Palapa is a series of communication satellites owned by Indosat, an
Indonesian telecommunication company. All the satellites were launched
by the United States, starting with the first in July 1976, at which
time Indonesia became the first developing country to operate its own
domestic satellite system.
The estimated cost for this project is $1 billion.
2 Series D
3 Lighthouse Project
4 External links
The first satellite was first launched on 7:31 P.M. July 8, 1976
Florida time, or at 6:31 A.M. Western Indonesian Time, on July 9, 1976
on a US rocket from the Kennedy Space Center.
The name "Palapa" was bestowed by then Indonesian President Suharto,
Palapa oath taken in 1334 by Gajah Mada, the Prime Minister of
Majapahit Kingdom. According to the
Pararaton (Book of Kings),
Gajah Mada swore that he would not taste any palapa (historians
suggest it refers to spice or a kind of flavouring), as long as he had
not succeeded in unifying
Nusantara (the Indonesian archipelago).
After watching the launching process of the satellite via television
in Jakarta, President
Suharto revealed his reason on naming the
satellite "palapa"; to show that Indonesia had a glorious past, and
also hope that the system can unite the archipelago.
Main article: Palapa-D
Palapa D satellite was manufactured by
Thales Alenia Space
Thales Alenia Space and
launched aboard a Chinese Long March 3B rocket on 31 August 2009.
However it failed to reach the intended orbit following a failure of
the third stage of the rocket to reignite as planned. Thanks to
SpaceBus platform efficiency, the satellite was recovered and
maneuvered into the correct geosynchronous orbit by September, but
this left it with only enough fuel for 10 years in orbit, a third less
than contracted. This US$200 million satellite has more
transponders than its predecessors (40 transponders, C2 only has 36).
40% of its transponders will be used by
Indosat for their own purposes
while the other 60% will be rented to others.
Indosat will use
Palapa D for their broadband internet service (IM2)
with Ku-band technology (12/14 GHz). In 2006, their total income
increased about 12.3%. With the new satellite coming up, the company
hopes to earn more profits from the multimedia, internet, and
At the end of October[when?],
Palapa D started its airing operations.
Only a few channels have been replaced, yet many are awaiting 11
November[when?] for the start of
Palapa D's full operation. As of its
release, the TV channels on
Palapa C2 that have been relocated are;
MINANG TV, RCTI, SCTV, Global TV, METRO TV, TVRI, NHK, Almanhar TV and
Spacetoon. Some radio channels have also surfaced which have been
included from Satellindo's system.
Palapa D is currently running well with plans to include a new cable
TV channel through the Ku-band of the satellite which is planned to
include High Definition channels. New channels have also been added
and replaced as of May 2010. GlobalTV was replaced by Lejel, a home
shopping channel. After the insertion of Lejel TV, Global TV received
its own transponder. Recent rumors states that KBS World Indonesia
will renew its position in the satellite by transferring to a
horizontal transponder.
Palapa project was one of the Lighthouse Projects instituted
during the New Order period to build national pride. Other lighthouse
projects during the New Order included transport infrastructure, the
Taman Mini Indonesia Indah
Taman Mini Indonesia Indah park and the national aircraft company.
Most of these involved extravagant inauguration ceremonies with the
officials who oversaw the projects in the spotlight. In the
inauguration ceremony of the
Palapa satellite system, President
Suharto used a switch with 17 jewels (17 is the date of Indonesia's
Proclamation of Independence) in the shape of a traditional dagger or
kris. Besides symbolizing national unity and concretely helping
unite the country as the satellite served its purpose as communication
infrastructure, the satellite also tied advanced technology to
Javanese tradition as epitomized by the inauguration ceremony.
Gunter's Space Page - information on Palapa
Palapa A at Boeing Palapa-A
Palapa C2 at Lyngsat
Palapa D at Lyngsat
^ a b "History of
Palapa Satellite". Indosat. Archived from the
original on 29 April 2015. Retrieved 14 April 2015.
^ Jones, R. (1976). "Satellite communications: Indonesia's bitter
fruit". Pacific Research and World Empire Telegram. 7 (4):
^ a b c "Planning and Development of Indonesia's Domestic
Communications Satellite System PALAPA". Online Journal of Space
Communication. Society for Satellite Professionals International
(SSPI). Retrieved 14 April 2015.
^ "Indonesian Satellite Reaches Preset Orbit Despite Skewed Launch".
Spacemart.com. 14 September 2009. Retrieved 14 September 2009.
Thales Alenia Space
Thales Alenia Space Press release Archived 2007-07-03 at the Wayback
^ . Pikiran Rakyat. August 18, 1976. Missing or empty title=
^ Barker, Joshua (December 2005). "Engineers and Political Dreams:
Indonesia in the Satellite Age". Current Anthropology. 46 (5):
National Institute of Aeronautics and Space
National Institute of Aeronautics and Space (LAPAN)
Past and current
Palapa A1 (1976)
Palapa A2 (1977)
Palapa B1 (1983)
Palapa B2 (1984)
Palapa B2P (1987)
Palapa B2R (1990)
Palapa B4 (1992)
Palapa C1 (1996)
Palapa C2 (1996)
Garuda 1 (2000)
Palapa D (2009)
Palapa N1 (2020)
Palapa E (2016)
Past and current
Roket Pengorbit Satelit (RPS)
Stasiun Peluncuran Roket at Pameungpeuk
Biak International Spaceport