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The Palatine Hill (/ˈpælətaɪn/; Latin: Collis Palatium or Mons Palatinus; Italian: Palatino [palaˈtiːno]) is the centremost of the Seven Hills of Rome
Rome
and is one of the most ancient parts of the city. It stands 40 metres[1] above the Roman Forum, looking down upon it on one side, and upon the Circus Maximus
Circus Maximus
on the other. From the time of Augustus
Augustus
Imperial palaces were built here. The hill is the etymological origin of the word palace and its cognates in other languages (Italian: palazzo, French: palais, Portuguese: palácio German: Palast, Czech: palác, etc.).[a]

Contents

1 Derivative terms 2 Etymology 3 Mythology 4 History 5 Monuments

5.1 Houses of Livia
Livia
and Augustus 5.2 The Palace
Palace
of Domitian 5.3 Domus Severiana 5.4 Septizodium 5.5 Temple of Cybele 5.6 Temple of Apollo Palatinus 5.7 House of Tiberius

6 Excavations 7 See also 8 Explanatory notes 9 References 10 External links

Derivative terms[edit] The term palace, from Old French palais or paleis, stems ultimately from the proper name of Palatine Hill.[2] The Palatine Hill is also the etymological origin (via the Latin adjective palatinus) of "palatine", a 16th century English adjective that originally signified something pertaining to the Caesar's palace, or someone who is invested with the king's authority. Later its use shifted to a reference to the German Palatinate.[3] The office of the German count palatine (Pfalzgraf) had its origins in the comes palatinus, an earlier office in Merovingian
Merovingian
and Carolingian
Carolingian
times.[4] Another modern English word "paladin", came into usage to refer to any distinguished knight (especially one of the Twelve Peers of Charlemagne) under Charlemagne in late renditions of Matter of France.[b][5] Etymology[edit] According to Livy[6] (59 BC – AD 17) the Palatine hill got its name from the Arcadian settlement of Pallantium. More likely, it is derived from the noun palātum "palate"; Ennius
Ennius
uses it once for the "heaven", and it may be connected with the Etruscan word for sky, falad.[7] Mythology[edit] According to Roman mythology, the Palatine Hill was the location of the cave, known as the Lupercal, where Romulus and Remus
Romulus and Remus
were found by the she-wolf Lupa that kept them alive. Another legend occurring on the Palatine is Hercules' defeat of Cacus after the monster had stolen some cattle. Hercules
Hercules
struck Cacus
Cacus
with his characteristic club so hard that it formed a cleft on the southeast corner of the hill, where later a staircase bearing the name of Cacus
Cacus
was constructed.[8] History[edit] Rome
Rome
has its origins on the Palatine. Excavations show that people have lived in the area since the 10th century BC.[citation needed] According to Livy, after the immigration of the Sabines
Sabines
and the Albans to Rome, the original Romans lived on the Palatine.[9] The Palatine Hill was also the site of the ancient festival of the Lupercalia. Many affluent Romans of the Republican period (c.509 BC – 44 BC) had their residences there. From the start of the Empire (27 BC) Augustus
Augustus
built his palace there and the hill gradually became the exclusive domain of emperors; the ruins of the palaces of at least Augustus
Augustus
(27 BC – 14 AD), Tiberius (14 – 37 AD) and Domitian
Domitian
(81 – 96 AD) can still be seen. Augustus
Augustus
also built a temple to Apollo here. The great fire of 64 AD destroyed Nero's palace, but he replaced it by 69 AD with the even larger Domus Aurea
Domus Aurea
over which was built Domitian's Palace
Palace
[10] Monuments[edit] The Palatine Hill is an archaeological site open to the public. The Palace
Palace
of Domitian
Domitian
which dominates the site and looks out over the Circus Maximus
Circus Maximus
was rebuilt largely during the reign of Domitian
Domitian
over earlier buildings of Nero. Later emperors particularly the Severans made significant additions to the buildings. Houses of Livia
Livia
and Augustus[edit] Main article: House of Augustus

plan of Domus Livia

The House of Livia, the wife of Augustus, is conventionally attributed to her based only on the generic name on a clay pipe and circumstantial factors such as proximity to the House of Augustus.[11] The building is located near the Temple of Magna Mater at the western end of the hill, on a lower terrace from the temple. It is notable for its beautiful frescoes.

Fresco of the tablinium of the House of Livia

The Palace
Palace
of Domitian[edit] Main article: Palace
Palace
of Domitian

Water garden of the Domus Augustana

Domus Severiana[edit] Main article: Domus Severiana Septizodium[edit] Main article: Septizodium Temple of Cybele[edit] Main article: temple of Cybele (Palatine) Temple of Apollo Palatinus[edit] Main article: Temple of Apollo Palatinus House of Tiberius[edit] The House of Tiberius
Tiberius
is located next to the Temple of Cybele, on the platform built by Nero
Nero
and in the current Farnese Gardens. Excavations[edit] During Augustus' reign, an area of the Palatine Hill was roped off for a sort of archaeological expedition, which found fragments of Bronze Age pots and tools. He declared this site the "original town of Rome." Modern archaeology has identified evidence of Bronze Age
Bronze Age
settlement in the area which predates Rome's founding. There is a museum on the Palatine in which artifacts dating from before the official foundation of the City are displayed. The museum also contains Roman statuary. An altar to an unknown deity, once thought to be Aius Locutius, was discovered here in 1820. In July 2006, archaeologists announced the discovery of the Palatine House, which they believe to be the birthplace of Rome's first Emperor, Augustus.[12] Head archaeologist Clementina Panella uncovered a section of corridor and other fragments under Rome's Palatine Hill, which she described on July 20 as "a very ancient aristocratic house." The two story house appears to have been built around an atrium, with frescoed walls and mosaic flooring, and is situated on the slope of the Palatine that overlooks the Colosseum
Colosseum
and the Arch of Constantine. The Republican-era houses on the Palatine were overbuilt by later palaces after the Great Fire of Rome
Rome
(64), but apparently this one was not; the tempting early inference is that it was preserved for a specific and important reason. On the ground floor, three shops opened onto the Via Sacra. The location of the domus is important because of its potential proximity to the Curiae Veteres, the earliest shrine of the curies of Rome.[13]

The photo of the excavated cave beneath the Domus Livia
Livia
on the Palatine Hill, believed to be the Lupercal. The photo was taken with a remote sensing device.

In January 2007, Italian archeologist Irene Iacopi announced that she had probably found the legendary Lupercal
Lupercal
cave beneath the remains of Augustus' residence, the Domus Livia
Livia
(House of Livia) on the Palatine. Archaeologists came across the 16-metre-deep cavity while working to restore the decaying palace. The first photos of the cave show a richly decorated vault encrusted with mosaics and seashells. The Lupercal
Lupercal
was probably converted to a sanctuary by Romans in later centuries.[14] In November 2007 archaeologists unveiled photographs of the cave. Partially collapsed and decorated with seashells and colored marble, the vaulted sanctuary is buried 16 metres inside the Palatine hill. A white eagle was found atop the sanctuary's vault. Most of the sanctuary is collapsed or filled with earth, but laser scans allowed experts to estimate that the circular structure has a height of 8 metres and a diameter of 7.3 metres. Adriano La Regina (former Rome’s archaeological superintendent 1976–2004, professor of Etruscology at Rome’s La Sapienza University),[15] Prof. Fausto Zevi (professor of Roman Archaeology
Archaeology
at Rome's La Sapienza University)[16] and Prof. Henner von Hesberg (head of the German Archaeological Institute, Rome)[17] denied the identification of the grotto with Lupercal
Lupercal
on topographic and stylistic grounds. They concluded that the grotto is actually a nymphaeum or underground triclinium from Neronian times. See also[edit]

Ancient Rome
Rome
portal

Seven hills of Rome Aventine Hill
Aventine Hill
(Aventino) Caelian Hill
Caelian Hill
(Celio) Capitoline Hill
Capitoline Hill
(Capitolino) Cispian Hill (Cispio) Esquiline
Esquiline
Hill (Esquilino) Janiculum Hill
Janiculum Hill
(Gianicolo) Monte Mario Oppian Hill (Oppio) Pincian Hill
Pincian Hill
(Pincio) Quirinal Hill
Quirinal Hill
(Quirinale) Vatican Hill
Vatican Hill
(Vaticano) Velian Hill
Velian Hill
(Velia) Viminal Hill
Viminal Hill
(Viminale)

Explanatory notes[edit]

^ The different spellings originate from the different languages that used the title throughout the ages (a phenomenon called lenition). ^ This word came into use after an obsolete English "palasin" (from OF palaisin) came into disuse.

References[edit]

Citations

^ Palatine Hill. (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved August 25, 2007, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: britannica.com ^ "Palace". From the Oxford English Dictionary ^ "Palatine". From the Oxford English Dictionary ^ Stowe, George B. (1995). Kibler, William; Zinn, Grover A., eds. Palatinates. Medieval France: An Encyclopedia. Garland. p. 576. ISBN 9780824044442.  ^ "Paladin". From the Oxford English Dictionary ^ Livy
Livy
1.5.1. ^ Ernout and Meillet, Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue latine, s.v. palātum. ^ CACUS: Giant of the Land of Latium". theoi.com. ^ Livy, Ab urbe condita, 1:33 ^ Rome, An Oxford Archaeological Guide, A. Claridge, 1998 ISBN 0-19-288003-9, p. 120 ^ https://www.historvius.com/the-house-of-livia-729/ ^ For a classical account of the birth (and birthplace) of Augustus, refer to: Suetonius, Life of Augustus, 5. ^ Varro
Varro
Linguae Latinae 5.155; Festus L 174; Tacitus
Tacitus
Annales 12.24 ^ Sacred Cave of Rome's Founders Found, Scientists Say ^ Aloisi, Silvia "Expert doubts Lupercale 'find'" The Australian November 24, 2007 theaustralian.news.com ^ "È uno splendido ninfeo, ma il Lupercale non era lì" la Repubblica November 23, 2007 [1] ^ Schulz, Matthia "Is Italy's Spectacular Find Authentic?"Spiegel Online November 29, 2007 spiegel.de

Bibliography

Tomei, Maria Antonietta. "The Palatine." Trans. Luisa Guarneri Hynd. Milano: Electa (Ministero per i Beni e le Actività Culturali Sopraintendenza Archeologica di Roma), 1998.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Palatine hill.

Samuel Ball Platner, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome: Palatine Hill The Palatine Hill: Two Millennia of Landscaping "Aerial view of Palatine Hill". Bing Maps. Retrieved 29 December 2010.  "Aerial view of Palatine Hill". Google Maps. Retrieved October 14, 2005.  Photos from Palatine Museum High-resolution 360° Panoramas and Images of Palatine Hill Art Atlas

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Coordinates: 41°53′18″N 12°29′13″E / 41.88833°N 12.48694°E / 41.88833; 12.48694

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 126292181 ISNI: 0000 0001 0721 2135 GND: 4262371-6 BNF:

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