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Pan-Arabism
Pan-Arabism
or Arabism is an ideology espousing the unification of the countries of North Africa and West Asia from the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the Arabian Sea, referred to as the Arab world. It is closely connected to Arab nationalism, which asserts that the Arabs
Arabs
constitute a single nation. Its popularity was at its height during the 1950s and 1960s. Advocates of pan-Arabism have often espoused socialist principles and strongly opposed Western political involvement in the Arab world.[dubious – discuss] It also sought to empower Arab states against outside forces by forming alliances and – to a lesser extent – economic co-operation.[1]

Contents

1 Origins and development 2 Attempts at Arab union 3 Decline 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Origins and development[edit]

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v t e

The origins of pan-Arabism are often attributed to Jurji Zaydan (1861–1914) and his Nahda (Revival) movement. Zaydan had critical influence on acceptance of a modernized version of the Quranic Arabic language (Modern Standard Arabic) as the universal written and official language throughout the Arab world, instead of adoption of local dialects in the various countries. He also popularized through his historical novels certain heroes from Arab history. Pan-Arabism was first pressed by Sharif Hussein ibn Ali, the Sharif of Mecca, who sought independence for the Mashreq Arabs
Arabs
from the Ottoman Empire, and the establishment of a unified Arab state in the Mashreq. In 1915 and 1916, the Hussein-McMahon Correspondence
Hussein-McMahon Correspondence
resulted in an agreement between the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the Sharif that if the Mashreq Arabs revolted successfully against the Ottomans, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
would support claims for Mashreq Arab independence. In 1916, however, the Sykes-Picot Agreement
Sykes-Picot Agreement
between the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and France determined that parts of the Mashreq would be divided between those powers rather than forming part of an independent Arab state. When the Ottoman Empire surrendered in 1918, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
refused to keep to the letter of its arrangements with Hussein,[2] and the two nations assumed guardianship of Mesopotamia, Lebanon, Palestine and what became modern Syria. Ultimately, Hussein became King of only Hijaz, in the then less strategically valuable south, but lost his Caliphate throne when the kingdom was sacked by the Najdi Ikhwan
Ikhwan
forces of the Saudites and forcefully incorporated into the newly created Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A more formalized pan-Arab ideology than that of Hussein was first espoused in the 1930s, notably by Syrian thinkers such as Constantin Zureiq, Sati' al-Husri, Zaki al-Arsuzi, and Michel Aflaq. Aflaq
Aflaq
and al-Arsuzi were key figures in the establishment of the Arab Ba’ath (Renaissance) Party, and the former was for long its chief ideologist, combining elements of Marxist thought with a nationalism to a considerable extent reminiscent of nineteenth-century European romantic nationalism. It has been said that Arsuzi was fascinated with the Nazi ideology of "racial purity" and impacted Aflaq.[3][4][5] Abdullah I of Jordan
Abdullah I of Jordan
dreamed of uniting Syria, Palestine, and Jordan under his leadership in what he would call Greater Syria. He unsuccessfully proposed a plan to this effect to the United Kingdom, which controlled Palestine at that time. The plan was not popular among the majority of Arabs
Arabs
and fostered distrust among the leaders of the other Middle Eastern countries against Abdallah. The distrust of Abdallah's expansionist aspirations was one of the principal reasons for the founding of the Arab League
Arab League
in 1945.[6] Once Abdallah was assassinated by a Palestinian nationalist
Palestinian nationalist
in 1951, the vision of Greater Syria
Syria
was dropped from the Jordanian agenda.[1] The pan-Arabist ideology has been accused of inciting prejudice against or downplaying the role of ethnic minorities such as the Berbers.[7] Although pan-Arabism began at the time of World War I, Egypt
Egypt
(the most populous and arguably most important Arabic-speaking country) was not interested in pan-Arabism prior to the 1950s. Thus, in the 1930s and 1940s, Egyptian nationalism
Egyptian nationalism
– not pan-Arabism – was the dominant mode of expression of Egyptian political activists. James Jankowski wrote about Egypt
Egypt
at the time,

What is most significant is the absence of an Arab component in early Egyptian nationalism. The thrust of Egyptian political, economic, and cultural development throughout the nineteenth century worked against, rather than for, an 'Arab' orientation. ... This situation—that of divergent political trajectories for Egyptians and Arabs—if anything increased after 1900.[8]

Attempts at Arab union[edit] It was not until Gamal Abdel Nasser
Gamal Abdel Nasser
that Arab nationalism
Arab nationalism
(in addition to Arab socialism) became a state policy and a means with which to define Egypt's position in the Middle East and the world,[9][10] usually articulated vis-à-vis Zionism
Zionism
in the neighbouring Jewish state of Israel.

Under Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser, pan-Arabism dominated politics in the 1950s and 1960s

There have been several attempts to bring about a pan-Arab state by many well-known Arab leaders, all of which ultimately resulted in failure. British Foreign Minister Anthony Eden
Anthony Eden
called for Arab unity during the 1940s, and was followed by specific proposals from pro-British leaders, including King Abdullah of Transjordan and Prime Minister Nuri al-Said
Nuri al-Said
of Iraq, but Egyptian proposals for a broader grouping of independent Arab states prevailed with the establishment of the League of Arab States, a regional international organization, in 1945. In large part representing the popularity Nasser had gained among the masses in the Arab world
Arab world
following the Suez crisis, the United Arab Republic
United Arab Republic
(UAR) in 1958 was the first case of the actual merger of two previously-independent Arab countries. Hastily formed under President Nasser's leadership but on the initiative of Syrian leaders who feared a takeover by communists or "reactionaries" and hoped to lead the new entity, the UAR was a unitary state, not a federal union, with its critics seeing this as hardly more than a small country being annexed by a larger one. It lasted until 1961, when Syrian army officers carried out a coup d'état and withdrew from the union. As politicians felt pressured by the wide public to espouse the idea of unity, Egypt, Syria
Syria
and Iraq entered into an abortive agreement in 1963 to form the United Arab Republic, which was to be "federal in structure, leaving each member state its identity and institutions."[1] By 1961, Egypt
Egypt
had become the only remaining member but continued to call itself "the UAR" (thereby implying it was open for unification with other Arab countries), but it eventually renamed itself the "Arab Republic of Egypt" in 1973.[11] Also in 1958, a Hashemite-led rival, the Arab Federation, was founded between Jordan
Jordan
and Iraq. Tensions with the UAR and the 14 July Revolution made the Arab Federation
Arab Federation
collapse after only six months. Another attempt, the United Arab States, existed as a confederation between the United Arab Republic, Arab Federation
Arab Federation
and the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen, but it dissolved in 1961. Two later attempts represented the enthusiasm of Libya's Muammar Gaddafi, the Federation of Arab Republics, which lasted five years, and the Arab Islamic Republic, which never emerged in practice. Aside from the forcible unification of much of the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
by the Saudi rulers of Najd
Najd
during the 1920s, the unity of seven Arab emirates that form the United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
and the unification of North Yemen and South Yemen stand today as rare examples of actual unification. The current Syrian government is and the former government of Iraq was led by rival factions of the Ba'ath Party, which continues to espouse pan-Arabism and is organized in several other countries.[when?] Decline[edit]

States and territories in the Arab League

The Arab defeat by Israel
Israel
in the 1967 Six-Day War
Six-Day War
and the inability of pan-Arabist governments to generate economic growth severely damaged the credibility of pan-Arabism as a relevant ideology. "By the mid-1970s," according to The Continuum Political Encyclopedia of the Middle East, "the idea of Arab unity became less and less apparent in Arab politics, though it remained a wishful goal among the masses."[1] Egyptians' attachment to pan-Arabism was particularly questioned after the Six-Day War. Nasser had overplayed his hand in trying to form a pan-Arab hegemony under himself. Thousands of Egyptians had lost their lives, and the country became disillusioned with Arab politics.[12] The Camp David Accords
Camp David Accords
between Egypt
Egypt
and Israel
Israel
in 1978 further fractured the Arabic-speaking countries. Nasser's successor Anwar Sadat, both through public policy and his peace initiative with Israel, revived an uncontested Egyptian orientation, unequivocally asserting that only Egypt
Egypt
and Egyptians were his responsibility. The terms Arab, Arabism, and Arab unity became conspicuously absent.[13] By the late 1980s, pan-Arabism began to be eclipsed by both nationalist and Islamist ideologies. Egyptian critics of Arab nationalism
Arab nationalism
contend that it has worked to erode and relegate native Egyptian identity by superimposing only one aspect of Egypt's culture. Those views and sources for collective identification in the Egyptian state are captured in the words of a linguistic anthropologist who conducted fieldwork in Cairo:

Historically, Egyptians have considered themselves as distinct from 'Arabs' and even at present rarely do they make that identification in casual contexts; il-'arab [the Arabs] as used by Egyptians refers mainly to the inhabitants of the Gulf states... Egypt
Egypt
has been both a leader of pan-Arabism and a site of intense resentment towards that ideology. Egyptians had to be made, often forcefully, into "Arabs" [during the Nasser era] because they did not historically identify themselves as such. Egypt
Egypt
was self-consciously a nation not only before pan-Arabism but also before becoming a colony of the British Empire. Its territorial continuity since ancient times, its unique history as exemplified in its pharaonic past and later on its Coptic language and culture, had already made Egypt
Egypt
into a nation for centuries. Egyptians saw themselves, their history, culture and language as specifically Egyptian and not "Arab."[14]

See also[edit]

Arab world
Arab world
portal

Arab Union Ba'athism Pan-Africanism Pan-Iranism Pan-Islamism Pan-Turkism

References[edit]

^ a b c d "Arab Unity." The Continuum Political Encyclopedia of the Middle East. Ed. Avraham Sela. New York: Continuum, 2002. pp. 160–166. ^ Contemporary Politics in the Middle East, Beverly Milton-Edwards, Polity Press, 2006, p. 57-59 ^ The Syrian Arab Republic: a handbook, Anne Sinai, Allen Pollack, 1976, p. 45 ^ Google Books ^ Pan-Arabism
Pan-Arabism
and Arab nationalism: the continuing debate by Tawfic Farah, Publisher Westview Press, 1987, p. 37 ^ Sela, Avraham. "Arab League." Sela. The Continuum Political Encyclopedia of the Middle East. 147-150. ^ Pelham, Nick. "Moroccan Berbers
Berbers
press for rights." BBC News. 2 January 2001. 18 November 2010. ^ Jankowski, James. " Egypt
Egypt
and Early Arab Nationalism" in Rashid Khalidi, ed. The Origins of Arab Nationalism. New York: Columbia University Press, 1990, pp. 244–45 ^ For more information, see Aburish, Said K. (2004), Nasser, the Last Arab, New York City: St. Martin's Press, ISBN 978-0-312-28683-5 ^ "Before Nasser, Egypt, which had been ruled by Britain since 1882, was more in favor of territorial, Egyptian nationalism
Egyptian nationalism
and distant from the pan-Arab ideology. Egyptians often did not identify themselves primarily as Arabs, and it is revealing that when the Egyptian nationalist leader Saad Zaghlul
Saad Zaghlul
met the Arab delegates at Versailles in 1918, he insisted that their struggles for statehood were not connected, claiming that the problem of Egypt
Egypt
was an Egyptian problem and not an Arab one." Makropoulou, Ifigenia. Pan - Arabism: What Destroyed the Ideology of Arab Nationalism?. Hellenic Center for European Studies. January 15, 2007. ^ " United Arab Republic
United Arab Republic
(UAR)." Sela. The Continuum Political Encyclopedia of the Middle East. 873-874. ^ Dawisha, p. 237 ^ Dawisha, pp. 264–65, 267 ^ Haeri, Niloofar. Sacred language, Ordinary People: Dilemmas of Culture and Politics in Egypt. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. 2003, pp. 47, 136.

External links[edit]

Arab Nationalism: Mistaken Identity by Martin Kramer Sample chapter from Arab Nationalism in the Twentieth Century by A. Dawisha " Pan-Arabism
Pan-Arabism
on the March?: Israel
Israel
Weighs the New Challenge"[permanent dead link] by Nissim Rejwan

v t e

Arab nationalism

Ideology

Arab socialism Ba'athism Nasserism Pan-Arabism Third International Theory

History

Arabization Arab Revolt Intercommunal conflict in Mandatory Palestine Iraqi revolt against the British Arab separatism in Khuzestan Great Syrian Revolt 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine 1941 Iraqi coup d'état Anglo-Iraqi War Arab–Israeli conflict Israeli–Palestinian conflict 1948 Arab–Israeli War Egyptian revolution of 1952 Iraqi Intifada Algerian War Suez Crisis United Arab Republic United Arab States Arab Federation 14 July Revolution 1959 Mosul uprising 1961 Syrian coup d'état Arab Cold War North Yemen Civil War Ramadan Revolution 1963 Syrian coup d'état Dhofar Rebellion November 1963 Iraqi coup d'état Aden Emergency Unified Political Command 1966 Syrian coup d'état Six-Day War War of Attrition 17 July Revolution Ba'athist Iraq 1969 Sudanese coup d'état 1969 Libyan coup d'état Black September Federation of Arab Republics United Arab Republic
United Arab Republic
(1972) Yom Kippur War Arab Islamic Republic Lebanese Civil War 1979 Khuzestan insurgency First Intifada Second Intifada

Concepts

Arab identity Arab Union Arab world Greater Syria

Personalities

Michel Aflaq Jassem Alwan Abdul Rahman Arif Abdul Salam Arif Zaki al-Arsuzi Bashar al-Assad Hafez al-Assad Jamal al-Atassi Mansur al-Atrash Sultan al-Atrash Tariq Aziz Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr Ahmed Ben Bella Salah al-Din al-Bitar Izzat Darwaza Faisal I of Iraq Muammar Gaddafi Rashid Ali al-Gaylani George Habash Sati' al-Husri Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca Saddam Hussein Amin al-Husseini Salah Jadid Abd al-Rahman al-Kawakibi Gamal Abdel Nasser Adnan Pachachi Ameen Rihani Fuad al-Rikabi Abdullah Rimawi Hamdeen Sabahi Constantin Zureiq

Organizations

Al-Awda Al-Fatat Al-Mourabitoun Arab Ba'ath Arab Ba'ath
Arab Ba'ath
Movement Arab Higher Committee Arab Liberation Army Arab Nationalist Movement Arab Socialist Action Party Arab Socialist Union (Egypt) Arab Socialist Union (Iraq) Arab Socialist Union (Syria) Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
People's Union Army of the Men of the Naqshbandi Order Ba'ath Party Ba'ath Party
Ba'ath Party
(Iraqi-dominated faction) Ba'ath Party
Ba'ath Party
(Syrian-dominated faction) Fatah General Military Council for Iraqi Revolutionaries Independence Party (Mandatory Palestine) Islamic Legion Lebanese National Movement Libyan Arab Socialist Union National Liberation Front (Algeria) Palestine Liberation Organization Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine Rejectionist Front Supreme Command for Jihad and Liberation

Literature

The Arab Awakening On the Way of Resurrection The Battle for One Destiny

Symbolism

Coat of arms of the United Arab Republic Eagle of Saladin Flag of the Arab Federation Flag of the Arab Revolt Flag of the Ba'ath Party Hawk of Quraish Pan-Arab colors

Related topics

Algerian nationalism Egyptian nationalism Greater Mauritania Greater Morocco Greater Somalia Greater Yemen Iraqi nationalism Islamism Jordanian nationalism Lebanese nationalism Libyan nationalism Palestinian nationalism Pan-Islamism Sahrawi nationalism Somali nationalism Syrian nationalism Tunisian nationalism

v t e

Irredentism

Africa

Congo Comoros Madagascar Mauritania Mauritius Morocco

Free Zone

Somalia South Africa

Asia

Armenia

Artsakh

Azerbaijan Bengal

United Bengal Greater Bangladesh

Cambodia China

Nine-Dash Line

Georgia Kashmir Kurdistan

Iraqi Kurdistan Iranian Kurdistan Turkish Kurdistan Syrian Kurdistan

Korea

Tsushima

India Indonesia Iran

Iranian peoples

Iraq

Kuwait Assyrian homeland

Israel Japan Lebanon Mongolia Nepal Philippines Syria

Hatay

Timor Turkey

Cyprus Turkic peoples

Yemen

Europe

Albania

Kosovo Macedonia

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Wallonia

Germany

Germanic

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Cyprus

Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy

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Americas

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Oceania

Australia Nelsonia Papua New Guinea Samoa Vanuatu

Related concepts: Border changes
Border changes
· Partitionism · Reunification · Revanchism
Revanchism
· Rump state

v t e

Pan-nationalist concepts

Ideas

Pan-Africanism Pan-Americanism Pan-Arabism Pan-Asianism Berberism Pan-Celticism Czechoslovakism Pan-Germanism Pan-Germanicism Pan-European nationalism Panhispanism Pan-Iberism Pan-Indianism Pan-Iranism Pan-Latinism Pan-Mongolism Pan-Oceanianism Scandinavism Pan-Serbism Pan-Slavism Turanism Pan-Turkism Yugoslavism

Territorial concepts

Greater Albania Greater Bulgaria Greater Catalonia Greater China Greater Croatia Greater Finland Greater Hungary Greater Iran Greater Israel Greater Italy Greater Mexico Greater Morocco Greater Nepal Greater Netherlands Greater Norway Greater Portugal Greater Romania Greater Serbia Greater Somalia Greater Spain Greater Syria Greater Ukraine Greater Yugoslavia Greek Megali Idea Kurdistan Occitania Tamazgha Turkish Misak-ı Millî United Armenia United Ireland United Macedoni

.