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Painting
Painting
is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium[1] to a solid surface (support base). The medium is commonly applied to the base with a brush, but other implements, such as knives, sponges, and airbrushes, can be used. Painting
Painting
is a mode of creative expression, and can be done in numerous forms. Drawing, gesture (as in gestural painting), composition, narration (as in narrative art), or abstraction (as in abstract art), among other aesthetic modes, may serve to manifest the expressive and conceptual intention of the practitioner.[2] Paintings can be naturalistic and representational (as in a still life or landscape painting), photographic, abstract, narrative, symbolistic (as in Symbolist art), emotive (as in Expressionism), or political in nature (as in Artivism). A portion of the history of painting in both Eastern and Western art is dominated by spiritual motifs and ideas. Examples of this kind of painting range from artwork depicting mythological figures on pottery, to Biblical scenes rendered on the interior walls and ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, to scenes from the life of Buddha or other images of Eastern religious origin. In art, the term painting describes both the act and the result of the action. The support for paintings includes such surfaces as walls, paper, canvas, wood, glass, lacquer, clay, leaf, copper and concrete, and the painting may incorporate multiple other materials including sand, clay, paper, plaster, gold leaf, as well as objects. The term painting is also used outside art as a common trade among craftsmen and builders.

Contents

1 Elements of painting

1.1 Color
Color
and tone 1.2 Non-traditional elements 1.3 Rhythm

2 History 3 Aesthetics
Aesthetics
and theory 4 Painting
Painting
media

4.1 Oil 4.2 Pastel 4.3 Acrylic 4.4 Watercolor 4.5 Ink 4.6 Hot wax or encaustic 4.7 Fresco 4.8 Gouache 4.9 Enamel 4.10 Spray paint 4.11 Tempera 4.12 Water miscible oil paint 4.13 Digital painting

5 Painting
Painting
styles

5.1 Western

5.1.1 Modernism

5.1.1.1 Impressionism 5.1.1.2 Abstract styles 5.1.1.3 Outsider art 5.1.1.4 Photorealism 5.1.1.5 Surrealism

5.2 Far Eastern 5.3 Islamic 5.4 Indian 5.5 African 5.6 Contemporary art 5.7 1950s 5.8 1960s 5.9 1970s 5.10 1980s 5.11 1990s 5.12 2000s

6 Types of painting

6.1 Allegory 6.2 Bodegón 6.3 Figure painting 6.4 Illustration
Illustration
painting 6.5 Landscape painting 6.6 Portrait
Portrait
painting 6.7 Still life 6.8 Veduta

7 See also 8 Notes 9 Further reading

Elements of painting[edit]

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Chen Hongshou
Chen Hongshou
(1598–1652), Leaf
Leaf
album painting (Ming Dynasty)

Color
Color
and tone[edit] Color
Color
and tone are the essence of painting as pitch and rhythm are the essence of music. Color
Color
is highly subjective, but has observable psychological effects, although these can differ from one culture to the next. Black is associated with mourning in the West, but in the East, white is. Some painters, theoreticians, writers and scientists, including Goethe,[3] Kandinsky,[4] and Newton,[5] have written their own color theory. Moreover, the use of language is only an abstraction for a color equivalent. The word "red", for example, can cover a wide range of variations from the pure red of the visible spectrum of light. There is not a formalized register of different colors in the way that there is agreement on different notes in music, such as F or C♯. For a painter, color is not simply divided into basic (primary) and derived (complementary or mixed) colors (like red, blue, green, brown, etc.). Painters deal practically with pigments,[6] so "blue" for a painter can be any of the blues: phthalocyanine blue, Prussian blue, indigo, cobalt, ultramarine, and so on. Psychological and symbolical meanings of color are not, strictly speaking, means of painting. Colors only add to the potential, derived context of meanings, and because of this, the perception of a painting is highly subjective. The analogy with music is quite clear—sound in music (like a C note) is analogous to "light" in painting, "shades" to dynamics, and "coloration" is to painting as the specific timbre of musical instruments is to music. These elements do not necessarily form a melody (in music) of themselves; rather, they can add different contexts to it.

Circus Sideshow (French: Parade de cirque), Georges Seurat, 1887–88

Non-traditional elements[edit] Modern artists have extended the practice of painting considerably to include, as one example, collage, which began with Cubism
Cubism
and is not painting in the strict sense. Some modern painters incorporate different materials such as sand, cement, straw or wood for their texture. Examples of this are the works of Jean Dubuffet
Jean Dubuffet
and Anselm Kiefer. There is a growing community of artists who use computers to "paint" color onto a digital "canvas" using programs such as Adobe Photoshop, Corel Painter, and many others. These images can be printed onto traditional canvas if required. Rhythm[edit] Rhythm
Rhythm
is important in painting as it is in music. If one defines rhythm as "a pause incorporated into a sequence", then there can be rhythm in paintings. These pauses allow creative force to intervene and add new creations—form, melody, coloration. The distribution of form, or any kind of information is of crucial importance in the given work of art, and it directly affects the aesthetic value of that work. This is because the aesthetical value is functionality dependent, i.e. the freedom (of movement) of perception is perceived as beauty. Free flow of energy, in art as well as in other forms of "techne", directly contributes to the aesthetical value. History[edit]

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Main article: History of painting

Cave painting
Cave painting
of aurochs, (French: Bos primigenius primigenius), Lascaux, France, an example of prehistoric art

The oldest known paintings are at the Grotte Chauvet
Grotte Chauvet
in France, which some historians believe are about 32,000 years old. They are engraved and painted using red ochre and black pigment, and they show horses, rhinoceros, lions, buffalo, mammoth, abstract designs and what are possibly partial human figures. However, the earliest evidence of the act of painting has been discovered in two rock-shelters in Arnhem Land, in northern Australia. In the lowest layer of material at these sites, there are used pieces of ochre estimated to be 60,000 years old. Archaeologists have also found a fragment of rock painting preserved in a limestone rock-shelter in the Kimberley region of North-Western Australia, that is dated 40,000 years old.[7] There are examples of cave paintings all over the world—in Italy, France, Spain, Portugal, China, Australia, Mexico,[8] etc. In Western cultures, oil painting and watercolor painting have rich and complex traditions in style and subject matter. In the East, ink and color ink historically predominated the choice of media, with equally rich and complex traditions. The invention of photography had a major impact on painting. In the decades after the first photograph was produced in 1829, photographic processes improved and became more widely practiced, depriving painting of much of its historic purpose to provide an accurate record of the observable world. A series of art movements in the late 19th and early 20th centuries—notably Impressionism, Post-Impressionism, Fauvism, Expressionism, Cubism, and Dadaism—challenged the Renaissance
Renaissance
view of the world. Eastern and African painting, however, continued a long history of stylization and did not undergo an equivalent transformation at the same time.[citation needed] Modern and Contemporary Art
Art
has moved away from the historic value of craft and documentation in favour of concept, leading some to say, in the 1960s, that painting as a serious art form is dead.[clarification needed] This has not deterred the majority of living painters from continuing to practice painting either as whole or part of their work. The vitality and versatility of painting in the 21st century defies the previous "declarations" of its demise. In an epoch characterized by the idea of pluralism, there is no consensus as to a representative style of the age. Artists continue to make important works of art in a wide variety of styles and aesthetic temperaments—their merits are left to the public and the marketplace to judge. Aesthetics
Aesthetics
and theory[edit] Main article: Theory of painting

Apelles or the Art
Art
of painting (detail), relief of the Giotto's Bell Tower in Florence, Italy, Nino Pisano, 1334–1336

Aesthetics
Aesthetics
is the study of art and beauty; it was an important issue for 18th- and 19th-century philosophers such as Kant and Hegel. Classical philosophers like Plato
Plato
and Aristotle
Aristotle
also theorized about art and painting in particular. Plato
Plato
disregarded painters (as well as sculptors) in his philosophical system; he maintained that painting cannot depict the truth—it is a copy of reality (a shadow of the world of ideas) and is nothing but a craft, similar to shoemaking or iron casting.[9] By the time of Leonardo, painting had become a closer representation of the truth than painting was in Ancient Greece. Leonardo da Vinci, on the contrary, said that "Italian: La Pittura è cosa mentale" ("English: painting is a thing of the mind").[10] Kant distinguished between Beauty
Beauty
and the Sublime, in terms that clearly gave priority to the former.[citation needed] Although he did not refer to painting in particular, this concept was taken up by painters such as J.M.W. Turner and Caspar David Friedrich. Hegel
Hegel
recognized the failure of attaining a universal concept of beauty and, in his aesthetic essay, wrote that painting is one of the three "romantic" arts, along with Poetry
Poetry
and Music, for its symbolic, highly intellectual purpose.[11][12] Painters who have written theoretical works on painting include Kandinsky and Paul Klee.[13][14] In his essay, Kandinsky maintains that painting has a spiritual value, and he attaches primary colors to essential feelings or concepts, something that Goethe
Goethe
and other writers had already tried to do. Iconography
Iconography
is the study of the content of paintings, rather than their style. Erwin Panofsky
Erwin Panofsky
and other art historians first seek to understand the things depicted, before looking at their meaning for the viewer at the time, and finally analyzing their wider cultural, religious, and social meaning.[15] In 1890, the Parisian painter Maurice Denis
Maurice Denis
famously asserted: "Remember that a painting—before being a warhorse, a naked woman or some story or other—is essentially a flat surface covered with colors assembled in a certain order."[16] Thus, many 20th-century developments in painting, such as Cubism, were reflections on the means of painting rather than on the external world—nature—which had previously been its core subject. Recent contributions to thinking about painting have been offered by the painter and writer Julian Bell. In his book What is Painting?, Bell discusses the development, through history, of the notion that paintings can express feelings and ideas.[17] In Mirror of The World, Bell writes:[? clarification needed]

A work of art seeks to hold your attention and keep it fixed: a history of art urges it onwards, bulldozing a highway through the homes of the imagination.[18]

Painting
Painting
media[edit] Different types of paint are usually identified by the medium that the pigment is suspended or embedded in, which determines the general working characteristics of the paint, such as viscosity, miscibility, solubility, drying time, etc. Oil[edit]

Honoré Daumier
Honoré Daumier
(1808–79), The Painter. Oil
Oil
on panel with visible brushstrokes.

Oil painting
Oil painting
is the process of painting with pigments that are bound with a medium of drying oil, such as linseed oil, which was widely used in early modern Europe. Often the oil was boiled with a resin such as pine resin or even frankincense; these were called 'varnishes' and were prized for their body and gloss. Oil paint
Oil paint
eventually became the principal medium used for creating artworks as its advantages became widely known. The transition began with Early Netherlandish painting in northern Europe, and by the height of the Renaissance
Renaissance
oil painting techniques had almost completely replaced tempera paints in the majority of Europe. Pastel[edit]

Maurice Quentin de La Tour, Portrait
Portrait
of Louis XV of France. (1748) Pastel.

Pastel
Pastel
is a painting medium in the form of a stick, consisting of pure powdered pigment and a binder.[19] The pigments used in pastels are the same as those used to produce all colored art media, including oil paints; the binder is of a neutral hue and low saturation. The color effect of pastels is closer to the natural dry pigments than that of any other process.[20] Because the surface of a pastel painting is fragile and easily smudged, its preservation requires protective measures such as framing under glass; it may also be sprayed with a fixative. Nonetheless, when made with permanent pigments and properly cared for, a pastel painting may endure unchanged for centuries. Pastels are not susceptible, as are paintings made with a fluid medium, to the cracking and discoloration that result from changes in the color, opacity, or dimensions of the medium as it dries. Acrylic[edit]

Jungle Arc by Ray Burggraf. Acrylic paint
Acrylic paint
on wood. (1998)

Acrylic paint
Acrylic paint
is fast drying paint containing pigment suspension in acrylic polymer emulsion. Acrylic paints can be diluted with water, but become water-resistant when dry. Depending on how much the paint is diluted (with water) or modified with acrylic gels, media, or pastes, the finished acrylic painting can resemble a watercolor or an oil painting, or have its own unique characteristics not attainable with other media. The main practical difference between most acrylics and oil paints is the inherent drying time. Oils allow for more time to blend colors and apply even glazes over under-paintings. This slow drying aspect of oil can be seen as an advantage for certain techniques, but may also impede the artist's ability to work quickly. Watercolor[edit]

Manfred on the Jungfrau (1837), John Martin. Watercolor
Watercolor
painting

Watercolor
Watercolor
is a painting method in which the paints are made of pigments suspended in a water-soluble vehicle. The traditional and most common support for watercolor paintings is paper; other supports include papyrus, bark papers, plastics, vellum or leather, fabric, wood and canvas. In East Asia, watercolor painting with inks is referred to as brush painting or scroll painting. In Chinese, Korean, and Japanese painting
Japanese painting
it has been the dominant medium, often in monochrome black or browns. India, Ethiopia
Ethiopia
and other countries also have long traditions. Finger-painting
Finger-painting
with watercolor paints originated in China. Watercolor
Watercolor
pencils (water-soluble color pencils) may be used either wet or dry. Ink[edit]

Landscapes of the Four Seasons (1486), Sesshū Tōyō. Ink
Ink
and light color on paper.

Ink
Ink
paintings are done with a liquid that contains pigments and/or dyes and is used to color a surface to produce an image, text, or design. Ink
Ink
is used for drawing with a pen, brush, or quill. Ink
Ink
can be a complex medium, composed of solvents, pigments, dyes, resins, lubricants, solubilizers, surfactants, particulate matter, fluorescers, and other materials. The components of inks serve many purposes; the ink’s carrier, colorants, and other additives control flow and thickness of the ink and its appearance when dry. Hot wax or encaustic[edit]

Encaustic Angel (2009), Martina Loos. Beeswax
Beeswax
crayons, encaustic iron and hotpen.

Encaustic painting, also known as hot wax painting, involves using heated beeswax to which colored pigments are added. The liquid/paste is then applied to a surface—usually prepared wood, though canvas and other materials are often used. The simplest encaustic mixture can be made from adding pigments to beeswax, but there are several other recipes that can be used—some containing other types of waxes, damar resin, linseed oil, or other ingredients. Pure, powdered pigments can be purchased and used, though some mixtures use oil paints or other forms of pigment. Metal tools and special brushes can be used to shape the paint before it cools, or heated metal tools can be used to manipulate the wax once it has cooled onto the surface. Other materials can be encased or collaged into the surface, or layered, using the encaustic medium to adhere it to the surface. Fresco[edit]

White Angel, a fresco from Mileševa, Serbia

Fresco
Fresco
is any of several related mural painting types, done on plaster on walls or ceilings. The word fresco comes from the Italian word affresco [afˈfresːko], which derives from the Latin word for fresh. Frescoes were often made during the Renaissance
Renaissance
and other early time periods. Buon fresco technique consists of painting in pigment mixed with water on a thin layer of wet, fresh lime mortar or plaster, for which the Italian word for plaster, intonaco, is used. A secco painting, in contrast, is done on dry plaster (secco is "dry" in Italian). The pigments require a binding medium, such as egg (tempera), glue or oil to attach the pigment to the wall. Gouache[edit] Gouache
Gouache
is a water-based paint consisting of pigment and other materials designed to be used in an opaque painting method. Gouache differs from watercolor in that the particles are larger, the ratio of pigment to water is much higher, and an additional, inert, white pigment such as chalk is also present. This makes gouache heavier and more opaque, with greater reflective qualities. Like all watermedia, it is diluted with water.[21] Enamel[edit] Enamels are made by painting a substrate, typically metal, with frit, a type of powdered glass. Minerals called color oxides provide coloration. After firing at a temperature of 750–850 degrees Celsius (1380–1560 degrees Fahrenheit), the result is a fused lamination of glass and metal. Enamels have traditionally been used for decoration of precious objects,[22] but have also been used for other purposes. In the 18th century, enamel painting enjoyed a vogue in Europe, especially as a medium for portrait miniatures.[23] In the late 20th century, the technique of porcelain enamel on metal has been used as a durable medium for outdoor murals.[24] Spray paint[edit] Aerosol paint
Aerosol paint
(also called spray paint) is a type of paint that comes in a sealed pressurized container and is released in a fine spray mist when depressing a valve button. A form of spray painting, aerosol paint leaves a smooth, evenly coated surface. Standard sized cans are portable, inexpensive and easy to store. Aerosol
Aerosol
primer can be applied directly to bare metal and many plastics. Speed, portability and permanence also make aerosol paint a common graffiti medium. In the late 1970s, street graffiti writers' signatures and murals became more elaborate and a unique style developed as a factor of the aerosol medium and the speed required for illicit work. Many now recognize graffiti and street art as a unique art form and specifically manufactured aerosol paints are made for the graffiti artist. A stencil protects a surface, except the specific shape to be painted. Stencils can be purchased as movable letters, ordered as professionally cut logos or hand-cut by artists. Tempera[edit] Tempera, also known as egg tempera, is a permanent, fast-drying painting medium consisting of colored pigment mixed with a water-soluble binder medium (usually a glutinous material such as egg yolk or some other size). Tempera
Tempera
also refers to the paintings done in this medium. Tempera
Tempera
paintings are very long lasting, and examples from the first centuries CE still exist. Egg tempera was a primary method of painting until after 1500 when it was superseded by the invention of oil painting. A paint commonly called tempera (though it is not) consisting of pigment and glue size is commonly used and referred to by some manufacturers in America as poster paint. Water miscible oil paint[edit] Water miscible oil paints (also called "water soluble" or "water-mixable") is a modern variety of oil paint engineered to be thinned and cleaned up with water, rather than having to use chemicals such as turpentine. It can be mixed and applied using the same techniques as traditional oil-based paint, but while still wet it can be effectively removed from brushes, palettes, and rags with ordinary soap and water. Its water solubility comes from the use of an oil medium in which one end of the molecule has been altered to bind loosely to water molecules, as in a solution. Digital painting[edit] Main article: digital painting Digital painting
Digital painting
is a method of creating an art object (painting) digitally and/or a technique for making digital art in the computer. As a method of creating an art object, it adapts traditional painting medium such as acrylic paint, oils, ink, watercolor, etc. and applies the pigment to traditional carriers, such as woven canvas cloth, paper, polyester etc. by means of computer software driving industrial robotic or office machinery (printers). As a technique, it refers to a computer graphics software program that uses a virtual canvas and virtual painting box of brushes, colors and other supplies. The virtual box contains many instruments that do not exist outside the computer, and which give a digital artwork a different look and feel from an artwork that is made the traditional way. Furthermore, digital painting is not 'computer-generated' art as the computer does not automatically create images on the screen using some mathematical calculations. On the other hand, the artist uses his own painting technique to create the particular piece of work on the computer.[25] Painting
Painting
styles[edit] Main article: Style (visual arts) Style is used in two senses: It can refer to the distinctive visual elements, techniques and methods that typify an individual artist's work. It can also refer to the movement or school that an artist is associated with. This can stem from an actual group that the artist was consciously involved with or it can be a category in which art historians have placed the painter. The word 'style' in the latter sense has fallen out of favor in academic discussions about contemporary painting, though it continues to be used in popular contexts. Such movements or classifications include the following: Western[edit] Modernism[edit] Modernism
Modernism
describes both a set of cultural tendencies and an array of associated cultural movements, originally arising from wide-scale and far-reaching changes to Western society in the late 19th century and early 20th century. Modernism
Modernism
was a revolt against the conservative values of realism.[26][27] The term encompasses the activities and output of those who felt the "traditional" forms of art, architecture, literature, religious faith, social organization and daily life were becoming outdated in the new economic, social and political conditions of an emerging fully industrialized world. A salient characteristic of modernism is self-consciousness. This often led to experiments with form, and work that draws attention to the processes and materials used (and to the further tendency of abstraction).[28] Impressionism[edit] The first example of modernism in painting was impressionism, a school of painting that initially focused on work done, not in studios, but outdoors (en plein air). Impressionist paintings demonstrated that human beings do not see objects, but instead see light itself. The school gathered adherents despite internal divisions among its leading practitioners, and became increasingly influential. Initially rejected from the most important commercial show of the time, the government-sponsored Paris
Paris
Salon, the Impressionists
Impressionists
organized yearly group exhibitions in commercial venues during the 1870s and 1880s, timing them to coincide with the official Salon. A significant event of 1863 was the Salon des Refusés, created by Emperor Napoleon III to display all of the paintings rejected by the Paris
Paris
Salon. Abstract styles[edit] Abstract painting uses a visual language of form, colour and line to create a composition that may exist with a degree of independence from visual references in the world.[29][30] Abstract expressionism
Abstract expressionism
was an American post- World War II
World War II
art movement that combined the emotional intensity and self-denial of the German Expressionists with the anti-figurative aesthetic of the European abstract schools—such as Futurism, the Bauhaus
Bauhaus
and Synthetic Cubism
Cubism
and the image of being rebellious, anarchic, highly idiosyncratic and, some feel, nihilistic.[31] Action painting, sometimes called gestural abstraction, is a style of painting in which paint is spontaneously dribbled, splashed or smeared onto the canvas, rather than being carefully applied.[32] The resulting work often emphasizes the physical act of painting itself as an essential aspect of the finished work or concern of its artist. The style was widespread from the 1940s until the early 1960s, and is closely associated with abstract expressionism (some critics have used the terms "action painting" and "abstract expressionism" interchangeably). Other modernist styles include:

Color
Color
Field Lyrical Abstraction Hard-edge painting Expressionism Cubism Pop art

Outsider art[edit] The term outsider art was coined by art critic Roger Cardinal in 1972 as an English synonym for art brut (French: [aʁ bʁyt], "raw art" or "rough art"), a label created by French artist Jean Dubuffet to describe art created outside the boundaries of official culture; Dubuffet focused particularly on art by insane-asylum inmates.[33] Outsider art
Outsider art
has emerged as a successful art marketing category (an annual Outsider Art
Art
Fair has taken place in New York since 1992). The term is sometimes misapplied as a catch-all marketing label for art created by people outside the mainstream "art world," regardless of their circumstances or the content of their work. Photorealism[edit] Photorealism
Photorealism
is the genre of painting based on using the camera and photographs to gather information and then from this information, creating a painting that appears to be very realistic like a photograph. The term is primarily applied to paintings from the United States art movement that began in the late 1960s and early 1970s. As a full-fledged art movement, Photorealism
Photorealism
evolved from Pop Art[34][35][36] and as a counter to Abstract Expressionism. Hyperrealism is a genre of painting and sculpture resembling a high-resolution photograph. Hyperrealism is a fully fledged school of art and can be considered an advancement of Photorealism
Photorealism
by the methods used to create the resulting paintings or sculptures. The term is primarily applied to an independent art movement and art style in the United States and Europe that has developed since the early 2000s.[37] Surrealism[edit] Surrealism
Surrealism
is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, and is best known for the visual artworks and writings of the group members. Surrealist artworks feature the element of surprise, unexpected juxtapositions and non sequitur; however, many Surrealist artists and writers regard their work as an expression of the philosophical movement first and foremost, with the works being an artifact. Leader André Breton
André Breton
was explicit in his assertion that Surrealism
Surrealism
was above all a revolutionary movement. Surrealism
Surrealism
developed out of the Dada
Dada
activities of World War I
World War I
and the most important center of the movement was Paris. From the 1920s onward, the movement spread around the globe, eventually affecting the visual arts, literature, film and music of many countries and languages, as well as political thought and practice, philosophy and social theory. See also: Outline of painting § Styles of painting Far Eastern[edit]

Chinese

Tang Dynasty Ming Dynasty Shan shui Ink
Ink
and wash painting Hua niao Southern School

Zhe School Wu School

Contemporary

Japanese

Yamato-e Rimpa school Emakimono Kanō school Shijō school Superflat

Korean

Islamic[edit]

Persian miniature Mughal miniature Ottoman miniature

Indian[edit]

Oriya school Bengal school Kangra Madhubani Mysore Rajput Mughal Samikshavad Tanjore Warli Kerala mural painting

African[edit]

Tingatinga

Contemporary art[edit]

1950s[edit]

Abstract Expressionism American Figurative Expressionism Bay Area Figurative Movement Lyrical Abstraction New York Figurative Expressionism New York School

1960s[edit]

Abstract expressionism American Figurative Expressionism Abstract Imagists Bay Area Figurative Movement Color
Color
field Computer
Computer
art Conceptual art Fluxus Happenings Hard-edge painting Lyrical Abstraction Minimalism Neo-Dada New York School Nouveau Réalisme Op Art Performance art Pop Art Postminimalism Washington Color
Color
School Kinetic art

1970s[edit]

Arte Povera Ascii Art Bad Painting Body art Artist's book Feminist art Installation art Land Art Lowbrow (art movement) Photorealism Postminimalism Process Art Video art Funk art Pattern and Decoration

1980s[edit]

Appropriation art Culture jamming Demoscene Electronic art Figuration Libre Graffiti
Graffiti
Art Live art Mail art Postmodern art Neo-conceptual art Neo-expressionism Neo-pop Sound art Transgressive art Transhumanist Art Video installation Institutional Critique

1990s[edit]

Bio art Cyberarts Cynical Realism Digital Art Information art Internet art Massurrealism Maximalism New media art Software
Software
art New European Painting Young British Artists

2000s[edit]

Digital Painting Hyperrealism Classical realism Relational art Street art Stuckism Superflat Pseudorealism Videogame art Superstroke VJ art Virtual art Indigenous Art

Types of painting[edit] Allegory[edit] Allegory
Allegory
is a figurative mode of representation conveying meaning other than the literal. Allegory
Allegory
communicates its message by means of symbolic figures, actions or symbolic representation. Allegory
Allegory
is generally treated as a figure of rhetoric, but an allegory does not have to be expressed in language: it may be addressed to the eye, and is often found in realistic painting. An example of a simple visual allegory is the image of the grim reaper. Viewers understand that the image of the grim reaper is a symbolic representation of death. Bodegón[edit]

Bodegón
Bodegón
or Still Life with Pottery Jars, by Francisco de Zurbarán. 1636, Oil
Oil
on canvas; 46 x 84 cm; Museo del Prado, Madrid

In Spanish art, a bodegón is a still life painting depicting pantry items, such as victuals, game, and drink, often arranged on a simple stone slab, and also a painting with one or more figures, but significant still life elements, typically set in a kitchen or tavern. Starting in the Baroque
Baroque
period, such paintings became popular in Spain in the second quarter of the 17th century. The tradition of still life painting appears to have started and was far more popular in the contemporary Low Countries, today Belgium and Netherlands
Netherlands
(then Flemish and Dutch artists), than it ever was in southern Europe. Northern still lifes had many subgenres: the breakfast piece was augmented by the trompe-l'œil, the flower bouquet, and the vanitas. In Spain there were much fewer patrons for this sort of thing, but a type of breakfast piece did become popular, featuring a few objects of food and tableware laid on a table. Figure painting[edit] A figure painting is a work of art in any of the painting media with the primary subject being the human figure, whether clothed or nude. Figure painting
Figure painting
may also refer to the activity of creating such a work. The human figure has been one of the contrast subjects of art since the first stone age cave paintings, and has been reinterpreted in various styles throughout history.[38] Some artists well known for figure painting are Peter Paul Rubens, Edgar Degas, and Édouard Manet.

Two Lovers by Reza Abbasi, 1630

Illustration
Illustration
painting[edit] Illustration
Illustration
paintings are those used as illustrations in books, magazines, and theater or movie posters and comic books. Today, there is a growing interest in collecting and admiring the original artwork. Various museum exhibitions, magazines and art galleries have devoted space to the illustrators of the past. In the visual art world, illustrators have sometimes been considered less important in comparison with fine artists and graphic designers. But as the result of computer game and comic industry growth, illustrations are becoming valued as popular and profitable art works that can acquire a wider market than the other two, especially in Korea, Japan, Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and United States. Landscape painting[edit] Main article: Landscape art

Clearing Up, Coast of Sicily, a painting by Andreas Achenbach, who specialized in the "sublime" mode of landscape painting in which man is dwarfed by nature's might and fury.[39] The Walters Art
Art
Museum.

Landscape painting is a term that covers the depiction of natural scenery such as mountains, valleys, trees, rivers, and forests, and especially art where the main subject is a wide view, with its elements arranged into a coherent composition. In other works landscape backgrounds for figures can still form an important part of the work. Sky is almost always included in the view, and weather is often an element of the composition. Detailed landscapes as a distinct subject are not found in all artistic traditions, and develop when there is already a sophisticated tradition of representing other subjects. The two main traditions spring from Western painting
Western painting
and Chinese art, going back well over a thousand years in both cases. Portrait
Portrait
painting[edit] Portrait
Portrait
paintings are representations of a person, in which the face and its expression is predominant. The intent is to display the likeness, personality, and even the mood of the person. The art of the portrait flourished in Ancient Greek and especially Roman sculpture, where sitters demanded individualized and realistic portraits, even unflattering ones. One of the best-known portraits in the Western world is Leonardo da Vinci's painting titled Mona Lisa, which is thought to be a portrait of Lisa Gherardini, the wife of Francesco del Giocondo.[40] Still life[edit]

A Forest Floor Still-Life by Otto Marseus van Schrieck, 1666

A still life is a work of art depicting mostly inanimate subject matter, typically commonplace objects—which may be either natural (food, flowers, plants, rocks, or shells) or man-made (drinking glasses, books, vases, jewelry, coins, pipes, and so on). With origins in the Middle Ages and Ancient Greek/Roman art, still life paintings give the artist more leeway in the arrangement of design elements within a composition than do paintings of other types of subjects such as landscape or portraiture. Still life
Still life
paintings, particularly before 1700, often contained religious and allegorical symbolism relating to the objects depicted. Some modern still life breaks the two-dimensional barrier and employs three-dimensional mixed media, and uses found objects, photography, computer graphics, as well as video and sound. Veduta[edit] A veduta is a highly detailed, usually large-scale painting of a cityscape or some other vista. This genre of landscape originated in Flanders, where artists such as Paul Bril
Paul Bril
painted vedute as early as the 16th century. As the itinerary of the Grand Tour
Grand Tour
became somewhat standardized, vedute of familiar scenes like the Roman Forum or the Grand Canal recalled early ventures to the Continent for aristocratic Englishmen. In the later 19th century, more personal impressions of cityscapes replaced the desire for topographical accuracy, which was satisfied instead by painted panoramas. See also[edit]

Visual arts
Visual arts
portal

20th-century Western painting Cobweb painting Graphic arts Painting
Painting
outsourcing in China Index of painting-related articles Outline of painting List of most expensive paintings

Notes[edit]

^ " Paint
Paint
– Definition". Merriam-webster.com. 2012-08-31. Retrieved 2014-03-13.  ^ Perry, Lincoln (Summer 2014). "The Music
Music
of Painting". The American Scholar. 83 (3): 85.  ^ Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Goethe's theory of colours, John Murray, London 1840 ^ Wassily Kandinsky
Wassily Kandinsky
Concerning The Spiritual In Art, [Translated By Michael T. H. Sadler, pdf. ^ A letter to the Royal Society presenting A new theory of light and colours Isaac Newton, 1671 pdf ^ Pigments
Pigments
at ColourLex ^ "How Old is Australia's Rock Art?". Aboriginalartonline.com. Retrieved 2014-03-13.  ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/portuguese/noticias/2013/05/130523_pinturas_caverna_mexico_an ^ "Plato's Aesthetics". www.rowan.edu. Retrieved 1 October 2017.  ^ Rollason, C., & Mittapalli, R. (2002). Modern criticism. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers and Distributors. p. 196. ISBN 812690187X ^ Craig, Edward. Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Genealogy to Iqbal. Routledge. 1998. p. 278. ISBN 9780415187091. Retrieved 2014-03-13 – via Books.google.com.  ^ " Painting
Painting
and music are the specially romantic arts. Lastly, as a union of painting and music comes poetry, where the sensuous element is more than ever subordinate to the spirit." Excerpted from Encyclopædia Britannica 1911 ^ Franciscono, Marcel, Paul Klee: His Work and Thought, part 6 'The Bauhaus
Bauhaus
and Düsseldorf', chap. 'Klee's theory courses', p. 246 and under 'notes to pages 245–54' p. 365 ^ Barasch, Moshe (2000) Theories of art – from impressionism to Kandinsky, part IV 'Abstract art', chap. 'Color' pp.332–33 ^ Jones, Howard (October 2014). "The Varieties of Aesthetic Experience". Journal for Spiritual & Consciousness Studies. 37 (4): 541–252. [page needed] ^ Encyclopedia Encarta Archived 4 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Review by art historian David Cohen". Artnet.com. Retrieved 2014-03-13.  ^ Bell, Julian (2007). Mirror of the World: A New History of Art. Thames and Hudson. p. 496. ISBN 9780500238370.  ^ Mayer, Ralph,The Artist's Handbook of Materials and Techniques, Third Edition, New York: Viking, 1970, p. 312. ^ Mayer, Ralph. The Artist's Handbook of Materials and Techniques. Viking Adult; 5th revised and updated edition, 1991. ISBN 0-670-83701-6 ^ Cohn, Marjorie B., Wash and Gouache, Fogg Museum, 1977. ^ Mayer, Ralph,The Artist's Handbook of Materials and Techniques, Third Edition, New York: Viking, 1970, p. 375. ^ McNally, Rika Smith, "Enamel", Oxford Art
Art
Online ^ Mayer, Ralph,The Artist's Handbook of Materials and Techniques, Third Edition, New York: Viking, 1970, p. 371. ^ "What is digital painting?". Turning Point Arts. 2008-11-01. Retrieved 2017-05-17.  ^ Barth, John (1979) The Literature
Literature
of Replenishment, later republished in The Friday Book'(1984)'. ^ Graff, Gerald (1975) Babbitt at the Abyss: The Social Context of Postmodern. American Fiction, TriQuarterly, No. 33 (Spring 1975), pp. 307–37; reprinted in Putz and Freese, eds., Postmodernism
Postmodernism
and American Literature. ^ Gardner, Helen, Horst De la Croix, Richard G. Tansey, and Diane Kirkpatrick. Gardner's Art
Art
Through the Ages (San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1991). ISBN 0-15-503770-6. p. 953. ^ Arnheim, Rudolph, 1969, Visual Thinking ^ Key, Joan (September 2009). "Future Use: Abstract Painting". Third Text. 23 (5): 557–563. doi:10.1080/09528820903184666.  ^ Shapiro, David/Cecile (2000): Abstract Expressionism. The politics of apolitical painting. p. 189-190 In: Frascina, Francis (2000): Pollock and After. The critical debate. 2nd ed. London: Routledge ^ Boddy-Evans, Marion. " Art
Art
Glossary: Action Painting". About.com. Retrieved 20 August 2006.  ^ Cardinal, Roger, Outsider Art, London, 1972 ^ Lindey, Christine Superrealist Painting
Painting
and Sculpture, William Morrow and Company, New York, 1980, pp. 27–33. ^ Chase, Linda, Photorealism
Photorealism
at the Millennium, The Not-So-Innocent Eye: Photorealism
Photorealism
in Context. Harry N. Abrams, Inc. New York, 2002. pp 14–15. ^ Nochlin, Linda, The Realist Criminal and the Abstract Law II, Art
Art
In America. 61 (November – December 1973), P. 98. ^ Bredekamp, Horst, Hyperrealism – One Step Beyond. Tate Museum, Publishers, UK. 2006. p. 1 ^ Droste, Flip (October 2014). "Cave Paintings of the Early Stone Age". Semiotica. 2014 (202): 155–165. doi:10.1515/sem-2014-0035.  ^ "Clearing Up—Coast of Sicily". The Walters Art
Art
Museum.  ^ " Mona Lisa
Mona Lisa
Portrait
Portrait
of Lisa Gherardini, wife of Francesco del Giocondo". Louvre Museum. Archived from the original on 30 July 2014. Retrieved 2014-03-13. 

Further reading[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Paintings.

Look up painting in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Daniel, H. (1971). Encyclopedia of Themes and Subjects in Painting; Mythological, Biblical, Historical, Literary, Allegorical, and Topical. New York: Harry N. Abrams Inc. W. Stanley Jr. Taft, James W. Mayer, The Science of Paintings, First Edition, Springer, 2000.

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