PAINTING is the practice of applying paint , pigment , color or other
medium to a solid surface (support base). The medium is commonly
applied to the base with a brush , but other implements, such as
knives, sponges, and airbrushes , can be used.
Painting is a mode of creative expression, and the forms are
Drawing , gesture (as in gestural painting ), composition ,
narration (as in narrative art ), or abstraction (as in abstract art
), among other aesthetic modes, may serve to manifest the expressive
and conceptual intention of the practitioner. Paintings can be
naturalistic and representational (as in a still life or landscape
painting ), photographic , abstract, narrative, symbolistic (as in
Symbolist art ), emotive (as in
Expressionism ), or political in
nature (as in
A portion of the history of painting in both Eastern and Western art
is dominated by spiritual motifs and ideas. Examples of this kind of
painting range from artwork depicting mythological figures on pottery,
to Biblical scenes rendered on the interior walls and ceiling of the
Sistine Chapel , to scenes from the life of Buddha or other images of
Eastern religious origin .
In art , the term painting describes both the act and the result of
the action. The support for paintings includes such surfaces as walls
, paper , canvas , wood , glass , lacquer , clay , leaf , copper and
concrete, and the painting may incorporate multiple other materials
including sand, clay, paper, plaster, gold leaf, as well as objects.
The term painting is also used outside of art as a common trade among
craftsmen and builders.
* 1 Elements of
Color and tone
* 1.2 Non-traditional elements
* 2 History
Aesthetics and theory
* 4.3 Acrylic
* 4.6 Hot wax or encaustic
* 4.9 Enamel
* 4.10 Spray paint
Water miscible oil paint
* 5.1 Western
* 184.108.40.206 Abstract styles
* 5.2 Far Eastern
* 5.3 Islamic
* 5.4 Indian
* 5.5 African
* 5.6 Contemporary art
* 5.7 1950s
* 5.8 1960s
* 5.9 1970s
* 5.10 1980s
* 5.11 1990s
* 5.12 2000s
* 6 Types of painting
* 7 See also
* 8 Notes
* 9 Further reading
ELEMENTS OF PAINTING
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Chen Hongshou (1598–1652),
Leaf album painting (
Ming Dynasty )
COLOR AND TONE
Color and tone are the essence of painting as pitch and rhythm are
the essence of music .
Color is highly subjective, but has observable
psychological effects, although these can differ from one culture to
the next. Black is associated with mourning in the West, but in the
East, white is. Some painters, theoreticians, writers and scientists,
Goethe , Kandinsky , and Newton , have written their own
color theory .
Moreover, the use of language is only an abstraction for a color
equivalent. The word "red ", for example, can cover a wide range of
variations from the pure red of the visible spectrum of light. There
is not a formalized register of different colors in the way that there
is agreement on different notes in music, such as F or C♯ . For a
painter, color is not simply divided into basic (primary) and derived
(complementary or mixed) colors (like red, blue, green, brown, etc.).
Painters deal practically with pigments , so "blue " for a painter
can be any of the blues: phthalocyanine blue ,
Prussian blue , indigo
, cobalt , ultramarine , and so on. Psychological and symbolical
meanings of color are not, strictly speaking, means of painting.
Colors only add to the potential, derived context of meanings, and
because of this, the perception of a painting is highly subjective.
The analogy with music is quite clear—sound in music (like a C note)
is analogous to "light" in painting, "shades" to dynamics , and
"coloration" is to painting as the specific timbre of musical
instruments is to music. These elements do not necessarily form a
melody (in music) of themselves; rather, they can add different
contexts to it. Circus Sideshow (French : Parade de cirque),
Georges Seurat , 1887–88
Modern artists have extended the practice of painting considerably to
include, as one example, collage , which began with
Cubism and is not
painting in the strict sense. Some modern painters incorporate
different materials such as sand , cement , straw or wood for their
texture . Examples of this are the works of
Jean Dubuffet and Anselm
Kiefer . There is a growing community of artists who use computers to
"paint" color onto a digital "canvas" using programs such as Adobe
Corel Painter , and many others. These images can be
printed onto traditional canvas if required.
Rhythm is important in painting as it is in music. If one defines
rhythm as "a pause incorporated into a sequence", then there can be
rhythm in paintings. These pauses allow creative force to intervene
and add new creations—form, melody, coloration. The distribution of
form, or any kind of information is of crucial importance in the given
work of art, and it directly affects the aesthetic value of that work.
This is because the aesthetical value is functionality dependent, i.e.
the freedom (of movement) of perception is perceived as beauty. Free
flow of energy, in art as well as in other forms of "techne ",
directly contributes to the aesthetical value.
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History of painting
History of painting
Cave painting of aurochs,
(French : Bos primigenius primigenius),
Lascaux , France, prehistoric
The oldest known paintings are at the
Grotte Chauvet in France, which
some historians believe are about 32,000 years old. They are engraved
and painted using red ochre and black pigment, and they show horses,
rhinoceros , lions, buffalo , mammoth , abstract designs and what are
possibly partial human figures. However, the earliest evidence of the
act of painting has been discovered in two rock-shelters in Arnhem
Land , in northern Australia. In the lowest layer of material at these
sites, there are used pieces of ochre estimated to be 60,000 years
old. Archaeologists have also found a fragment of rock painting
preserved in a limestone rock-shelter in the Kimberley region of
North-Western Australia, that is dated 40,000 years old. There are
examples of cave paintings all over the world—in Italy, France,
Portugal , China, Australia, Mexico, etc. In Western cultures,
oil painting and watercolor painting have rich and complex traditions
in style and subject matter. In the East, ink and color ink
historically predominated the choice of media, with equally rich and
The invention of photography had a major impact on painting. In the
decades after the first photograph was produced in 1829, photographic
processes improved and became more widely practiced, depriving
painting of much of its historic purpose to provide an accurate record
of the observable world. A series of art movements in the late 19th
and early 20th centuries—notably
Impressionism , Post-Impressionism
Cubism , and Dadaism —challenged the
Renaissance view of the world. Eastern and African painting, however,
continued a long history of stylization and did not undergo an
equivalent transformation at the same time.
Modern and Contemporary
Art has moved away from the historic value of
craft and documentation in favour of concept , leading some to say, in
the 1960s, that painting as a serious art form is dead. This has not
deterred the majority of living painters from continuing to practice
painting either as whole or part of their work. The vitality and
versatility of painting in the 21st century defies the previous
"declarations" of its demise. In an epoch characterized by the idea of
pluralism , there is no consensus as to a representative style of the
age. Artists continue to make important works of art in a wide variety
of styles and aesthetic temperaments —their merits are left to the
public and the marketplace to judge.
Among the continuing and current directions in painting at the
beginning of the 21st century are
Monochrome painting , Hard-edge
Geometric abstraction , Appropriation ,
Minimalism , Lyrical
Abstraction , Pop
Art , Op
Art , Abstract
Color Field painting ,
Intermedia painting, Assemblage
Computer art painting,
Postmodern painting, Neo-Dada
Shaped canvas painting, environmental mural painting ,
traditional figure painting ,
Landscape painting ,
Portrait painting ,
and paint-on-glass animation .
AESTHETICS AND THEORY
Theory of painting Apelles or the
Art of painting
(detail), relief of the Giotto\'s Bell Tower in
Florence , Italy, Nino
Pisano , 1334–1336
Aesthetics is the study of art and beauty ; it was an important issue
for 18th- and 19th-century philosophers such as Kant and
Classical philosophers like
Aristotle also theorized about
art and painting in particular.
Plato disregarded painters (as well as
sculptors) in his philosophical system; he maintained that painting
cannot depict the truth —it is a copy of reality (a shadow of the
world of ideas) and is nothing but a craft , similar to shoemaking or
iron casting. By the time of Leonardo, painting had become a closer
representation of the truth than painting was in
Ancient Greece .
Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci , on the contrary, said that "Italian : La Pittura
è cosa mentale" ("English: painting is a thing of the mind"). Kant
Beauty and the Sublime , in terms that clearly
gave priority to the former. Although he did not refer to painting in
particular, this concept was taken up by painters such as J.M.W.
Caspar David Friedrich
Caspar David Friedrich .
Hegel recognized the failure of attaining a universal concept of
beauty and, in his aesthetic essay, wrote that painting is one of the
three "romantic" arts, along with
Music , for its symbolic
, highly intellectual purpose. Painters who have written theoretical
works on painting include Kandinsky and
Paul Klee . In his essay,
Kandinsky maintains that painting has a spiritual value, and he
attaches primary colors to essential feelings or concepts, something
Goethe and other writers had already tried to do.
Iconography is the study of the content of paintings, rather than
Erwin Panofsky and other art historians first seek to
understand the things depicted, before looking at their meaning for
the viewer at the time, and finally analyzing their wider cultural,
religious, and social meaning.
In 1890, the Parisian painter
Maurice Denis famously asserted:
"Remember that a painting—before being a warhorse, a naked woman or
some story or other—is essentially a flat surface covered with
colors assembled in a certain order." Thus, many 20th-century
developments in painting, such as
Cubism , were reflections on the
means of painting rather than on the external world—nature —which
had previously been its core subject. Recent contributions to thinking
about painting have been offered by the painter and writer Julian Bell
. In his book What is Painting?, Bell discusses the development,
through history, of the notion that paintings can express feelings and
ideas. In Mirror of The World, Bell writes:
A work of art seeks to hold your attention and keep it fixed: a
history of art urges it onwards, bulldozing a highway through the
homes of the imagination.
Different types of paint are usually identified by the medium that
the pigment is suspended or embedded in, which determines the general
working characteristics of the paint, such as viscosity , miscibility
, solubility , drying time, etc.
Honoré Daumier (1808–79), The Painter.
Oil on panel with
Oil painting is the process of painting with pigments that are bound
with a medium of drying oil , such as linseed oil , which was widely
used in early modern Europe. Often the oil was boiled with a resin
such as pine resin or even frankincense ; these were called
'varnishes' and were prized for their body and gloss.
eventually became the principal medium used for creating artworks as
its advantages became widely known. The transition began with Early
Netherlandish painting in northern Europe, and by the height of the
Renaissance oil painting techniques had almost completely replaced
tempera paints in the majority of Europe.
Maurice Quentin de La Tour
Maurice Quentin de La Tour ,
Portrait of Louis XV of France.
Pastel is a painting medium in the form of a stick, consisting of
pure powdered pigment and a binder. The pigments used in pastels are
the same as those used to produce all colored art media, including oil
paints ; the binder is of a neutral hue and low saturation . The color
effect of pastels is closer to the natural dry pigments than that of
any other process. Because the surface of a pastel painting is
fragile and easily smudged, its preservation requires protective
measures such as framing under glass; it may also be sprayed with a
fixative . Nonetheless, when made with permanent pigments and properly
cared for, a pastel painting may endure unchanged for centuries.
Pastels are not susceptible, as are paintings made with a fluid
medium, to the cracking and discoloration that result from changes in
the color, opacity, or dimensions of the medium as it dries.
Jungle Arc by
Ray Burggraf .
Acrylic paint on wood. (1998)
Acrylic paint is fast drying paint containing pigment suspension in
acrylic polymer emulsion . Acrylic paints can be diluted with water,
but become water-resistant when dry. Depending on how much the paint
is diluted (with water) or modified with acrylic gels, media, or
pastes, the finished acrylic painting can resemble a watercolor or an
oil painting , or have its own unique characteristics not attainable
with other media. The main practical difference between most acrylics
and oil paints is the inherent drying time. Oils allow for more time
to blend colors and apply even glazes over under-paintings. This slow
drying aspect of oil can be seen as an advantage for certain
techniques, but in other regards it impedes the artist trying to work
Manfred on the Jungfrau (1837), John Martin . Watercolor
Watercolor is a painting method in which the paints are made of
pigments suspended in a water-soluble vehicle. The traditional and
most common support for watercolor paintings is paper; other supports
include papyrus , bark papers, plastics, vellum or leather , fabric ,
wood and canvas . In East Asia, watercolor painting with inks is
referred to as brush painting or scroll painting. In Chinese , Korean
Japanese painting it has been the dominant medium, often in
monochrome black or browns. India,
Ethiopia and other countries also
have long traditions.
Finger-painting with watercolor paints
originated in China.
Watercolor pencils (water-soluble color pencils)
may be used either wet or dry.
Landscapes of the Four Seasons (1486),
Sesshū Tōyō .
light color on paper.
Ink paintings are done with a liquid that contains pigments and/or
dyes and is used to color a surface to produce an image, text , or
Ink is used for drawing with a pen , brush , or quill . Ink
can be a complex medium, composed of solvents , pigments, dyes, resins
, lubricants , solubilizers, surfactants , particulate matter ,
fluorescers , and other materials. The components of inks serve many
purposes; the ink’s carrier, colorants, and other additives control
flow and thickness of the ink and its appearance when dry.
HOT WAX OR ENCAUSTIC
Encaustic Angel (2009), Martina Loos.
Beeswax crayons, encaustic
iron and hotpen.
Encaustic painting , also known as hot wax painting, involves using
heated beeswax to which colored pigments are added. The liquid/paste
is then applied to a surface—usually prepared wood, though canvas
and other materials are often used. The simplest encaustic mixture can
be made from adding pigments to beeswax, but there are several other
recipes that can be used—some containing other types of waxes ,
damar resin , linseed oil , or other ingredients. Pure, powdered
pigments can be purchased and used, though some mixtures use oil
paints or other forms of pigment. Metal tools and special brushes can
be used to shape the paint before it cools, or heated metal tools can
be used to manipulate the wax once it has cooled onto the surface.
Other materials can be encased or collaged into the surface, or
layered, using the encaustic medium to adhere it to the surface.
White Angel , a fresco from Mileševa, Serbia
Fresco is any of several related mural painting types, done on
plaster on walls or ceilings. The word fresco comes from the Italian
word affresco , which derives from the Latin word for fresh. Frescoes
were often made during the
Renaissance and other early time periods.
Buon fresco technique consists of painting in pigment mixed with water
on a thin layer of wet, fresh lime mortar or plaster , for which the
Italian word for plaster, intonaco , is used.
A secco painting, in
contrast, is done on dry plaster (secco is "dry" in Italian). The
pigments require a binding medium, such as egg (tempera ), glue or oil
to attach the pigment to the wall.
Gouache is a water-based paint consisting of pigment and other
materials designed to be used in an opaque painting method. Gouache
differs from watercolor in that the particles are larger, the ratio of
pigment to water is much higher, and an additional, inert, white
pigment such as chalk is also present. This makes gouache heavier and
more opaque, with greater reflective qualities. Like all watermedia,
it is diluted with water.
Enamels are made by painting a substrate, typically metal, with frit
, a type of powdered glass. Minerals called color oxides provide
coloration. After firing at a temperature of 750–850 degrees Celsius
(1380–1560 degrees Fahrenheit), the result is a fused lamination of
glass and metal. Enamels have traditionally been used for decoration
of precious objects, but have also been used for other purposes. In
the 18th century, enamel painting enjoyed a vogue in Europe,
especially as a medium for portrait miniatures . In the late 20th
century, the technique of porcelain enamel on metal has been used as a
durable medium for outdoor murals.
Aerosol paint (also called spray paint) is a type of paint that comes
in a sealed pressurized container and is released in a fine spray mist
when depressing a valve button. A form of spray painting , aerosol
paint leaves a smooth, evenly coated surface. Standard sized cans are
portable, inexpensive and easy to store.
Aerosol primer can be applied
directly to bare metal and many plastics.
Speed, portability and permanence also make aerosol paint a common
graffiti medium. In the late 1970s, street graffiti writers'
signatures and murals became more elaborate and a unique style
developed as a factor of the aerosol medium and the speed required for
illicit work. Many now recognize graffiti and street art as a unique
art form and specifically manufactured aerosol paints are made for the
graffiti artist. A stencil protects a surface, except the specific
shape to be painted. Stencils can be purchased as movable letters,
ordered as professionally cut logos or hand-cut by artists.
Tempera , also known as egg tempera, is a permanent, fast-drying
painting medium consisting of colored pigment mixed with a
water-soluble binder medium (usually a glutinous material such as egg
yolk or some other size ).
Tempera also refers to the paintings done
in this medium.
Tempera paintings are very long lasting, and examples
from the first centuries CE still exist. Egg tempera was a primary
method of painting until after 1500 when it was superseded by the
invention of oil painting . A paint commonly called tempera (though it
is not) consisting of pigment and glue size is commonly used and
referred to by some manufacturers in America as poster paint .
WATER MISCIBLE OIL PAINT
Water miscible oil paints (also called "water soluble" or
"water-mixable") is a modern variety of oil paint engineered to be
thinned and cleaned up with water, rather than having to use chemicals
such as turpentine . It can be mixed and applied using the same
techniques as traditional oil-based paint, but while still wet it can
be effectively removed from brushes, palettes, and rags with ordinary
soap and water. Its water solubility comes from the use of an oil
medium in which one end of the molecule has been altered to bind
loosely to water molecules, as in a solution .
Main article: digital painting
Digital painting is a method of creating an art object (painting)
digitally and/or a technique for making digital art in the computer.
As a method of creating an art object, it adapts traditional painting
medium such as acrylic paint , oils , ink , watercolor , etc. and
applies the pigment to traditional carriers, such as woven canvas
cloth, paper, polyester etc. by means of computer software driving
industrial robotic or office machinery (printers). As a technique, it
refers to a computer graphics software program that uses a virtual
canvas and virtual painting box of brushes, colors and other supplies.
The virtual box contains many instruments that do not exist outside
the computer, and which give a digital artwork a different look and
feel from an artwork that is made the traditional way. Furthermore,
digital painting is not 'computer-generated' art as the computer does
not automatically create images on the screen using some mathematical
calculations. On the other hand, the artist uses his own painting
technique to create the particular piece of work on the computer.
Style (visual arts)
Style (visual arts)
Style is used in two senses: It can refer to the distinctive visual
elements, techniques and methods that typify an individual artist's
work. It can also refer to the movement or school that an artist is
associated with. This can stem from an actual group that the artist
was consciously involved with or it can be a category in which art
historians have placed the painter. The word 'style' in the latter
sense has fallen out of favor in academic discussions about
contemporary painting, though it continues to be used in popular
contexts. Such movements or classifications include the following:
Modernism describes both a set of cultural tendencies and an array of
associated cultural movements , originally arising from wide-scale and
far-reaching changes to Western society in the late 19th century and
early 20th century.
Modernism was a revolt against the conservative
values of realism . The term encompasses the activities and output
of those who felt the "traditional" forms of art, architecture,
literature, religious faith, social organization and daily life were
becoming outdated in the new economic, social and political conditions
of an emerging fully industrialized world. A salient characteristic of
modernism is self-consciousness. This often led to experiments with
form, and work that draws attention to the processes and materials
used (and to the further tendency of abstraction).
The first example of modernism in painting was impressionism , a
school of painting that initially focused on work done, not in
studios, but outdoors (en plein air ). Impressionist paintings
demonstrated that human beings do not see objects, but instead see
light itself. The school gathered adherents despite internal divisions
among its leading practitioners, and became increasingly influential.
Initially rejected from the most important commercial show of the
time, the government-sponsored
Paris Salon , the Impressionists
organized yearly group exhibitions in commercial venues during the
1870s and 1880s, timing them to coincide with the official Salon. A
significant event of 1863 was the
Salon des Refusés
Salon des Refusés , created by
Emperor Napoleon III to display all of the paintings rejected by the
Abstract painting uses a visual language of form, colour and line to
create a composition that may exist with a degree of independence from
visual references in the world.
Abstract expressionism was an
World War II
World War II art movement that combined the emotional
intensity and self-denial of the German Expressionists with the
anti-figurative aesthetic of the European abstract schools—such as
Futurism , the
Bauhaus and Synthetic
Cubism and the image of being
rebellious, anarchic, highly idiosyncratic and, some feel, nihilistic.
Action painting , sometimes called gestural abstraction, is a style
of painting in which paint is spontaneously dribbled, splashed or
smeared onto the canvas, rather than being carefully applied. The
resulting work often emphasizes the physical act of painting itself as
an essential aspect of the finished work or concern of its artist. The
style was widespread from the 1940s until the early 1960s, and is
closely associated with abstract expressionism (some critics have used
the terms "action painting" and "abstract expressionism "
Other modernist styles include:
The term outsider art was coined by art critic Roger Cardinal in 1972
as an English synonym for art brut (French: , "raw art" or "rough
art"), a label created by French artist
Jean Dubuffet to describe art
created outside the boundaries of official culture; Dubuffet focused
particularly on art by insane-asylum inmates.
Outsider art has
emerged as a successful art marketing category (an annual Outsider Art
Fair has taken place in New York since 1992). The term is sometimes
misapplied as a catch-all marketing label for art created by people
outside the mainstream "art world," regardless of their circumstances
or the content of their work.
Photorealism is the genre of painting based on using the camera and
photographs to gather information and then from this information,
creating a painting that appears to be very realistic like a
photograph . The term is primarily applied to paintings from the
United States art movement that began in the late 1960s and early
1970s. As a full-fledged art movement,
Photorealism evolved from Pop
Art and as a counter to Abstract
Hyperrealism is a genre of painting and sculpture resembling a
high-resolution photograph .
Hyperrealism is a fully fledged school of
art and can be considered an advancement of
Photorealism by the
methods used to create the resulting paintings or sculptures. The term
is primarily applied to an independent art movement and art style in
the United States and Europe that has developed since the early 2000s.
Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, and
is best known for the visual artworks and writings of the group
members. Surrealist artworks feature the element of surprise,
unexpected juxtapositions and non sequitur ; however, many Surrealist
artists and writers regard their work as an expression of the
philosophical movement first and foremost, with the works being an
André Breton was explicit in his assertion that
Surrealism was above all a revolutionary movement.
Surrealism developed out of the
Dada activities of
World War I
World War I and
the most important center of the movement was
Paris . From the 1920s
onward, the movement spread around the globe, eventually affecting the
visual arts , literature , film and music of many countries and
languages, as well as political thought and practice, philosophy and
social theory . See also:
Outline of painting § Styles of painting
* Tang Dynasty
Ink and wash painting
* Hua niao
* Zhe School
* Oriya school
* Bengal school
Kerala mural painting
* American Figurative
Bay Area Figurative Movement
* New York Figurative
* New York School
* American Figurative
Bay Area Figurative Movement
* New York School
* Artist\'s book
Lowbrow (art movement)
Pattern and Decoration
* Live art
New media art
New media art
New European Painting
Young British Artists
* VJ art
TYPES OF PAINTING
Allegory is a figurative mode of representation conveying meaning
other than the literal.
Allegory communicates its message by means of
symbolic figures, actions or symbolic representation.
generally treated as a figure of rhetoric , but an allegory does not
have to be expressed in language : it may be addressed to the eye, and
is often found in realistic painting. An example of a simple visual
allegory is the image of the grim reaper . Viewers understand that the
image of the grim reaper is a symbolic representation of death.
Bodegón or Still Life with Pottery Jars, by Francisco de
Zurbarán . 1636,
Oil on canvas; 46 x 84 cm;
Museo del Prado
Museo del Prado ,
Spanish art , a bodegón is a still life painting depicting pantry
items, such as victuals, game, and drink, often arranged on a simple
stone slab, and also a painting with one or more figures, but
significant still life elements, typically set in a kitchen or tavern.
Starting in the
Baroque period, such paintings became popular in Spain
in the second quarter of the 17th century. The tradition of still life
painting appears to have started and was far more popular in the
Low Countries , today Belgium and
Flemish and Dutch artists), than it ever was in southern Europe .
Northern still lifes had many subgenres: the breakfast piece was
augmented by the trompe-l\'œil , the flower bouquet, and the vanitas
. In Spain there were much fewer patrons for this sort of thing, but a
type of breakfast piece did become popular, featuring a few objects of
food and tableware laid on a table.
Body painting is a form of body art . Unlike tattoo and other forms
of body art, body painting is temporary, painted onto the human skin ,
and lasts for only several hours, or at most (in the case of
"henna tattoo") a couple of weeks.
Body painting that is limited to
the face is known as face painting.
Body painting is also referred to
as (a form of) temporary tattoo; large scale or full-body painting is
more commonly referred to as body painting, while smaller or more
detailed work is generally referred to as temporary tattoos.
A figure painting is a work of art in any of the painting media with
the primary subject being the human figure, whether clothed or nude .
Figure painting may also refer to the activity of creating such a
work. The human figure has been one of the contrast subjects of art
since the first stone age cave paintings, and has been reinterpreted
in various styles throughout history. Some artists well known for
figure painting are
Peter Paul Rubens
Peter Paul Rubens ,
Edgar Degas , and Édouard
Manet . Two Lovers by
Reza Abbasi , 1630
Illustration paintings are those used as illustrations in books,
magazines, and theater or movie posters and comic books. Today, there
is a growing interest in collecting and admiring the original artwork.
Various museum exhibitions, magazines and art galleries have devoted
space to the illustrators of the past. In the visual art world,
illustrators have sometimes been considered less important in
comparison with fine artists and graphic designers . But as the result
of computer game and comic industry growth, illustrations are becoming
valued as popular and profitable art works that can acquire a wider
market than the other two, especially in
Korea , Japan,
Hong Kong and
Andreas Achenbach , who
specialized in the "sublime" mode of landscape painting, in which man
is dwarfed by nature's might and fury. The Walters
Art Museum .
Landscape painting is a term that covers the depiction of natural
scenery such as mountains, valleys, trees, rivers, and forests, and
especially art where the main subject is a wide view, with its
elements arranged into a coherent composition. In other works
landscape backgrounds for figures can still form an important part of
the work. Sky is almost always included in the view, and weather is
often an element of the composition. Detailed landscapes as a distinct
subject are not found in all artistic traditions, and develop when
there is already a sophisticated tradition of representing other
subjects. The two main traditions spring from
Western painting and
Chinese art , going back well over a thousand years in both cases.
Portrait paintings are representations of a person, in which the face
and its expression is predominant. The intent is to display the
likeness, personality , and even the mood of the person. The art of
the portrait flourished in Ancient Greek and especially Roman
sculpture , where sitters demanded individualized and realistic
portraits, even unflattering ones. One of the best-known portraits in
the Western world is
Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci 's painting titled
Mona Lisa ,
which is thought to be a portrait of Lisa Gherardini , the wife of
Francesco del Giocondo.
A still life is a work of art depicting mostly inanimate subject
matter, typically commonplace objects—which may be either natural
(food, flowers, plants, rocks, or shells) or man-made (drinking
glasses, books, vases, jewelry, coins, pipes, and so on). With origins
in the Middle Ages and Ancient Greek/Roman art, still life paintings
give the artist more leeway in the arrangement of design elements
within a composition than do paintings of other types of subjects such
as landscape or portraiture .
Still life paintings, particularly
before 1700, often contained religious and allegorical symbolism
relating to the objects depicted. Some modern still life breaks the
two-dimensional barrier and employs three-dimensional mixed media, and
uses found objects, photography, computer graphics, as well as video
A veduta is a highly detailed, usually large-scale painting of a
cityscape or some other vista. This genre of landscape originated in
Flanders , where artists such as
Paul Bril painted vedute as early as
the 16th century. As the itinerary of the
Grand Tour became somewhat
standardized, vedute of familiar scenes like the Roman Forum or the
Grand Canal recalled early ventures to the Continent for aristocratic
Englishmen. In the later 19th century, more personal impressions of
cityscapes replaced the desire for topographical accuracy, which was
satisfied instead by painted panoramas .
Visual arts portal
Index of painting-related articles
Outline of painting
* ^ "
Paint - Definition". Merriam-webster.com. 2012-08-31.
* ^ Perry, Lincoln (Summer 2014). "The
Music of Painting". The
American Scholar. 83 (3): 85.
* ^ Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Goethe\'s theory of colours, John
Murray, London 1840
Wassily Kandinsky Concerning The Spiritual In Art,
Wikimedia Commons has media related to PAINTINGS .
Look up PAINTING in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
* Daniel, H. (1971). Encyclopedia of Themes and Subjects in
Painting; Mythological, Biblical, Historical, Literary, Allegorical,
and Topical. New York: Harry N. Abrams Inc.
* W. Stanley Jr. Taft, James W. Mayer, The Science of Paintings,
First Edition, Springer, 2000.
Theodor W. Adorno
Theodor W. Adorno
Leon Battista Alberti
Leon Battista Alberti
Hans Urs von Balthasar
Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten
Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten
* Bernard Bosanquet
R. G. Collingwood
Curt John Ducasse
Thierry de Duve
* Thomas Munro
José Ortega y Gasset
Dewitt H. Parker
George Lansing Raymond
I. A. Richards
I. A. Richards
Johann Joachim Winckelmann
Johann Joachim Winckelmann
* New Classical
Life imitating art
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