Aflaq and al-Arsuzi were key figures in the establishment of the Arab Ba’ath (Renaissance) Party , and the former was for long its chief ideologist, combining elements of Marxist thought with a nationalism to a considerable extent reminiscent of nineteenth-century European romantic nationalism. It has been said that Arsuzi was fascinated with the Nazi ideology of "racial purity" and impacted Aflaq .

Abdullah I of Jordan dreamed of uniting Syria
Syria
, Palestine, and Jordan under his leadership in what he would call Greater Syria
Syria
. He unsuccessfully proposed a plan to this effect to the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, which controlled Palestine at that time. The plan was not popular among the majority of Arabs
Arabs
and fostered distrust among the leaders of the other Middle Eastern countries against Abdallah. The distrust of Abdallah\'s expansionist aspirations was one of the principal reasons for the founding of the Arab League
Arab League
in 1945. Once Abdallah was assassinated by a Palestinian nationalist in 1951, the vision of Greater Syria
Syria
was dropped from the Jordanian agenda.

The pan-Arabist ideology has been accused of inciting prejudice against or downplaying the role of ethnic minorities such as the Berbers
Berbers
. Although pan-Arabism began at the time of World War I
World War I
, Egypt
Egypt
(the most populous and arguably most important Arabic-speaking country) was not interested in pan-Arabism prior to the 1950s. Thus, in the 1930s and 1940s, Egyptian nationalism – not pan-Arabism – was the dominant mode of expression of Egyptian political activists. James Jankowski wrote about Egypt
Egypt
at the time,

What is most significant is the absence of an Arab component in early Egyptian nationalism. The thrust of Egyptian political, economic, and cultural development throughout the nineteenth century worked against, rather than for, an 'Arab' orientation. ... This situation—that of divergent political trajectories for Egyptians and Arabs—if anything increased after 1900.

ATTEMPTS AT ARAB UNION

It was not until Gamal Abdel Nasser that Arab nationalism
Arab nationalism
(in addition to Arab socialism
Arab socialism
) became a state policy and a means with which to define Egypt's position in the Middle East and the world, usually articulated vis-à-vis Zionism
Zionism
in the neighbouring Jewish state of Israel
Israel
. Under Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser , pan-Arabism dominated politics in the 1950s and 1960s

There have been several attempts to bring about a pan-Arab state by many well-known Arab leaders, all of which ultimately resulted in failure. British Foreign Minister Anthony Eden
Anthony Eden
called for Arab unity during the 1940s, and was followed by specific proposals from pro-British leaders, including King Abdullah of Transjordan and Prime Minister Nuri al-Said of Iraq, but Egyptian proposals for a broader grouping of independent Arab states prevailed with the establishment of the League of Arab States, a regional international organization, in 1945. In large part representing the popularity Nasser had gained among the masses in the Arab world
Arab world
following the Suez crisis, the United Arab Republic
United Arab Republic
(UAR) in 1958 was the first case of the actual merger of two previously-independent Arab countries. Hastily formed under President Nasser's leadership but on the initiative of Syrian leaders who feared a takeover by communists or "reactionaries" and hoped to lead the new entity, the UAR was a unitary state, not a federal union, with its critics seeing this as hardly more than a small country being annexed by a larger one. It lasted until 1961, when Syrian army officers carried out a coup d'état and withdrew from the union. As politicians felt pressured by the wide public to espouse the idea of unity, Egypt, Syria
Syria
and Iraq entered into an abortive agreement in 1963 to form the United Arab Republic, which was to be "federal in structure, leaving each member state its identity and institutions." By 1961, Egypt
Egypt
had become the only remaining member but continued to call itself "the UAR" (thereby implying it was open for unification with other Arab countries), but it eventually renamed itself the "Arab Republic of Egypt" in 1973.

Also in 1958, a Hashemite
Hashemite
-led rival, the Arab Federation , was founded between Jordan
Jordan
and Iraq . Tensions with the UAR and the 14 July Revolution made the Arab Federation collapse after only six months. Another attempt, the United Arab States , existed as a confederation between the United Arab Republic, Arab Federation and the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen , but it dissolved in 1961.

Two later attempts represented the enthusiasm of Libya
Libya
's Muammar Gaddafi , the Federation of Arab Republics , which lasted five years, and the Arab Islamic Republic , which never emerged in practice. Aside from the forcible unification of much of the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
by the Saudi rulers of Najd
Najd
during the 1920s, the unity of seven Arab emirates that form the United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
and the unification of North Yemen and South Yemen stand today as rare examples of actual unification. The current Syrian government is and the former government of Iraq was led by rival factions of the Ba\'ath Party , which continues to espouse pan-Arabism and is organized in several other countries.

DECLINE

States and territories in the Arab League
Arab League

The Arab defeat by Israel
Israel
in the 1967 Six-Day War
Six-Day War
and the inability of pan-Arabist governments to generate economic growth severely damaged the credibility of pan-Arabism as a relevant ideology. "By the mid-1970s," according to The Continuum Political Encyclopedia of the Middle East, "the idea of Arab unity became less and less apparent in Arab politics, though it remained a wishful goal among the masses."

Egyptians' attachment to pan-Arabism was particularly questioned after the Six-Day War. Nasser had overplayed his hand in trying to form a pan-Arab hegemony under himself. Thousands of Egyptians had lost their lives, and the country became disillusioned with Arab politics. The Camp David Accords between Egypt
Egypt
and Israel
Israel
in 1978 further fractured the Arabic-speaking countries. Nasser's successor Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
, both through public policy and his peace initiative with Israel, revived an uncontested Egyptian orientation, unequivocally asserting that only Egypt
Egypt
and Egyptians were his responsibility. The terms Arab, Arabism, and Arab unity became conspicuously absent.

By the late 1980s, pan-Arabism began to be eclipsed by both nationalist and Islamist ideologies.

Egyptian critics of Arab nationalism
Arab nationalism
contend that it has worked to erode and relegate native Egyptian identity by superimposing only one aspect of Egypt's culture. Those views and sources for collective identification in the Egyptian state are captured in the words of a linguistic anthropologist who conducted fieldwork in Cairo:

Historically, Egyptians have considered themselves as distinct from 'Arabs' and even at present rarely do they make that identification in casual contexts; il-'arab as used by Egyptians refers mainly to the inhabitants of the Gulf states... Egypt
Egypt
has been both a leader of pan-Arabism and a site of intense resentment towards that ideology. Egyptians had to be made, often forcefully, into "Arabs" because they did not historically identify themselves as such. Egypt
Egypt
was self-consciously a nation not only before pan-Arabism but also before becoming a colony of the British Empire. Its territorial continuity since ancient times, its unique history as exemplified in its pharaonic past and later on its Coptic language
Coptic language
and culture, had already made Egypt
Egypt
into a nation for centuries. Egyptians saw themselves, their history, culture and language as specifically Egyptian and not "Arab."

SEE ALSO

* Arab world
Arab world
portal

* Arab Union
Arab Union
* Ba\'athism * Pan-Africanism
Pan-Africanism
* Pan-Iranism * Pan- Islamism
Islamism
* Pan-Turkism
Pan-Turkism

REFERENCES

* ^ A B C D "Arab Unity." The Continuum Political Encyclopedia of the Middle East. Ed. Avraham Sela . New York: Continuum, 2002. pp. 160–166. * ^ Contemporary Politics in the Middle East, Beverly Milton-Edwards, Polity Press, 2006, p. 57-59 * ^ The Syrian Arab Republic: a handbook, Anne Sinai, Allen Pollack, 1976, p. 45 * ^ Google Books * ^ P