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Pakistan
Pakistan
Army
Army
(Urdu: پاک فوج‬‎ Pak Fauj (IPA: pɑk fɒ~ɔd͡ʒ); Reporting name: PA) is the land-based force of the Pakistan
Pakistan
Armed Forces. It came into the existence from the British Indian Army
Army
that ceased to exist following the partition of India
India
that resulted in the independence of Pakistan
Pakistan
on 14 August 1947.:1–2[2] According to the International Institute for Strategic Studies
International Institute for Strategic Studies
(IISS), it had approximately 560,000 active personnel as of 2017.[3] In Pakistan, there is 16–23 years of age for voluntary military service; soldiers cannot be deployed for combat until age 18 according to its nation's constitution.[4] The primary objective and its constitutional mission is to ensure the national security and national unity of Pakistan
Pakistan
by defending it against external aggression or threat of war, and internal threat by maintaining peace and security within its land borders by requisitioning it by the government to cope with internal threats.[5] During the events of national calamities and emergency, it conducts humanitarian rescue operations at home as well as participating in the peacekeeping missions mandated by the United Nations, most notably playing a major role in rescuing the trapped U.S. soldiers in Somalia in 1993 and Bosnian War
Bosnian War
in 1992–95.:70[6] The Pakistan
Pakistan
Army, which is a major component of the national power alongside with the Pakistan
Pakistan
Air Force and Pakistan
Pakistan
Navy, has been involved with four wars on its borders with neighbouring India
India
and several armed skirmishes on its porous border with Afghanistan.[7] Since 1960s, the elements of the army has been repeatedly deployed to act as military advisory in the Arab states
Arab states
during the events of Arab-Israeli Wars, aided the UN-based coalition in the first Gulf War. Other notable military operations on War on Terror
War on Terror
in the 21st century included: Operation Zarb-e-Azb, Operation Black Thunderstorm, and Operation Rah-e-Nijat.[8] Due to its constitutional mandate protected by the Constitution to "act in aid of civilian government when called upon to do so",[9] the army has been involved in enforcing martial law against the elected governments in a view of attempting to restore the law and order in the country four times in past years, and has wider commercial, foreign, and political interests in the country.[10][11][12][13][14] The Pakistan
Pakistan
Army
Army
has a regimental system but is operationally and geographically divided into command zones, with basic field of being the corps.[15] The Constitution declares the President of Pakistan
Pakistan
to be the Commander-in-Chief.[16] The Pakistan
Pakistan
Army
Army
is commanded by the Chief of Army
Army
Staff, by statute a four-star rank general, who is senior member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee
Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee
is appointed by the Prime Minister and confirmed by the President of Pakistan.[17] The Pakistan
Pakistan
Army
Army
is currently under the command of General
General
Qamar javed bajwa , appointed on 29 November 2016.[18][19]

Contents

1 Mission 2 History

2.1 Early origins: 1947–1958 2.2 1958–1969 2.3 1969–1971 2.4 1971–1977 2.5 1977–1999 2.6 1999–2008

3 UN peacekeeping missions 4 Organization

4.1 Command structure 4.2 Commissioned officers
Commissioned officers
rank 4.3 Subdivision by profession 4.4 Operational commands 4.5 Corps 4.6 Other field formations 4.7 Regiments 4.8 Special
Special
forces

5 Combat doctrine 6 Political and corporate activities 7 Involvement in Pakistani society 8 Personnel

8.1 Enlisted ranks 8.2 Officer ranks 8.3 Academic institutions 8.4 Science and technology 8.5 Uniforms 8.6 Ethnic composition 8.7 Women and non-Muslims 8.8 Recipients of Nishan-e-Haider 8.9 Recipients of foreign awards

9 Equipment 10 Sports 11 See also 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links

Mission[edit] Existence and its constitutional role is protected by the Constitution of Pakistan, where its role to serves as land-based uniform service branch of the Pakistan
Pakistan
Armed Forces. In the Chapter 2: Armed Forces in the PartXII: Miscellaneous codified the mission and purpose of the army as alongside with the other parts of the Armed Forces as such:[20]

The Armed Forces shall, under the directions of the Federal Government, defend Pakistan
Pakistan
against external aggression or threat of war, and, subject to law, act in aid of civil power when called upon to do so — Constitution of Pakistan.[21]

History[edit] See also: Military history of Pakistan Early origins: 1947–1958[edit]

General
General
Ayub Khan arriving to take command of the Pakistan
Pakistan
Army
Army
in 1951

The Pakistan
Pakistan
Army
Army
came into its modern birth from the division of the British Indian Army
Army
that ceased to exist as a result of the partition of India
India
that resulted in the creation of Pakistan
Pakistan
on 14 August 1947.:1–2[2] Before even the partition took place, there were plans ahead of dividing the British Indian Army
Army
in different parts based on the religious and ethnic influence on the areas of India.:1–2[2] On 30 June 1947, the War Department of the British Government
British Government
in India began planning the dividing of the ~400,000 men strong British Indian Army, but that only begin few weeks before the partition of India
India
that resulted in violent Religious violence in India.:1–2[2] Major division of the army was overseen by Sir Chandulal Madhavlal Trivedi, an Indian civil servant in the British Government
British Government
who was influential in making sure that ~260,000 men would be transferred into forming the Indian Army
Army
whilst the remainder balance going to Pakistan
Pakistan
after the independence act was enacted by the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
on the night of 14/15 August 1947.:2–3[2] Command and control at all levels of the new army was extremely difficult, as Pakistan
Pakistan
had received six armoured, eight artillery and eight infantry regiments compared to the twelve armoured, forty artillery and twenty-one infantry regiments that went to India.:155–156[22] In total, the size of the new army was about ~150,000 men strong.:155–156[22] To fill the vacancy in the command positions of the army, British Army
Army
officers had to be retained, which was quiet in larger number, under the command of Lieutenant-General Frank Messervy, the first Commander in Chief.:70[23] Fearing that India
India
would take over the state of Kashmir, irregulars, scouts and tribal groups entered the Muslim majority state of Kashmir to oppose the Maharaja of Kashmir
Kashmir
1947. In response to this, the Maharaja acceded to India. The Indian Armed Forces
Indian Armed Forces
were then deployed to Kashmir. This led to the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947. Regular Army units joined the invasion later on but were stopped after the refusal of the Chief of Army
Army
Staff, British officer General
General
Sir Frank Messervy, to obey Pakistani leader Muhammad Ali Jinnah's orders to move the Army
Army
into Kashmir. A ceasefire followed on UN intervention with Pakistan
Pakistan
occupying the northwestern part of Kashmir
Kashmir
and India occupying the rest. Later, during the 1950s, the Pakistan
Pakistan
Army received large amounts of economic and military aid from the United States and Great Britain after signing two mutual defence treaties, the Baghdad
Baghdad
Pact, which led to the formation of the Central Treaty Organization (CENTO), and the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) in 1954. This aid greatly expanded the Pakistan
Pakistan
Army
Army
from its modest beginnings. 1958–1969[edit] Main article: Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 The Pakistan
Pakistan
Army
Army
took over from politicians for the first time when General
General
Ayub Khan came to power through a bloodless coup in 1958. He formed Convention Muslim League which included Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, who would later become Pakistan's first democratically elected Prime Minister. Tensions with India
India
flared in the 1960s and a brief border skirmish was fought near the Rann of Kutch
Rann of Kutch
area during April 1965. The War began after the failure of Operation Gibraltar
Operation Gibraltar
on 5 August 1965. On the night of 6 September 1965, the Indian Army
Army
opened the war front to the Province of Punjab
Punjab
of Pakistan; the Indian Army
Army
almost reached the Pakistani city of Lahore. The Indian Army
Army
conquered around 360 square kilometres (139 square miles)[24]–500 square kilometres (193 square miles)[25] of Pakistani territory on the outskirts of Lahore.[26] Indian forces halted their assault on Lahore
Lahore
once they had reached the village of Burki.[26][27][page needed][28][29] The rationale for this was that a ceasefire was to be signed soon, and had India
India
captured Lahore
Lahore
it would likely have been returned in ceasefire negotiations.[27][page needed][28][29] The War eventually ended with a United Nations
United Nations
(UN) backed ceasefire and was followed by the Tashkent Declaration. According to the Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Country Studies conducted by the Federal Research Division of the United States:

The war was militarily inconclusive; each side held prisoners and some territory belonging to the other. Losses were relatively heavy—on the Pakistani side, twenty aircraft, 200 tanks, and 3,800 troops. Pakistan's army had been able to withstand Indian pressure, but a continuation of the fighting would only have led to further losses and ultimate defeat for Pakistan. Most Pakistanis, schooled in the belief of their own martial prowess, refused to accept the possibility of their country's military defeat by "Hindu India" and were, instead, quick to blame their failure to attain their military aims on what they considered to be the ineptitude of Ayub Khan and his government.[30]

At the time of ceasefire declaration, per neutral sources, India casualties were at 3,000 and Pakistani casualties were 3800.[31][32][33] Pakistan
Pakistan
lost between 200-300 tanks during the conflict and India
India
lost approximately 150-190 tanks.[34][35] However, most neutral assessments agree that India
India
had the upper hand over Pakistan
Pakistan
when ceasefire was declared.[36][37][38][39][40] At the end of the war the Indian army was in possession of 758.9 miles² (1,920 km²) of Pakistani territory and the Pakistan
Pakistan
army held 210 mile² (550 km²) of Indian territory.[41] The territory occupied by India
India
was mainly in the fertile Sialkot, Lahore
Lahore
and Kashmir
Kashmir
sectors,[42][43] while Pakistani land gains were primarily in southern deserts opposite Sindh
Sindh
and in Chumb sector near Kashmir
Kashmir
in north.[44] An uprising against Ayub Khan during 1968 and 1969 resulted in him relinquishing his office as President and Commander-in-Chief
Commander-in-Chief
of the Army
Army
in favour of General
General
Yahya Khan, who assumed power in 1969. The 16th Division, 18th Division and the 23rd Division were raised at some point between 1966 and 1969 and the 9th Division was also re-raised during this period. 1969–1971[edit] Main articles: Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, 1971 Bangladesh
Bangladesh
genocide, Operation Searchlight, and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Liberation War During the rule of Yahya Khan, the people of East Pakistan
Pakistan
protested against various political and economic disparities that had been imposed on them by West Pakistan
Pakistan
and massive civil unrest broke out in East Pakistan. The original plan envisioned taking control of the major cities on 26 March 1971, and then eliminating all opposition, political or military,[45] within one month. The prolonged Bengali resistance was not anticipated by Pakistani planners.[46] The main phase of Operation Searchlight ended with the fall of the last major town in Bengali hands in the mid of May. On 16 December 1971, Pakistan
Pakistan
Army's 93,000 soldiers under leadership of lieutenant-general A.A.K Niazi surrendered in Dhaka
Dhaka
in front of Indian Army
Army
marking the end of Bangladesh Liberation War
Bangladesh Liberation War
and creation of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
after a 13 day long war with India. This surrender was also significant in the way it was the biggest surrender in a war by any country after World War 2.[47][48] According to Maj. (Retd.) Agha Humayun Amin, the Pakistan
Pakistan
Army commanders had not seriously considered an Indian invasion of East Pakistan
Pakistan
until December 1971, because it was presumed that the Indian military would not risk intervention by China
China
or the United States (US), who were generally close Pakistani allies. Maj Mazhar states that the Pakistan
Pakistan
Army's senior command failed to realize that the Chinese would be unable to intervene during the winter months of November to December, due to snowbound Himalayan passes, and the US had not made any real effort to persuade India
India
against attacking East Pakistan.[49] 1971–1977[edit] A Pakistan
Pakistan
International Airlines (PIA) flight was sent to fetch Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
from New York, who at that time was presenting Pakistan's case before the United Nations
United Nations
Security Council (UNSC) on the East Pakistan
Pakistan
crisis. Bhutto returned home on 18 December 1971. On 20 December, he was taken to the President House in Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi
where he took over two positions from Yahya Khan, one as President and the other as Chief Martial Law Administrator. Thus, he was the first civilian Chief Martial Law Administrator of Pakistan. The PAF and Navy's fighter pilots have voluntarily served in Arab nations' militaries against Israel
Israel
in the Yom Kippur War
Yom Kippur War
(1973). In the 1973 war one of the PAF pilots, Flt. Lt. Sattar Alvi flying a MiG-21 shot down an Israeli Air Force Mirage and was honoured by the Syrian government.[50][51][52] 1977–1999[edit]

Two AH-1S Cobra attack helicopters of the Pakistan
Pakistan
Army
Army
Aviation Wing at AVN Base, Multan. These were sold to Pakistan
Pakistan
by the US during the Soviet-Afghan war to help defend Pakistan
Pakistan
against a possible attack by the Soviets.

In 1977, a coup, Operation Fair Play, was staged by General
General
Zia ul-Haq and the government was overthrown. This led to the hanging of Bhutto after he was tried and proclaimed guilty of conspiracy of murdering a political opponent by Zia's handpicked judges. Zia retracted on his promise of holding elections within 90 days and ruled as a military dictator until his death in an air crash in 1988. General
General
Mohammad Iqbal Khan served as a joint chief from 1980 to 1984 and was the Chief Martial Law Officer during that time. In the mid-1970s, the Pakistan
Pakistan
Army
Army
was involved in fighting an uprising in the Province of Balochistan. Various Baloch factions wanted independence or at least greater provincial rights. The rebellion was put down on the behest of the Bhutto government but the Army
Army
suffered heavy casualties. After Bhutto was deposed, the province returned to normalcy[citation needed] under General
General
Rahimuddin. In the 1980s, the Pakistan
Pakistan
Armed Forces co-operated with the United States to provide arms, ammunition and intelligence assistance to Afghan rebels who were fighting the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. Rising tensions with neighboring USSR in their involvement in Afghanistan, Pakistani intelligence community, mostly the ISI, systematically coordinated the U.S. resources to the Afghan mujahideen and foreign fighters against the Soviet Union's presence in the region. Military reports indicated that the PAF was in engagement with the Soviet Air Force, supported by the Afghan Air Force
Afghan Air Force
during the course of the conflict;[53] one of which belonged to Alexander Rutskoy.[53] During 1st Gulf War, the Pakistan
Pakistan
Army
Army
contributed troops for the defence of Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
against a possible attack by Iraq. The 153 SP Air Defence Regiment
Regiment
deployed in Tabuk scored multiple hits on number of Iraqi Scuds[citation needed] and provided round the clock air defence protection to Saudi troops in the area. Pakistan
Pakistan
sent UN Peacekeeping forces to the former Yugoslavia during the Yugoslav wars. During the war, Pakistan
Pakistan
supported Bosnia
Bosnia
while providing technical and military support. Approximately 90,000 Pakistani people went to Bosnia
Bosnia
during the Yugoslav wars, accounting for 20% of the volunteer military force. The Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) allegedly ran an active military intelligence program during the Bosnian War
Bosnian War
which started in 1992 lasting until 1995. The program distributed and coordinated the systematic supply of arms to various groups of Bosnian mujahideen
Bosnian mujahideen
during the war.[citation needed] The ISI Bosnian contingent was organized with financial assistance provided by Saudi Arabia, according to the British historian Mark Curtis.[54] Despite the UN arms embargo in Bosnia, it was later alleged that the ISI airlifted anti-tank weapons and missiles to Bosnian mujahideen
Bosnian mujahideen
which turned the tide in favor of Bosnian Muslims and forced the Serbs to lift the genocidal siege of Sarajevo.[55][56] 1999–2008[edit]

A Pakistan
Pakistan
Army
Army
soldier keeping watch at Baine Baba Ziarat in Swat

Pakistani forces after victory in Operation Black Thunderstorm

In October 1999, after the Kargil Conflict ended with the unconditional withdrawal of the Pakistani forces from the Indian controlled peaks, the Pakistan
Pakistan
Army
Army
overthrew a democratically elected government once more, resulting in additional sanctions being applied against Pakistan, leading to General
General
Pervez Musharraf
Pervez Musharraf
coming to power in a bloodless coup. However, this time Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif sacked Musharraf when he was on his way to Pakistan
Pakistan
from Colombo. He dismissed him as Chief of Army
Army
Staff and appointed General
General
Ziauddin Butt to that position instead, when Musharraf's plane was in the air. That was not enough, the plane was not allowed to land at the airport in Karachi
Karachi
and barricades were erected on the runway. The corps commanders acted swiftly across Pakistan, particularly in Karachi
Karachi
and Islamabad. Brigadiar Muzaffar Usmani took control of the airport in Karachi
Karachi
and arrested the then Inspector General
General
of Sindh
Sindh
Police, Rana Maqbool Ahmed. Musharraf stepped down as President in August 2008. On 30 July 2009, the Supreme Court of Pakistan
Pakistan
ruled that Musharraf's imposition of emergency rule was unconstitutional.[57] After the September 11 attacks
September 11 attacks
in the United States, Pakistan
Pakistan
joined the US-led War on Terror
War on Terror
and helped the United States
United States
Armed Forces by severing ties with the Taliban
Taliban
and immediately deploying 72,000 troops along Pakistan's western border to capture or kill Taliban
Taliban
and Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
militants fleeing from Afghanistan. On the north western front, Pakistan
Pakistan
initially garrisoned its troops in military bases and forts in the tribal areas. In May 2004, clashes erupted between the Pakistani troops and Al-Qaeda's and other militants joined by local rebels and pro- Taliban
Taliban
forces. However, the offensive was poorly coordinated and the Army
Army
suffered heavy casualties, while public support for the attack quickly evaporated. After a two-year conflict from 2004 until 2006, the Pakistani military negotiated a ceasefire with the tribesmen from the region in which they pledged to hunt down Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
members, stop the "Talibanization" of the region and stop attacks in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Pakistan. However, the militants did not hold up their end of the bargain and began to regroup and rebuild their strength from the previous two years of conflict. Militants took over the Lal Masjid in Islamabad. After a six-month standoff fighting erupted again in July 2007 when the Pakistani military decided to use force to end the Lal Masjid threat. Once the operation ended, the then newly formed Tehrik-i- Taliban
Taliban
Pakistan (TTP), an umbrella group of militants based in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), a semi-autonomous region of Pakistan, vowed revenge and launched a wave of attacks and suicide bombings which erupted all over North-West Pakistan
Pakistan
and major Pakistani cities, including Karachi, throughout 2007. The militants then expanded their base of operations and moved into the neighbouring Swat Valley, where they imposed Sharia law. The Pakistan
Pakistan
Army
Army
launched an offensive to re-take the Swat Valley
Swat Valley
in 2007, but was unable to clear it of the militants who had fled into the mountains and waited for them to leave before taking over the valley again. The militants then launched another wave of terrorist attacks inside Pakistan. The Pakistani government and military tried another peace deal with the militants in Swat Valley
Swat Valley
in 2008. This was roundly criticized in the West as abdicating to the militants. After initially pledging to lay down their arms if Sharia law
Sharia law
was implemented, the Pakistani Taliban
Taliban
subsequently used the Swat Valley as a springboard to launch further attacks into neighbouring regions, reaching to within 60 kilometres (37 mi) of Islamabad. Public opinion then turned decisively against the Taliban
Taliban
terrorists. This opinion was highlighted following the release of a video showing the flogging of a girl by the Pakistani Taliban
Taliban
in the Swat Valley. Similar events and terrorist attacks finally forced the Pakistan
Pakistan
Army to launch a decisive attack against the Taliban
Taliban
occupying Swat Valley in April 2009, after having orders received from the political leadership.[58] After heavy fighting, the Swat Valley
Swat Valley
was largely pacified by July 2009, although isolated pockets of Taliban
Taliban
remained in the area. The next phase of the Pakistan
Pakistan
Army's offensive was the formidable Waziristan region. A US unmanned combat aerial vehicle (UCAV) bomb strike in FATA killed the leader of the Taliban, Baitullah Mehsud, in August. A power struggle engulfed the Taliban
Taliban
during September, but by October a new leader had emerged, Hakimullah Mehsud. Under his leadership, the Taliban
Taliban
launched another wave of terrorist attacks throughout Pakistan, killing hundreds of people. After a few weeks of air strikes, artillery and mortar attacks, 30,000 troops moved on into South Waziristan. The Army
Army
eventually re-took all of South Waziristan. In April 2012 an avalanche struck the 6th Northern Light Infantry Battalion
Battalion
headquarters in Ghyari sector of Siachen, entrapping 135 soldiers.[59] UN peacekeeping missions[edit]

Bell 412
Bell 412
is imported by Pakistan
Pakistan
from the U.S.

Main article: United Nations
United Nations
peacekeeping missions involving Pakistan In the wake of the new world power equilibrium, a more complex security environment has emerged. It is characterized by growing national power politics

UN Operation in Congo (ONUC) 1960–1964 UN Security Force in New Guinea, West Irian
West Irian
(UNSF) 1962–1963 UN Yemen Observer Mission Yemen (UNYOM) 1963–1964 UN Transition Assistance Group in Namibia (UNTAG) 1989–1990 UN Iraq–Kuwait Observer Mission (UNIKOM) 1991–2003 UN Mission in Haiti (UNMIH) 1993–1996 UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) 1992–1993 UN Operations in Somalia
Somalia
(UNOSOM) 1992–1995

UN Protection Forces in Bosnia
Bosnia
(UNPROFOR) 1992–1995 UN Observer Mission for Rwanda
Rwanda
(UNAMIR) 1993–1996 UN Verification Mission in Angola (UNAVEM III) 1995–1997 UN Transitional Administration for Eastern Slavonia
Slavonia
(UNTAES) 1996–1997 UN Mission of Observers in Prevlaka (UNMOP) 1996–2002 UN Assistance Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) 2001–2005 UN Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET) 1999-to-date UN Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) 1999-to-date

The table below shows the current deployment of Pakistani forces in UN Peacekeeping missions.

Start of operation Name of Operation Location Conflict Contribution

1999 United Nations
United Nations
Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO)

 Democratic Republic of Congo Second Congo War 3,556 Troops.[60]

2003 United Nations
United Nations
Mission in Liberia
Liberia
(UNMIL)

 Liberia Second Liberian Civil War 2,741 Troops.[60]

2004 United Nations
United Nations
Operation in Burundi
Burundi
ONUB

 Burundi Burundi
Burundi
Civil War 1,185 Troops.[60]

2004 United Nations
United Nations
Operation in Côte d'Ivoire (UNOCI)

 Côte d'Ivoire Civil war in Côte d'Ivoire 1,145 Troops.[60]

2005 United Nations
United Nations
Mission in the Sudan
Sudan
(UNMIS)

 Sudan Second Sudanese Civil War 1,542 Troops.[60]

Staff/Observers

191 Observers.[60]

The total number of Pakistani troops serving in peacekeeping missions is 7,533, as of August 2015, which is one of the biggest number among rest of participants.[61]

Organization[edit]

Pakistan
Pakistan
Army

Leadership

Chief of Army
Army
Staff Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee

Organisation and Components

Structure of the Pakistan
Pakistan
Army

Frontier Corps

Frontier Works Organisation

Special
Special
Service Group

Army
Army
Cantonment Board

Pakistan
Pakistan
Armoured Corps

Installations

General
General
Headquarters

Pakistan
Pakistan
Military Academy

Command and Staff College

National Defence University

Personnel

Army
Army
Ranks of Pakistan

Pakistan
Pakistan
Army
Army
Generals

Equipment

Equipment

History and Traditions

Military history of Pakistan

UN Peacekeeping Missions

Pakistan
Pakistan
Army
Army
FC

Awards, Decorations and Badges

Awards and Decorations

Nishan-e-Haider

Main articles: Structure of the Pakistan
Pakistan
Army
Army
and List of serving generals of the Pakistan
Pakistan
Army Command structure[edit] The President of Pakistan
Pakistan
is the civilian supreme commander of the Pakistan
Pakistan
Armed Forces by statute. The Chief of the Army
Army
Staff (COAS), a four-star general, is the highest general officer (unless the four-star general is Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee), a field and operational commander as well as a highest Army
Army
four-star general officer, directs the non-combat and combatant operations from army combatant headquarters in Rawalpindi. The Principal Staff Officers (PSO) assisting him in his duties at the Lieutenant-General level include a Chief of General
General
Staff (CGS), under whom the Military Operations and Intelligence Directorates function; the Chief of Logistics Staff (CLS); the Adjutant General
General
(AG); the Quarter-Master General
General
(QMG); the Inspector General
General
of Training and Evaluation (IGT and E); the Military Secretary (MS); and the Engineer-in-Chief, a top Army
Army
topographer. A major reorganization in GHQ was done in September 2008 under General
General
Ashfaq Parvez Kayani, when two new PSO positions were introduced: the Inspector General
General
Arms and the Inspector General Communications and IT, thus raising the number of PSO's to eight.[62] The headquarters function also includes the Judge Advocate General (JAG), and the Comptroller of Civilian Personnel, the Engineer-in-Chief of the Corps
Corps
of Engineers who is also head of Military Engineering Service
Military Engineering Service
(MES), all of them also report to the Chief of the Army
Army
Staff. Commissioned officers
Commissioned officers
rank[edit] Main article: Army
Army
ranks of Pakistan The rank structure is patterned on the British Army
Army
model. It consists of commissioned officers, non-commissioned officers and the Junior Commissioned Officers.

Commissioned Officers Ranks of the Pakistan
Pakistan
Army

Pay grade O-10/BPS-Apex O-9/BPS-Apex O-8/BPS-22 O-7/BPS-21 O-6/BPS-20 O-5/BPS-19 O-4/BPS-19 O-4/BPS-18 O-3/BPS-17 O-1/BPS-17 O-1/BPS-17

Insignia

Title Field Marshal General Lieutenant-General Major-General Brigadier Colonel Lieutenant-Colonel Major Captain Lieutenant Second Lieutenant

Abbreviation FM Gen Lt.Gen MGen Brig Col Lt.Col Maj Capt Lt SLt

NATO Code OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1 OF-1

Rank Hierarchy

Five-star

Four-star

Three-star

Two-star

One-star

Non-commissioned officers
Non-commissioned officers
wear respective regimental colour chevrons on the right sleeve. Centre point of the uppermost chevron must remain 10 cm from the point of the shoulder. Company / battalion appointments wear the appointments badges on the right wrist.

Structure of Non-Commissioned Officers Ranks of the Pakistan
Pakistan
Army

Pay grade OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1

Insignia

No insignia No insignia

Title Battalion
Battalion
Havildar
Havildar
Major Battalion
Battalion
Quartermaster
Quartermaster
Havildar Company Havildar
Havildar
Major Company Quartermaster
Quartermaster
Havildar Havildar Naik Lance Naik Sepoy No Equivalent

Abbreviation BHM BQMH CHM CQMH Hav NK L/Nk Sep NE

NATO Code OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1

Junior Commissioned Officer Ranks

Insignia

Title Subedar
Subedar
Major
Major
(infantry and other arms)/Risaldar Major
Major
(cavalry and armour) Subedar
Subedar
(infantry and other arms)/Risaldar (cavalry and armour) Naib Subedar
Subedar
(infantry and other arms)/Naib Risaldar (cavalry and armour)

Subdivision by profession[edit] The Pakistan
Pakistan
Army
Army
is divided into two main branches, which are Arms and Services.

Arms

Armoured Infantry Artillery Air Defence Engineers Signals Aviation Airborne Chemical[citation needed]

Services

Army
Army
Services Corps(ASC) Military Police Military Intelligence Electrical and Mechanical Engineers (EME) Medical Ordnance Dental Remount Veterinary and Farms Information and Communication Technology Army
Army
Education Corps
Corps
(AEC) Clerical JAG Branch

Operational commands[edit] The Pakistan
Pakistan
Army
Army
operates two commands during peace time. Each command is headed by General
General
Officer Commanding-in-Chief with the rank of Lieutenant
Lieutenant
General. Each command is directly affiliated to the Army HQ in Rawalpindi. Two commands, supervising a number of corps each, have been formed: Central Command and Southern Command. Northern Command is currently being raised. Corps[edit] A corps is an Army
Army
field formation responsible for a zone within a command theatre. There are three types of corps in the Pakistani Army: Strike, Holding and Mixed. A command generally consists of two or more corps. A corps has Army
Army
divisions under its command. The Corps
Corps
HQ is the highest field formation in the army. There are 9 Corps
Corps
in Pakistan
Pakistan
Army
Army
which are composed of a mix of Infantry, Mechanized, Armored and Artillery
Artillery
Divisions, while the Air Defense, Aviation and Strategic Forces Command are organized as separate corps. The Strategic Forces Command is responsible for training, deployment and activation of Pakistan's nuclear missiles.[63][64][65][66][67] Forces in action or poised for action include XI Corps, which has been heavily engaged in fighting the Taliban
Taliban
and other extremists along Pakistan's north-western border, and the 323rd Infantry
Infantry
Brigade, part of Force Command Northern Areas, on the Siachen Glacier. The peace time commands and the Corps
Corps
allocated to each command are given below.

Headquarters, Pakistan
Pakistan
Army, Rawalpindi, Punjab

Central Command – headquartered at Kharian

I Corps
Corps
– headquartered at Mangla Cantonment

6th Armoured Division headquartered at Gujranwala 17th Infantry
Infantry
Division headquartered at Kharian 37th Infantry
Infantry
Division headquartered at Kharian 11th Independent Armoured Brigade Independent Air Defence Brigade Independent Artillery
Artillery
Brigade Independent Infantry
Infantry
Brigade

IV Corps
Corps
– headquartered at Lahore

10th Infantry
Infantry
Division headquartered at Lahore 11th Infantry
Infantry
Division headquartered at Lahore 3rd Independent Armoured Brigade 212th Infantry
Infantry
Brigade Independent Artillery
Artillery
Brigade

XXX Corps
Corps
– headquartered at Gujranwala

2nd Artillery
Artillery
Division headquartered at Gujranwala 8th Infantry
Infantry
Division headquartered at Sialkot 15th Infantry
Infantry
Division headquartered at Sialkot 2nd Independent Armoured Brigade 54th Independent Infantry
Infantry
Brigade
Brigade
headquartered at Sialkot Independent Anti-Tank Brigade Independent Artillery
Artillery
Brigade

Southern Command – headquartered at Quetta

II Corps
Corps
– headquartered at Multan

1st Armoured Division headquartered at Multan 14th Infantry
Infantry
Division headquartered at Okara 40th Infantry
Infantry
Division headquartered at Okara Independent Armoured Brigade Independent Air Defence Brigade Independent Artillery
Artillery
Brigade Independent Infantry
Infantry
Brigade

V Corps
Corps
– headquartered at Karachi

16th Infantry
Infantry
Division headquartered at Pano Aqil 18th Infantry
Infantry
Division headquartered at Hyderabad 25th Mechanized Division headquartered at Malir[68] 21st Artillery
Artillery
Division headquartered at Pano Aqil 31st Mechanized Brigade
Brigade
headquartered at Malir 2nd Armoured Brigade
Brigade
headquartered at Malir Independent Artillery
Artillery
Brigade

XII Corps
Corps
– headquartered at Quetta

33rd Infantry
Infantry
Division headquartered at Quetta 41st Infantry
Infantry
Division headquartered at Quetta Independent Infantry
Infantry
Brigade
Brigade
headquartered at Turbat

XXXI Corps
Corps
– headquartered at Bahawalpur

26th Mechanized Division headquartered at Bahawalpur[68] 35th Infantry
Infantry
Division headquartered at Bahawalpur 13th Independent Armoured Brigade 101st Independent Infantry
Infantry
Brigade

Corps
Corps
not yet allocated to any Command:

X Corps
Corps
– headquartered at Rawalpindi

12th Infantry
Infantry
Division headquartered at Murree 19th Infantry
Infantry
Division headquartered at Mangla 23rd Infantry
Infantry
Division headquartered at Jhelum Force Command Northern Areas – headquartered at Gilgit 34th Light Infantry
Infantry
Division (SSD) headquartered at Rawalpindi 111th Infantry
Infantry
Brigade
Brigade
headquartered at Rawalpindi 8th Armoured Brigade
Brigade
headquartered at Kharian Independent Artillery
Artillery
Brigade

XI Corps
Corps
– headquartered at Peshawar

7th Infantry
Infantry
Division headquartered at Peshawar 9th Infantry
Infantry
Division headquartered at Kohat

Other Commands:

Army
Army
Air Defence Command – headquartered at Rawalpindi

3rd Air Defence Division headquartered at Sargodha 4th Air Defence Division headquartered at Malir

Army
Army
Strategic Forces Command – headquartered at Rawalpindi

Strategic Force North (SFN) headquartered at Sargodha Strategic Force South (SFS) headquartered at Petaro

Other field formations[edit]

Division: An army division is an intermediate between a corps and a brigade. It is the largest striking force in the army. Each division is headed by general officer commanding (GOC) in the rank of major general. It usually consists of 15,000 combat troops and 8,000 support elements. Currently, the Pakistani Army
Army
has 30 divisions, including 19 infantry divisions, 1 light infantry division, 2 mechanized divisions, 2 armoured divisions, 2 artillery divisions, 2 air defence divisions and 2 strategic divisions. Each division comprises several brigades. Brigade: A brigade generally consists of around 3,000 combat troops with supporting elements. An infantry brigade usually has 3 infantry battalions along with various support arms & services. It is headed by a brigadier, equivalent to a brigadier general in some armies. In addition to the brigades in various army divisions, the Pakistani Army
Army
also has 7 independent armoured brigades, 5 independent artillery brigades, 3 independent infantry brigades, and 3 anti-tank brigades. These independent brigades operate directly under the corps commander (GOC Corps). Regiment: A regiment is commanded by a colonel. Battalion: A battalion (engineers corps) or unit (armored, infantry, artillery i.e.) is commanded by a lieutenant-colonel. It consists of more than 900 combat personnel. Company: Headed by the major/captain, a company comprises about 120–150 soldiers. Platoon: An intermediate between a company and section, a platoon is headed by a lieutenant or, depending on the availability of commissioned officers, a junior commissioned officer, with the rank of subedar or naib-subedar. It has a total strength of about 30–36 troops. Section: Smallest military outfit, with a strength of about 9–13 personnel. Commanded by a non-commissioned or commissioned officer of the rank of subedar major or major, depending upon the working conditions of the section.

Regiments[edit]

Pakistan's Honor Guards at the Aiwan-e-Sadr, Islamabad

There are several battalions or units associated together in an infantry regiment. The infantry regiment in the Pakistani Army
Army
is an administrative military organisation and not a field formation. All the battalions of a regiment do not fight together as one formation, but are dispersed over various formations, viz. brigades, divisions and corps. An infantry battalion serves for a period of time under a formation and then moves to another, usually in another sector or terrain when its tenure is over. Occasionally, battalions of the same regiment may serve together for a tenure. Most of the infantry regiments of the Pakistani Army
Army
originate from the old British Indian Army
Army
and recruit troops from a region or of specific ethnicities. Regiments of the Pakistani Army
Army
include:

Infantry:

Regiment Active From Regimental Center Motto War Cry

Punjab
Punjab
Regiment 1751 Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Nara-e-Haideri YA ALI

Baloch Regiment 1798 Abbottabad, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Ghazi ya Shaheed Kai Kai Baloch

Frontier Force Regiment 1843 Abbottabad, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Labbaik Individual battalions carry their own war cry

Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
Regiment 1947 Mansar, Punjab

Sind Regiment 1980 Hyderabad, Sindh

Northern Light Infantry 1889 Gilgit, Gilgit
Gilgit
Baltistan Sabit Qadam

Army
Army
Air Defence Corps:

Medium AD Regiment Light AD Regiment GunMissile Regiment
Regiment
(Light)GunMissile AD Regiment Self Propelled AD Regiment SAM Regiment Missile Regiment Radar Controlled Gun Regiment Surveillance Controlling Reporting Regiment

Armoured Corps:

Cavalry Lancers Horse

Artillery
Artillery
Corps

Field Regiment Mountain Regiment Medium Regiment Heavy Regiment Self Propelled (Med) Regiment Self Propelled (Heavy) Regiment Met and Locating Regiment Multi Barrel Rocket Launcher Regiment Multiple Launching Rocket System Regiment

Corps
Corps
of Engineers Aviation Corps Army
Army
Service Corps Corps
Corps
of Signals Corps
Corps
of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering Medical Corps Corps
Corps
of Military Police

Special
Special
forces[edit] The Special Services Group
Special Services Group
(SSG) is an independent commando regiment/corps of the Pakistan
Pakistan
Army. It is an elite special operations force similar to the United States
United States
Army
Army
Special
Special
Forces (Green Berets) and the British Army's SAS. Combat doctrine[edit] The Pakistan
Pakistan
Army
Army
has developed a doctrine called the Riposte which is a limited "offensive-defence"[69] doctrine. It has refined it consistently starting in 1989 during the Exercise Zarb–e–Momin. This doctrine is fully focused towards Pakistan's primary adversary, India. The doctrine is derived from several factors:[70]

The vulnerability of Pakistan
Pakistan
is that so many of its major population centers and politically and military sensitive targets lie very close to the border with India. As such Pakistan
Pakistan
can ill-afford to lose large territories to an Indian attack. 'Strategic depth' in the form of a friendly Afghanistan
Afghanistan
is deemed vital by military planners. India
India
has substantially enhanced its offensive capabilities, with the Cold Start Doctrine. Any counterattack would be very tricky against the large number of Indian troops involved. The response of the Pakistani army includes the development of the Nasr missile. Holding formations in both Pakistan
Pakistan
and India
India
can man their forward defensive positions and fortifications in less than 24 hours. However, Corps
Corps
level reserves with large stockpiles of munitions will take between 24 and 72 hours for mobilization after being given their orders. In this regard, both armies will be evenly matched in the first 24 hours since the Pakistani units have to travel a shorter distance to their forward positions.

This doctrine entails Pakistan
Pakistan
in the event of hostilities with India will not wait for the enemy's offensive, but rather launch an offensive of its own. The offensive will be a limited advance along narrow fronts with the aim of occupying territory near the border to a depth of 40–50 km. Since Indian forces will not reach their maximum strength near the border for another 48–72 hours, Pakistan might have parity or numerical superiority against the Indians. Pakistan
Pakistan
hopes to accomplish three things under this strategy:[70]

The enemy is kept off-balance as it will be tied up containing the Pakistani offensive into its territory rather than launching an offensive into Pakistani territory. The Pakistani Army
Army
hopes to contain the fighting on the Indian side of the border so that any collateral or other damage will be suffered by India. Indian territory of strategic importance once seized, will give the Pakistani Army
Army
a bargaining chip to be used in the aftermath of a ceasefire brought about by international pressure after 3–4 weeks of fighting.

Kashmir, Line of Control
Line of Control
and the Northern Punjab
Punjab
areas are heavily fortified and ill-suited for large mechanized offensives. The most likely area where Pakistan
Pakistan
and India
India
might launch its offensive is the semi-desert and desert sectors in southern Punjab
Punjab
and Sindh
Sindh
provinces. To supplement this doctrine, the Army
Army
in the 1990s created a strong centralized corps of reserves for its formations. The force is known as Army
Army
Reserve South and is a grouping of several powerful Corps
Corps
from Pakistan's Order of Battle. These formations have been equipped with assets needed for mechanized capability. They are dual-capable, meaning they can be used for offensive as well as defensive purposes. Pakistan
Pakistan
has also increased its ammunition, fuel and other military stockpiles to last for 45 days in case of a conflict. During the 1965 war, Pakistan
Pakistan
only had 13-day reserves which hampered its military operations. Political and corporate activities[edit] See also: Askari Bank The Pakistan
Pakistan
Army
Army
has always played an integral part in local politics since its inception mainly on the pretext of lack of good civilian leadership, corruption, and inefficieny.[71] It has virtually acted as a third party that has repeatedly seized power in the name of stabilizing Pakistan
Pakistan
and ending corruption. However, according to the political observers, political instability, lawlessness and corruption are direct consequences of army rule.[72][73] The tradition of insubordination of the army towards the legitimate leadership of can be traced back to Lt. Gen Frank Messervy
Frank Messervy
who resisted the orders of Pakistan’s founding father Muhammad Ali Jinnah. This was described as the main reason for his early retirement. However it did not prevent him being honored and promoted to general. Later Douglas Gracey, the C in C of the Pakistan
Pakistan
Army
Army
did not send troops to the Kashmir
Kashmir
front and refused to obey the order to do so given by Mohammad Ali Jinnah, Governor- General
General
of Pakistan.[74] Gracey argued that Jinnah as Governor- General
General
represented the British Crown of which he himself was an appointee. The same tradition was continued by their successors, Ayub Khan, Zia and Musharraf, all of whom received honours instead of being tried for indiscipline, corruption and insubordination. The army runs the largest real estate business in Pakistan
Pakistan
under the auspices of Defense Housing Societies and other welfare societies. However out 46 housing schemes directly built by the armed forces, none is for ordinary soldiers or civilian officers and personnel employed by the army.[75] The Army
Army
is also engaged in other corporate activities such as stud and dairy farms meant for the army's own use. Others enterprises perform functions in local civilian economy such as bakeries, security services and banking. Army
Army
factories produced such goods as sugar, fertilizer, and brass castings and sold them to civilian consumers albeit at prices higher than those charged from military personnel.[76] Pakistan
Pakistan
military has the biggest share in Pakistan's stock exchange. It operates commercial bank, airline, steel, cement, telecom, petroleum and energy, education, sports, health care and even chains of grocery shops and bakeries.[77] Several Army
Army
organizations operate in the commercial sector across the country. For example, the National Logistics Cell
National Logistics Cell
was responsible for trucking food and other goods across the country; the Frontier Works Organization built the Karakoram Highway to China; and the Special Communication Organization maintained communications networks in remote parts of Pakistan. Involvement in Pakistani society[edit] See also: 2009 refugee crisis in Pakistan The Pakistan
Pakistan
Army
Army
has played an integral part in the civil society of Pakistan, almost since its inception.[78] In 1996, General
General
Jehangir Karamat described Pakistan
Pakistan
armed forces' relations with the society:

In my opinion, if we have to repeat of past events then we must understand that Military leaders can pressure only up to a point. Beyond that their own position starts getting undermined because the military is after all is a mirror image of the civil society from which it is drawn. —  General
General
Jehangir Karamat on civil society–military relations, [78]

In times of natural disaster, such as the great floods of 1992 or the October 2005 devastating earthquake, army engineers, medical and logistics personnel, and the armed forces played a major role in bringing relief and supplies. The Pakistan
Pakistan
Army
Army
has been involved in relief activities not only in Pakistan
Pakistan
but also in many other countries of the world, such as the relief activities after Bangladesh
Bangladesh
was hit by floods. The Army
Army
also dispatched relief to Indonesia, Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and Sri Lanka after they were hit by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake
2004 Indian Ocean earthquake
and the resulting tsunami. Personnel[edit] According to the International Institute for Strategic Studies
International Institute for Strategic Studies
(IISS) the Pakistan
Pakistan
Army
Army
has an active force of 550,000 personnel as of 2015.[79] Enlisted ranks[edit] Most enlisted personnel used to come from rural families, and many have only rudimentary literacy skills, but with the increase in the literacy level the requirements have been raised to Matriculate level (10th Grade). Recruits are processed gradually through a paternalistically run regimental training center, taught the official language, Urdu, if necessary, and given a period of elementary education before their military training actually starts. In the thirty-six-week training period, they develop an attachment to the regiment they will remain with through much of their careers and begin to develop a sense of being a Pakistani rather than primarily a member of a tribe or a village. Enlisted men usually serve for eighteen years, during which they participate in regular training cycles and have the opportunity to take academic courses to help them advance. Officer ranks[edit] Each year, about 650 men enter the Army
Army
bi-annually through the Pakistan
Pakistan
Military Academy at Kakul
Kakul
in Abbottabad
Abbottabad
in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa; a small number—like doctors and technical specialists—are directly recruited, and are part of the Signal, EME, Engineers and Medical corps. The product of a highly competitive selection process, members of the officer corps have completed twelve years of education and spend two years at the Pakistan
Pakistan
Military Academy, with their time divided about equally between military training and academic work to bring them up to a baccalaureate education level, which includes English-language skills. Academic institutions[edit] The Army
Army
has twelve other training and educational establishments, including schools concentrating on specific skills such as infantry, artillery, intelligence, engineering, or mountain warfare. The National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST) has been established which has absorbed the existing colleges of engineering, signals, electrical engineering and medicine. At the apex of the army training system is the Command and Staff College
Command and Staff College
at Quetta, one of the few institutions inherited from the colonial period. The college offers a ten-month course in tactics, staff duties, administration, and command functions through the division level. Students from foreign countries, including the United States, have attended the school but reportedly have been critical of its narrow focus and failure to encourage speculative thinking or to give adequate attention to less glamorous subjects, such as logistics.[citation needed] The senior training institution for all service branches is the National Defence University, Islamabad. Originally established in 1971 at Rawalpindi, to provide training in higher military strategy for senior officers, the institution was relocated to Islamabad
Islamabad
in 1995. According to Aqil Shah, the NDU is significant for understanding the institutional norms of military tutelage in Pakistan
Pakistan
because it constitutes the “highest forum where the military leadership comes together for common instruction.” Without graduating from the NDU (or a foreign equivalent), no officer can become a general. Besides, the NDU training program represents a radical shift from the emphasis on operational and staff functions in the training of junior officers (for example, majors at the Staff College) to educating colonels and brigadiers about a broad range of strategic political, social, and economic factors as they affect national security. In that sense, it constitutes the senior officer corps’s baptism into a shared ideological framework about the military’s appropriate role, status, and behavior in relation to state and society. These shared values affect how these officers perceive and respond to civilian governmental decisions, policies, and political crises.[80] It also offers courses that allow civilians to explore the broader aspects of national security. In a program begun in the 1980s to upgrade the intellectual standards of the officer corps and increase awareness of the wider world, a small group of officers, has been detailed to academic training, achieving master's degrees and even doctorates at universities in Pakistan
Pakistan
and abroad. Pakistani officers were sent abroad during the 1950s and into the 1960s for training in Britain and other Commonwealth countries, and the United States, where trainees numbering well in the hundreds attended a full range of institutions ranging from armoured and infantry schools to the higher staff and command institutions. After 1961 this training was coordinated under the International Military Education and Training (IMET) program, but numbers varied along with the vicissitudes of the United States- Pakistan
Pakistan
military relationship. Of some 200 officers being sent abroad annually in the 1980s, over two-thirds went to the United States, but the cessation of United States aid in 1990 entailed suspension of the IMET program. In 1994 virtually all foreign training was in Commonwealth countries. However, after the 9/11
9/11
attacks, Pakistan
Pakistan
again begun sending officers to US Army
Army
schools. Today there are more than 400 officers serving in foreign countries. Officers retire between the ages of fifty-two and sixty, depending on their rank. Science and technology[edit] Apart from conducting military operations, exercises, and military ethics, the Pakistan
Pakistan
Army
Army
maintains its own science and technology corps and organizations. Most notable science and engineering corps including Military Engineering Service
Military Engineering Service
(MES) Corps
Corps
of Engineers, Corps of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering (EME), and Frontier Works Organisation. Its Army
Army
Strategic Forces Command served as the primary military organization in the matters of conducting and directing research on nuclear and space (such as military satellites). The cadets and officers of the Pakistan
Pakistan
Army
Army
who wished to study science and technology are given admission at the College of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering (CEME) and the Military College of Engineering where the scientific and military education are taught. The admissions of engineering colleges are not restricted to civilians as they can also gain admission and graduate with engineering and science degrees. Uniforms[edit] Pakistan
Pakistan
Army
Army
uniforms closely resemble those of the British Armed Forces. The principal colour is greenish brown. Dress uniforms were worn mostly on formal occasions. The service uniform was worn for daily duty. The service uniform for the ground forces was Golden Brown (sand/tan) cotton. Officers purchased their uniforms, but enlisted personnel received a standard uniform issue, which consisted of service and field uniforms, fatigues, and in some cases, dress uniforms. The uniforms consisted of shirt, trousers, sweater, jacket or blouse, and boots. There is also a white dress uniform. The fatigues were the same for winter and summer. Heavy winter gear was issued where needed. A service cap for dress and semi-dress and a field cap worn with fatigues. Army
Army
personnel also wear berets, usually worn in lieu of service caps. Brown and black and more recently former BDU style camouflage fatigues are worn by army troop units. The uniform of a Pakistan
Pakistan
army soldier exhibits much information that is : Pakistan
Pakistan
Army
Army
has introduced arid camouflage pattern in uniform and resized qualification badges which are now service ribbons and no longer worn along with the ranks are now embroidered and are on chest. The name is badged on the right pocket and the left pocket displays achievement badges by Pak Army. Flag of Pakistan
Pakistan
is placed over the black embroidered formation sign on the left arm and class course insignias are put up as per ADR for the Goldish uniform,[81] decorations & awards[82] and the ranks.[83] Ethnic composition[edit] Traditionally, the Army
Army
was a predominantly Punjabi force because of its dominant population ( Punjab
Punjab
is the most populous province of Pakistan, with approximately 55% of the country's total population). From the early 20th century in British controlled regions of Pakistan, three districts: Jhelum, Rawalpindi, and Campbellpur (now Attock) dominated the recruitment flows. Large extensive efforts have been made to bring all ethnicities on par, presently the Army
Army
recruitment system is enlisting personnel district-wise irrespective of provincial boundaries. This decision has given a fair chance to every citizen of Pakistan
Pakistan
to be part of the Pakistan
Pakistan
Army
Army
as each district possesses a fixed percentage of seats in all branches of the Army, as per census records. By 2005, the Punjab
Punjab
representation in the Army
Army
was down to 43%, from 63% in 1991, with further drops projected.[76][84] Women and non-Muslims[edit] Main article: Women in the Pakistan
Pakistan
Armed Forces Women have served in the Pakistan
Pakistan
Army
Army
since its foundation. Currently, there is a sizeable number of women serving in the Pakistan Army. Most women are recruited in the Army
Army
to perform medical and educational work. There is also a Women's Guard section of Pakistan's National Guard where women are trained in nursing, welfare and clerical work and there are also women recruited in very limited numbers for the Janbaz Force. Only recently has Pakistan
Pakistan
began to recruit women for Elite Anti-Terrorist Police Force in 2007, several female graduates were nominated to be Sky Marshals for Pakistan-based airlines.[85] In addition recently eight of the 41 cadets from the Pakistan
Pakistan
Military Academy at Kakul
Kakul
became the first women guards of honour.[86] Pakistan
Pakistan
is the only country in the Islamic world to have female Major
Major
Generals in the Army.[87] Major
Major
General
General
Shahida Malik, an Army
Army
doctor was Pakistan's first female two-star general.[88] Between 1947 and 2000, Pakistani Hindus were barred from joining the Army. This was changed in 2000 and since then, Pakistani Hindus were admitted for the first time. Today, people of all faiths or no faith may join and serve. Non-Muslims are allowed to sit in all examinations and can serve in any part of the Pakistan
Pakistan
Army. They can also be promoted to any rank.[89] There have been numerous Christians who have risen to the rank of Brigadier. In April 1993 the first Christian promoted to the rank of Major
Major
General
General
was Julian Peter who commanded the 40th Strike Division in Okara Cantt. In 2009 Brigadier
Brigadier
Noel Israel
Israel
Khokhar was also promoted to the rank of Major
Major
General. Major
Major
General
General
Noel Israel Kokhar commanded the 23rd Division in Jehlum Cantt. Capt. Hercharn Singh, as the first Sikh, is Commissioned Officer in Pakistan
Pakistan
Army. He was commissioned in Baloch Regiment. Currently, he is serving as an ADC to a Corps
Corps
Commander. Recipients of Nishan-e-Haider[edit] Main article: Nishan-e-Haider

Nishan-e-Haider; Pakistan's highest military award.

The Nishan-e-Haider
Nishan-e-Haider
(Urdu: نشان حیدر) (Sign of the Lion) is the highest military award given by Pakistan, ranking above the Hilal-i-Jur'at
Hilal-i-Jur'at
(Crescent of Courage). Nishan-e-Haider
Nishan-e-Haider
recipients receive an honorary title as a sign of respect: Shaheed meaning martyr for deceased recipients. As of 19 September 2013, all Nishan-e-Haider awards have thus far been given to the people engaged in battles with India. Similar to the American Medal of Honor
Medal of Honor
or the British Victoria Cross, it has only been awarded to 10 Pakistan
Pakistan
Army
Army
personnel since 1947: Recipients of foreign awards[edit] Two Pakistani pilots belonging to the army aviation branch of Pakistan Army
Army
who carried out a daring rescue of a mountaineer were given Slovenia's top award for bravery. Slovenian, Tomaz Humar got stranded on the western end of the 8,125m Nanga Parbat
Nanga Parbat
mountain where he remained for around a week on top of the world's ninth-highest peak. The helicopter pilots plucked the 38-year-old from an icy ledge 6,000m up the peak known as "killer mountain". The Slovenian President presented Lt Col Rashid Ullah Beg and Lt Col Khalid Amir Rana with the Golden Order for Services in the country's capital, Ljubljana, for risking their lives during the rescue mission, a Pakistan
Pakistan
Army
Army
statement said.[90] Pakistan
Pakistan
Army
Army
team was awarded a gold medal at the Cambrian Patrol Exercise held in Wales in October 2010.[91][92][93] Equipment[edit] Main article: Equipment of the Pakistan
Pakistan
Army The army's equipment includes small arms, armour, artillery including self-propelled and MLRS
MLRS
systems, aircraft and air defence systems. Much equipment is of Chinese, European or American origin, while some is either produced or developed by domestic suppliers. Sports[edit] See also: Pakistan
Pakistan
Army
Army
basketball team The Pakistan
Pakistan
Army
Army
has a noteworthy sports program with elite athletes in many sports disciplines.[94][non-primary source needed] An example of the program's success is its basketball program which regularly provides the Pakistan
Pakistan
national basketball team with key players.[95] See also[edit]

Islamic Military Alliance List of serving generals of the Pakistan
Pakistan
Army

References[edit]

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Pakistan
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Further reading[edit]

Cloughley, Brian. A History of the Pakistan
Pakistan
Army: Wars and Insurrections (4th ed. 2014). International Institute for Strategic Studies
International Institute for Strategic Studies
(3 February 2010). Hackett, James, ed. The Military Balance 2010. London: Routledge. ISBN 1-85743-557-5.  Ayub, Muhammad (2005). An army, Its Role and Rule: A History of the Pakistan
Pakistan
Army
Army
from Independence to Kargil, 1947–1999. RoseDog Books. ISBN 9780805995947.

External links[edit]

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** = Includes all ship-to-ship, ship-to-sub, sub-to-ship and sub-to-sub torpedoes. References availabl

.