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Pale lager
Pale lager
is a very pale-to-golden-colored lager beer with a well attenuated body and a varying degree of noble hop bitterness. The brewing process for this beer developed in the mid-19th century, when Gabriel Sedlmayr took pale ale brewing techniques back to the Spaten Brewery
Spaten Brewery
in Germany
Germany
and applied them to existing lagering methods. This approach was picked up by other brewers, most notably Josef Groll
Josef Groll
of Bavaria
Bavaria
who produced Pilsner Urquell
Pilsner Urquell
in the city of Pilsen in the Austro-Hungarian Empire
Austro-Hungarian Empire
(now in the Czech Republic). The resulting Pilsner
Pilsner
beers—pale-colored, lean and stable beers—were very successful[clarification needed] and gradually spread around the globe to become the most common form of beer consumed in the world today.

Contents

1 History 2 Description 3 Variations

3.1 Pilsner 3.2 Dortmunder Export 3.3 Helles 3.4 American lager 3.5 Dry beer 3.6 Premium lager

4 Strong lager

4.1 Bock 4.2 Malt
Malt
liquor 4.3 Oktoberfestbier/Märzen

5 References

History[edit]

First Pilsner
Pilsner
beer: Pilsner
Pilsner
Urquell

Bavarian brewers in the sixteenth century were required by law to brew beer only during the cooler months of the year. In order to have beer available during the hot summer months, beers would be stored (lagered) in caves and stone cellars, often under blocks of ice. In the period 1820–1830, a brewer named Gabriel Sedlmayr II the Younger, whose family was running the Spaten Brewery
Spaten Brewery
in Bavaria, went around Europe
Europe
to improve his brewing skills. When he returned, he used what he had learned to get a more stable and consistent lager beer. The Bavarian lager was still different from the widely known modern lager; due to the use of dark malts it was quite dark, representing what is now called Dunkel
Dunkel
beer or the stronger variety, bock beer. The new recipe of the improved lager beer spread quickly over Europe. In particular Sedlmayr's friend Anton Dreher
Anton Dreher
adopted new kilning techniques that enabled the use of lighter malts to improve the Viennese beer in 1840–1841, creating a rich amber-red colored Vienna-style lager. Description[edit] Pale lagers tend to be dry, lean, clean-tasting and crisp. Flavors may be subtle, with no traditional beer ingredient dominating the others. Hop character (bitterness, flavor, and aroma) ranges from negligible to a dry bitterness from noble hops. The main ingredients are water, Pilsner
Pilsner
malt and noble hops, though some brewers use adjuncts such as rice or corn to lighten the body of the beer. There tends to be no butterscotch flavor from diacetyl, due to the slow, cold fermentation process. Variations[edit] Pilsner[edit] Main article: Pilsner Pale lager
Pale lager
was developed in the mid 19th century, when Gabriel Sedlmayr took some British pale ale brewing techniques back to the Spaten Brewery
Spaten Brewery
in Germany, and started to modernize continental brewing methods. In 1842 Josef Groll
Josef Groll
of Pilsen, a city in western Bohemia
Bohemia
in what is now the Czech Republic, used some of these methods to produce Pilsner
Pilsner
Urquell, the first known example of a golden lager.[1] This beer proved so successful that other breweries followed the trend, using the name Pilsner. Breweries now use the terms "lager" and "Pilsner" interchangeably, though pale lagers from Germany
Germany
and the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
with the name Pilsner
Pilsner
tend to have more evident noble hop aroma and dry finish than other pale lagers.[2][3] Dortmunder Export[edit] Main article: Dortmunder Export With the success of Pilsen's golden beer, the town of Dortmund
Dortmund
in Germany
Germany
started brewing pale lager in 1873. As Dortmund
Dortmund
was a major brewing center, and the town breweries grouped together to export the beer beyond the town, the brand name Dortmunder Export
Dortmunder Export
became known.[4] Today, breweries in Denmark, the Netherlands, and North America brew pale lagers labelled as Dortmunder Export.

A typical helles

Helles[edit] Main article: Helles In 1894, the Spaten Brewery
Spaten Brewery
in Munich
Munich
noticed the commercial success of the pale lagers Pilsner
Pilsner
and Dortmunder Export; Spaten
Spaten
utilized the methods that Sedlmayr had brought home over 50 years earlier to produce their own pale lager they named helles, which is German for "light colored", in order to distinguish it from the darker, sweeter beers from that region: Dunkelbier or dunkles Bier ("dark beer").[5][6] Initially other Munich
Munich
breweries were reluctant to brew pale-colored beer, though as the popularity of pale beers grew, so gradually other breweries in Munich
Munich
and Bavaria
Bavaria
began brewing pale lager either using the name hell or pils.[7] Today, in Munich
Munich
and Bavaria
Bavaria
pale lagers termed helles, hell, pils or gold remain popular, with a local inclination to use low levels of hops, and an abv in the range 4.7% to 5.4% abv; Munich
Munich
breweries which produce such pale lagers include Löwenbräu, Staatliches Hofbräuhaus
Hofbräuhaus
in München, Augustiner Bräu, and Hacker-Pschorr; with Spaten-Franziskaner-Bräu producing a 5.2% abv pale lager called Spaten
Spaten
Munchner Hell.[7][8][9][10][11] American lager[edit] Main article: American lager The earliest known brewing of pale lager in America was in the Old City section of Philadelphia by John Wagner in 1840 using yeast from his native Bavaria.[12] Modern American lagers are usually made by large breweries such as Anheuser-Busch. Lightness of body is a cardinal virtue, both by design and since it allows the use of a high percentage of rice or corn. Dry beer[edit] Though all lagers are well attenuated, a more fully fermented pale lager in Germany
Germany
goes by the name Diät-Pils or Diätbier (de). "Diet" in the instance not referring to being "light" in calories or body, rather its sugars are fully fermented into alcohol, allowing the beer to be targeted to diabetics due to its lower carbohydrate content.[13] Because the available sugars are fully fermented, dry beers often have a higher alcohol content, which may be reduced in the same manner as low-alcohol beers. The first dry beer, Gablinger's Diet Beer, was released in 1967, developed by Joseph Owades at Rheingold Breweries
Rheingold Breweries
in Brooklyn. Owades developed an enzyme that could further break down starches, so that the finished product contained fewer residual carbohydrates and was lower in food energy.[14] Since the 2012 revisions to the Diätverordnung (de) (Ordinance on Dietetic Foodstuffs), it is no longer permitted to label beer as "Diät" in Germany, but it may be advertised as "suitable for diabetics". Prior to this change, a Diätbier could contain no more than 7.5 g of unfermented carbohydrates per liter (a typical lager contains 30-40 g/L), and the alcohol content could not exceed normal levels (5% ABV). A marketing term for a fully attenuated pale lager, originally used in Japan by Asahi Breweries
Asahi Breweries
in 1987, "karakuchi" (辛口, dry),[15] was taken up by the American brewer Anheuser-Busch
Anheuser-Busch
in 1988 as "dry beer" for the Michelob
Michelob
brand, Michelob
Michelob
Dry.[16] This was followed by other "dry beer" brands such as Bud Dry, though the marketing concept was not considered a success.[17] Premium lager[edit] Premium lager is a marketing term sometimes used by brewers for products they wish to promote; there is no legal definition for such a product, but it can be meaningfully applied to an all-malt product of around 5% abv. Anheuser-Busch
Anheuser-Busch
also uses the terms "sub-premium" and "super-premium" to describe the low-end Busch beer and the slightly higher-end Michelob. Strong lager[edit] Pale lagers that exceed an abv of around 5.8% are variously termed bock, malt liquor, super strength lager, Oktoberfestbier/Märzen, or European strong lager. Bock[edit] Main article: Bock Bock
Bock
is a strong lager which has origins in the Hanseatic town of Einbeck
Einbeck
in Germany. The name is a corruption of the medieval German brewing town of Einbeck, but also means billy goat (buck) in German. The original bocks were dark beers, brewed from high-colored malts. Modern bocks can be dark, amber or pale in color. Bock
Bock
was traditionally brewed for special occasions, often religious festivals such as Christmas, Easter
Easter
or Lent. Malt
Malt
liquor[edit] Main article: Malt
Malt
liquor Malt liquor
Malt liquor
is an American term referring to a strong pale lager. In the UK, similarly-made beverages are called super-strength lager. Oktoberfestbier/Märzen[edit] Main article: Märzen

A mug of Paulaner
Paulaner
Oktoberfest
Oktoberfest
beer

Oktoberfest
Oktoberfest
is a German festival dating from 1810, and Oktoberfestbiers are the beers that have been served at the festival since 1818, and are supplied by six breweries: Spaten, Löwenbräu, Augustiner-Bräu, Hofbräu-München, Paulaner
Paulaner
and Hacker-Pschorr.[18] Traditionally Oktoberfestbiers were the lagers of around 5.5 to 6 abv called Märzen, brewed in March and allowed to ferment slowly during the summer months. Originally these would have been dark lagers, but from 1872 a strong March brewed version of an amber-red Vienna lager made by Josef Sedlmayr became the favorite Oktoberfestbier.[18] The color of Märzen
Märzen
and so Oktoberfestbier has become even lighter since the late 20th century, with all Oktoberfest
Oktoberfest
beers brewed in Munich since 1990 being golden in color;[18] though some Munich
Munich
brewers still produce darker versions, mostly for export to the United States.[19] Oktoberfestbier is a registered trademark of the big six Munich breweries, who call themselves the Club of Munich
Munich
Brewers. Oktoberfestbier is also known as Munich
Munich
beer, and—along with Bavarian beer— Munich
Munich
beer is protected by the European Union
European Union
as a Protected Geographical Indication
Protected Geographical Indication
(PGI).[20] References[edit] Notes

^ "Michael Jackson's Beer Hunter—The birth of lager". Beerhunter.com. Retrieved 2014-04-08.  ^ "Michael Jackson's Beer Hunter—Beer Styles: Pilsener/Pilsner/Pils". Beerhunter.com. Retrieved 2014-04-08.  ^ "Roger Protz Complete Guide to World Beer". beer-pages.com. 2004-12-04. Retrieved 2014-04-08.  ^ "all you need to know about beer". beer-pages.com. Retrieved 2014-04-08.  ^ "Helles". Germanbeerinstitute.com. Archived from the original on 2016-04-10. Retrieved 2014-04-08.  ^ "Münchner Helles". German Beer Guide. 2002-05-16. Retrieved 2014-04-08.  ^ a b Conrad Seidl (9 Sep 2011). "Helles". The Oxford Companion to Beer. Oxford University Press. pp. 430–431.  ^ Larry Hawthorne. "The Big Six". beerdrinkersguide.com.  ^ Ronald Pattinson. " Munich
Munich
Breweries". europeanbeerguide.net.  ^ " Spaten
Spaten
Münchner Hell". spaten.de.  ^ " Spaten
Spaten
Münchner Hell / München / Premium". ratebeer.com.  ^ LaBan, Craig (February 19, 2015). "PA Brewers Take Aim at Teutonic Traditions". TCA Regional News. Chicago. Retrieved 14 September 2016.  ^ "Michael Jackson's Beer Hunter—Beer Styles: Diat Pils". Beerhunter.com. Retrieved 2014-04-08.  ^ www.truthinadvertising.org ^ Asahi Breweries
Asahi Breweries
Products Asahi Super Dry Archived June 29, 2006, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Philip Van Munching, Beer Blast, pp 232-233, 1997, ISBN 0-8129-6391-1 ^ Philip Van Munching, Beer Blast, pp. 233–235, 1997, ISBN 0-8129-6391-1 ^ a b c Conrad Seidl (9 Sep 2011). The Oxford Companion to Beer. Oxford University Press. pp. 624–625. Retrieved 14 November 2012.  ^ Jackson, Michael. "Michael Jackson's Beer Hunter—The birth of lager". www.beerhunter.com. Retrieved 2008-05-04.  ^ "Big Six Breweries in Munich". www.beerdrinkersguide.com. Retrieved 2008-05-04. 

Bibliography

Fix, George J. Vienna Marzen Oktoberfest
Oktoberfest
(Classic Beer Style), Brewers Publications, 1991, ISBN 0-937381-27-6 Miller, David. Continental Pilsener (Classic Beer Style), Brewers Publications, 1990, ISBN 0-937381-20-9 Rickman, Darryl. Bock
Bock
(Classic Beer Style), Brewers Publications, 1994, ISBN 0-937381-39-X

v t e

Beer styles

Ale Lager

Beer in Belgium

Pilsner White or wheat beer Blonde or golden ale Hop-accentuated beers and India Pale Ale Lambic

Framboise Gueuze Kriek

Amber ales Trappist beers Abbey beers Tripel Flanders red ale Dubbel Oud bruin Brown Ale Scotch Ales Stout Quadrupel Saison Winter or Christmas
Christmas
beers Fruit beers (non-Lambic)

Beer in Germany

Altbier Berliner Weisse Bock Dortmunder Export Dunkel Gose Helles Kellerbier Kölsch Märzen Pale lager Roggenbier Schwarzbier Smoked beer Wheat beer Zoigl

Beer in the UK

Barley wine Bitter Brown ale India pale ale Mild ale Old ale Porter Scotch ale Stout

Beer in the US

Amber ale American Pale Ale American wild ale Cream ale Ice lager Kentucky common beer Pumpkin ale Steam beer

Other

Baltic porter Bière de Garde Copper ale Corn beer Grodziskie/Grätzer Hard soda Irish red ale Light beer Malt
Malt
beer Millet beer Pale ale Pilsner Rye beer Sahti Small beer Sour beer Vienna lager

See also

History of beer Beer by region Beer sommelier Adjuncts Low-alcohol beer Seasonal beer Trappist beer<

.