Palazzo della Cancelleria
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The Palazzo della Cancelleria (Palace of the Chancellery, referring to the former
Apostolic Chancery The Apostolic ChanceryCanon 260, ''Code of Canon Law'' of 1917, translated by Edward N. Peters, Ignatius Press, 2001. ( la, Cancellaria Apostolica; also known as the "Papal" or "Roman Chanc(ell)ery") was a dicastery A dicastery (from gr, δικ ...
of the
Pope The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Roman pontiff (), is the bishop of Diocese of Rome, Rome, chief pastor of the worldwide Catholic Church, and head of state o ...

Pope
) is a
Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in m ...

Renaissance
palace in
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus Romulus was the legendary founder and first king of Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , fo ...

Rome
,
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of delimited by the and surrounding it, whose territory largely coincides with the . Italy is located in the centre of th ...

Italy
, situated between the present Corso Vittorio Emanuele II and the
Campo de' Fiori . File:Campo dei Fiori by Giovanni Vasi.jpg, 225px, Campo de' Fiori in the 1740s, etching by Giuseppe Vasi. Campo de' Fiori (, literally "field of flowers") is a rectangular square south of Piazza Navona in Rome, Italy, at the border between R ...
, in the
rione A (; plural: ) is a neighbourhood in several Italian cities. A is a territorial subdivision. The larger administrative subdivisions in Rome are the , with the being used only in the historic centre. The word derives from the Latin , the 14 subd ...
of
Parione Parione is the 6th ''Rioni of Rome, rione'' of Rome, identified by the initials R. VI, and belongs to the Municipio I. Its name comes from the fact that in the area there was a huge ancient wall, maybe belonging to the Piazza Navona, stadium ...
. It was built 1489–1513 by Baccio Pontelli and Antonio da Sangallo the Elder as a palace for Cardinal Raffaele Riario, Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, and is regarded as the earliest Renaissance architecture, Renaissance palace in
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus Romulus was the legendary founder and first king of Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , fo ...

Rome
. The Palazzo houses the Papal Chancellery, is an extraterritorial properties of the Holy See, extraterritorial property of the Holy See, and is designated as a World Heritage Site.Historic Centre of Rome, the Properties of the Holy See in that City Enjoying Extraterritorial Rights and San Paolo Fuori le Mura
(accessed: 2011-07-22)


History

The Cancelleria was built for Cardinal Raffaele Riario who held the post of Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, Cardinal Camerlengo to his powerful uncle, Pope Sixtus IV. The rumor was that the funds came from a single night's winnings at gaming. In 1517, the newly completed Palazzo was seized by Pope Leo X, who suspected Cardinal Riario of plotting to assassinate him. He gifted the palace to his cousin, Cardinal Giulio de Medici (the future Pope Clement VII). Since Cardinal Giulio was the Vice-Chancellor of the Church, the palace became known as the Palazzo della Cancelleria thereafter. From 1753 the vice chancellor was the Jacobitism, Jacobite pretender to the thrones of Kingdom of England, England, Kingdom of Scotland, Scotland, Kingdom of France, France, and Kingdom of Ireland, Ireland, Henry Benedict Stuart, Henry Stuart, Cardinal Duke of York, the Jacobite Henry IX of England and Ireland, and I of Scotland. During the late 17th century Christina, Queen of Sweden, Christina, former Queen of Sweden, resided here. During the Roman Republic (19th century), Roman Republic of 1849 the parliament briefly sat here. In 2015, it was the residence of retired, and now deceased, Cardinal Bernard Law of Boston, United States.


Architecture

The Palazzo della Cancelleria was the first palazzo in
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus Romulus was the legendary founder and first king of Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , fo ...

Rome
to be erected from the ground up in the new Renaissance architecture, Renaissance style. Its long facade engulfs the small San Lorenzo in Damaso, Basilica di San Lorenzo in Damaso, the Cardinal's titular church, that is to its right, with the palatial front continuing straight across it. The entrance to the Basilica is on the right side of the facade. The 5th-century basilica (its interior has been rebuilt) sits, like the Basilica di San Clemente among others, on a pagan Roman mithraeum. Excavations beneath the ''cortile'' from 1988 to 1991 revealed the 4th- and 5th-century foundations of the grand San Lorenzo in Damaso, Basilica di San Lorenzo in Damaso, founded by Pope Damasus I, and one of the most important early churches of Rome. A cemetery in use from the 8th century until shortly before the construction of the Palazzo was also identified. The facade, with its rhythm of flat doubled pilasters between the arch-headed windows, is Florentine in conception, comparable to Leone Battista Alberti's Palazzo Rucellai. The overall pattern of drafted masonry, cut with smooth surfaces and grooves around the edges, is Ancient Roman architecture, ancient Roman in origin. The grand portal was added in the 16th century by Domenico Fontana on the orders of Alessandro Farnese (cardinal), Cardinal Alessandro Farnese. The bone-colored travertine of the Palazzo was spolia from the nearby ancient ruins of the Theatre of Pompey, for
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus Romulus was the legendary founder and first king of Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , fo ...

Rome
was a field of ruins, built for a city of over one million that then housed a mere 30,000. The 44 Egyptian granite columns of the inner courtyard are from the porticoes of the theatre's upper covered seating, however they were originally taken from the theatre to build the old Basilica di San Lorenzo in Damaso. It is more probable that the form of the courtyard is derived from that of the Palazzo Ducale in Urbino, because the individuals involved in the early planning of the Palazzo had come from Urbino. In the Palazzo is a vast mural that Giorgio Vasari completed in a mere 100 days, therefore named the Sala dei Cento Giorni. He boasted of this accomplishment to Michelangelo, who responded "Si vede" ("It shows"). In the Palazzo a little, private theatre was installed by Pietro Ottoboni, Cardinal Pietro Ottoboni, and in the later 17th century the Palazzo became a center of musical performance in Rome.


See also

* Cancelleria Reliefs


References


External links


Palazzo della Cancelleria ApostolicaThe Vatican: spirit and art of Christian Rome
a book from The Metropolitan Museum of Art Libraries (fully available online as PDF), which contains material on the Palazzo (p. 370-4) {{DEFAULTSORT:Palazzo Della Cancelleria Houses completed in 1513 Palaces in Rome, Cancelleria Properties of the Holy See Renaissance architecture in Rome Rome R. VI Parione, Cancelleria