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Palapa
Palapa
is a series of communication satellites owned by Indosat, an Indonesian telecommunication company. All the satellites were launched by the United States, starting with the first in July 1976, at which time Indonesia became the first developing country to operate its own domestic satellite system.[1] The estimated cost for this project is $1 billion.[2]

Contents

1 History 2 Series D 3 Lighthouse Project 4 External links 5 Notes

History[edit] The first satellite was first launched on 7:31 P.M. July 8, 1976 Florida time, or at 6:31 A.M. Western Indonesian Time, on July 9, 1976 on a US rocket from the Kennedy Space Center.[3] The name "Palapa" was bestowed by then Indonesian President Suharto, after Palapa oath
Palapa oath
taken in 1334 by Gajah Mada, the Prime Minister of Majapahit
Majapahit
Kingdom.[3] According to the Pararaton (Book of Kings), Gajah Mada
Gajah Mada
swore that he would not taste any palapa (historians suggest it refers to spice or a kind of flavouring), as long as he had not succeeded in unifying Nusantara
Nusantara
(the Indonesian archipelago).[1] After watching the launching process of the satellite via television in Jakarta, President Suharto
Suharto
revealed his reason on naming the satellite "palapa"; to show that Indonesia had a glorious past, and also hope that the system can unite the archipelago.[3] Series D[edit] Main article: Palapa-D The Palapa
Palapa
D satellite was manufactured by Thales Alenia Space
Thales Alenia Space
and launched aboard a Chinese Long March 3B rocket on 31 August 2009. However it failed to reach the intended orbit following a failure of the third stage of the rocket to reignite as planned. Thanks to SpaceBus platform efficiency, the satellite was recovered and maneuvered into the correct geosynchronous orbit by September, but this left it with only enough fuel for 10 years in orbit, a third less than contracted.[4] This US$200 million satellite has more transponders than its predecessors (40 transponders, C2 only has 36). 40% of its transponders will be used by Indosat
Indosat
for their own purposes while the other 60% will be rented to others. Indosat
Indosat
will use Palapa
Palapa
D for their broadband internet service (IM2) with Ku-band technology (12/14 GHz). In 2006, their total income increased about 12.3%. With the new satellite coming up, the company hopes to earn more profits from the multimedia, internet, and communication businesses.[5] At the end of October[when?], Palapa
Palapa
D started its airing operations. Only a few channels have been replaced, yet many are awaiting 11 November[when?] for the start of Palapa
Palapa
D's full operation. As of its release, the TV channels on Palapa
Palapa
C2 that have been relocated are; MINANG TV, RCTI, SCTV, Global TV, METRO TV, TVRI, NHK, Almanhar TV and Spacetoon. Some radio channels have also surfaced which have been included from Satellindo's system.[citation needed] Palapa
Palapa
D is currently running well with plans to include a new cable TV channel through the Ku-band of the satellite which is planned to include High Definition channels. New channels have also been added and replaced as of May 2010. GlobalTV was replaced by Lejel, a home shopping channel. After the insertion of Lejel TV, Global TV received its own transponder. Recent rumors states that KBS World Indonesia will renew its position in the satellite by transferring to a horizontal transponder.[citation needed] Lighthouse Project[edit] The Palapa
Palapa
project was one of the Lighthouse Projects instituted during the New Order period to build national pride. Other lighthouse projects during the New Order included transport infrastructure, the Taman Mini Indonesia Indah
Taman Mini Indonesia Indah
park and the national aircraft company. Most of these involved extravagant inauguration ceremonies with the officials who oversaw the projects in the spotlight. In the inauguration ceremony of the Palapa
Palapa
satellite system, President Suharto
Suharto
used a switch with 17 jewels (17 is the date of Indonesia's Proclamation of Independence) in the shape of a traditional dagger or kris.[6] Besides symbolizing national unity and concretely helping unite the country as the satellite served its purpose as communication infrastructure, the satellite also tied advanced technology to Javanese tradition as epitomized by the inauguration ceremony.[7] External links[edit]

Gunter's Space Page - information on Palapa Palapa
Palapa
A at Boeing Palapa-A Palapa
Palapa
C2 at Lyngsat Palapa
Palapa
D at Lyngsat

Notes[edit]

^ a b "History of Palapa
Palapa
Satellite". Indosat. Archived from the original on 29 April 2015. Retrieved 14 April 2015.  ^ Jones, R. (1976). "Satellite communications: Indonesia's bitter fruit". Pacific Research and World Empire Telegram. 7 (4): 1–6.  ^ a b c "Planning and Development of Indonesia's Domestic Communications Satellite System PALAPA". Online Journal of Space Communication. Society for Satellite Professionals International (SSPI). Retrieved 14 April 2015.  ^ "Indonesian Satellite Reaches Preset Orbit Despite Skewed Launch". Spacemart.com. 14 September 2009. Retrieved 14 September 2009.  ^ Thales Alenia Space
Thales Alenia Space
Press release Archived 2007-07-03 at the Wayback Machine. ^ . Pikiran Rakyat. August 18, 1976.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ Barker, Joshua (December 2005). "Engineers and Political Dreams: Indonesia in the Satellite Age". Current Anthropology. 46 (5): 703–727. doi:10.1086/432652. 

v t e

Indonesian National Institute of Aeronautics and Space
National Institute of Aeronautics and Space
(LAPAN)

Satellites

Past and current Palapa
Palapa
A1 (1976) Palapa
Palapa
A2 (1977) Palapa
Palapa
B1 (1983) Palapa
Palapa
B2 (1984) Palapa
Palapa
B2P (1987) Palapa
Palapa
B2R (1990) Palapa
Palapa
B4 (1992) Palapa
Palapa
C1 (1996) Palapa
Palapa
C2 (1996) IndoStar-1 (1997) Telkom-1 (1999) Garuda 1 (2000) Telkom-2 (2005) INASAT-1 (2006) LAPAN-Tubsat (2007) IndoStar-2 (2009) Palapa
Palapa
D (2009) Telkom-3
Telkom-3
(2012) LippoStar-1 (2012) LAPAN-A2 (2015) BRIsat (2016) LAPAN-A3 (2016) Telkom-3S (2017)

In development Telkom-4 (2018) Palapa
Palapa
N1 (2020)

Abandoned Palapa
Palapa
E (2016)

Rockets

Past and current Roket Eksperimental

RX-75 RX-100 RX-150 RX-250-LPN RX-320 RX-420 RX-450

In development RX-550 Roket Pengorbit Satelit (RPS)

Abandoned RPS-420 (Pengorbitan-1)

Launch sites

Current Stasiun Peluncuran Roket at Pameungpeuk

Planned Biak International Spaceport Enggano Launchpad

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