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A PAGODA is a tiered tower with multiple eaves , built in traditions originating as stupa in historic South Asia
South Asia
and further developed in East Asia or with respect to those traditions, common to Nepal
Nepal
, India
India
, China
China
, Japan
Japan
, Korea
Korea
, Vietnam
Vietnam
, Burma
Burma
, Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and other parts of Asia. Some pagodas are used as Taoist houses of worship. Most pagodas were built to have a religious function, most commonly Buddhist
Buddhist
, and were often located in or near viharas . In some countries, the term may refer to other religious structures. In Vietnam
Vietnam
and Cambodia
Cambodia
, due to French translation, the English term pagoda is a more generic term referring to a place of worship , although pagoda is not an accurate word to describe a Buddhist
Buddhist
vihara. The modern pagoda is an evolution of the stupa which originated in ancient India
India
. Stupas are a tomb-like structure where sacred relics could be kept safe and venerated. The architectural structure of the stupa has spread across Asia, taking on many diverse forms as details specific to different regions are incorporated into the overall design.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 History

* 2.1 Symbolism * 2.2 Architecture

* 3 Some notable pagodas * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 External links

ETYMOLOGY

One proposed etymology is from the southern Chinese pronunciation of eight cornered tower,"Pa-Ko-Ta" (八角塔), and reinforced by the name of a famous pagoda encountered by many early European visitors to China, the "Pa-Zhou-Ta" Pagoda
Pagoda
, standing just south of Canton (Guangzhou) at the Whampoa Anchorage. Another proposed etymology is Persian butkada, from but, "idol" and kada, "temple, dwelling."

Another etymology, found in many English language dictionaries, is modern English pagoda from Portuguese (via Dravidian ), from Sanskrit bhavati, feminine of bhagavatt, "blessed" from bhag, "good fortune".

Yet another etymology of pagoda is from the Sinhala word dāgaba which is derived from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
dhātugarbha or Pali
Pali
dhātugabbha: "relic womb/chamber" or "reliquary shrine", i.e. a stupa , by way of Portuguese.

HISTORY

Kek Lok Si
Kek Lok Si
pagoda tiers labelled with their architectural styles

The origin of the pagoda can be traced to the stupa (3rd century BCE). The stupa, a dome shaped monument, was used as a commemorative monument associated with storing sacred relics. In East Asia, the architecture of Chinese towers and Chinese pavilions blended into pagoda architecture, eventually also spreading to Southeast Asia. The pagoda's original purpose was to house relics and sacred writings. This purpose was popularized due to the efforts of Buddhist missionaries , pilgrims, rulers, and ordinary devotees to seek out, distribute, and extol Buddhist
Buddhist
relics.

On the other side, the stupa emerged as a distinctive style of Newari architecture of Nepal
Nepal
and was adopted in Southeast and East Asia . Nepali architect Araniko visited China
China
and shared his skills to build stupa buildings in China.

These buildings (pagoda, studa) became prominent as Buddhist monuments used for enshrining sacred relics.

SYMBOLISM

Chinese iconography is noticeable in Chinese pagoda
Chinese pagoda
as well as other East Asian pagoda architectures. The image of the Shakyamuni Buddha in the abhaya mudra is also noticeable in some Pagodas. Buddhist iconography can be observed throughout the pagoda symbolism.

In an article on Buddhist
Buddhist
elements in Han art, Wu Hung suggests that in these tombs, Buddhist
Buddhist
iconography was so well incorporated into native Chinese traditions that a unique system of symbolism had been developed.

ARCHITECTURE

Pagodas attract lightning strikes because of their height. Many pagodas have a decorated finial at the top of the structure, and when made of metal, this finial, sometimes referred to as a "demon-arrester", can function as a lightning rod. Also Pagodas come in many different sizes, as some may be small and others may be large. Pagodas traditionally have an odd number of levels, a notable exception being the eighteenth century pagoda "folly" designed by Sir William Chambers at Kew Gardens in London.

The pagodas in Burma
Burma
, Thailand
Thailand
, Laos
Laos
and Cambodia
Cambodia
are very different from Chinese and Japanese pagodas. Pagodas in those countries are derived from South Indian Dravidian architecture.

SOME NOTABLE PAGODAS

Tiered towers with multiple eaves:

* Songyue Pagoda on Mount Song , Henan , China, built in 523. * Miruksa Temple Pagoda at Iksan , Korea, built in the early 7th century. * Bunhwangsa at Gyeongju , Korea, built in 634. * Xumi Pagoda at Zhengding , Hebei , China, built in 636. * Daqin Pagoda in China, built in 640. * Hwangnyongsa Wooden nine-story pagoda on Hwangnyongsa , Gyeongju , Korea, built in 645. * Pagoda
Pagoda
at Hōryū-ji , Ikaruga, Nara , Japan, built in 7th century. * Giant Wild Goose Pagoda
Giant Wild Goose Pagoda
, built in Xi\'an , China
China
in 704 * Small Wild Goose Pagoda , built in Xi\'an , China
China
in 709. * Seokgatap on Bulguksa , Gyeongju , Korea
Korea
, built in 751. * Dabotap on Bulguksa , Gyeongju , Korea, built in 751. * Huqiu Tower
Tower
, built in 961 outside of Suzhou , China * Lingxiao Pagoda at Zhengding , Hebei , China, built in 1045. * Iron Pagoda
Iron Pagoda
of Kaifeng , built in 1049 CE, during the Song Dynasty . * Liaodi Pagoda of Dingzhou , built in 1055 CE during the Song Dynasty * Pagoda of Fugong Temple , built in 1056 in Ying County, Shanxi , China. * Pizhi Pagoda of Lingyan Temple , Shandong , China, 11th century. * Beisi Pagoda at Suzhou , Jiangsu , China, built in 1162. * Liuhe Pagoda
Liuhe Pagoda
of Hangzhou
Hangzhou
, built in 1165 CE, during the Song Dynasty. * Ichijō-ji , Kasai, Hyōgo , Japan, built in 1171. * The Porcelain Tower
Tower
of Nanjing
Nanjing
, built between 1402 and 1424, a wonder of the medieval world in Nanjing
Nanjing
, China. * Tsui Sing Lau Pagoda in Ping Shan , Hong Kong, built in 1486. * Seven-storey Pagoda
Pagoda
in Chinese Garden at Jurong East, Singapore , built in 1975. * Pazhou Pagoda
Pazhou Pagoda
on Whampoa (Huangpu) Island, Guangzhou
Guangzhou
(Canton), China, built in1600. * Thien Mu Pagoda , in Huế
Huế
, Vietnam, built in 1601. * Palsangjeon , a five story pagoda at Beopjusa , Korea
Korea
built in 1605. * Tō-ji , the tallest wooden structure in Kyoto
Kyoto
, Japan, built in 1644. * Nyatapola
Nyatapola
at Bhaktapur
Bhaktapur
, Kathmandu Valley
Kathmandu Valley
built during 1701–1702 CE. * The Great Pagoda
Pagoda
at Kew Gardens , London, UK, built in 1762. * Tran Quoc Pagoda , Ha Noi , Vietnam, founded in the 6th century. * Reading Pagoda
Pagoda
of Reading, Pennsylvania
Reading, Pennsylvania
, built in 1908. * Kek Lok Si
Kek Lok Si
's main pagoda in Penang
Penang
, Malaysia
Malaysia
, exhibits a combination of Chinese , Burmese and Thai Buddhist
Buddhist
architecture, built in 1930. * The Japan
Japan
Pavilion 's pagoda at Epcot, Florida, built in 1982. * Changzhou Tianning Baota , the tallest pagoda in the world since its completion in April 2007, stands at 153.7 m in height. * Nepal
Nepal
Peace Pagoda
Pagoda
in Brisbane
Brisbane
, Australia
Australia
built for the World Expo \'88 .

Stupas called "pagodas":

* Global Pagoda , the largest unsupported domed stone structure in the world. * Mingun Pahtodawgyi , a monumental uncompleted stupa began by King Bodawpaya in 1790. If completed, it would be the largest in the world at 150 meters. * Pha That Luang
Pha That Luang
, the holiest wat , pagoda, and stupa in Laos, in Vientiane
Vientiane
* Phra Pathom Chedi
Phra Pathom Chedi
the highest pagoda or stupa in the world Nakhon Pathom , Thailand. * Shwedagon Pagoda
Shwedagon Pagoda
, a 98-metre (322 ft) gilded pagoda and stupa located in Yangon
Yangon
, Burma. It is the most sacred Buddhist
Buddhist
pagoda for the Burmese with relics of the past four Buddhas enshrined within. * Shwezigon Pagoda
Shwezigon Pagoda
in Nyaung Oo , Burma. Completed during the reign of King Kyanzittha in 1102, it is a prototype of Burmese stupas. * Uppatasanti Pagoda
Uppatasanti Pagoda
, a 325-foot tall landmark in the Burmese capital of Naypyitaw , built from 2006 to 2009, which houses a Buddha tooth relic.

Places called "pagoda" but which are not tiered structures with multiple eaves:

* Chùa Một Cột : One Pillar Pagoda, Hanoi
Hanoi
, Vietnam, is an icon of Vietnamese culture ; it was built in 1049, destroyed, and rebuilt in 1954.

Structures that evoke pagoda architecture:

* The Dragon House of Sanssouci Park , which is an eighteenth century German attempt at imitating Chinese architecture. * The Panasonic Pagoda, or Pagoda
Pagoda
Tower, at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway . This 13-story pagoda, used as the control tower for races such as the Indy 500 , has been transformed several times since it was first built in 1913. * Jin Mao Tower
Tower
in Shanghai
Shanghai
, built between 1994 and 1999. * Petronas Towers
Petronas Towers
in Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
, the tallest buildings in the world from 1998 to 2004 * Taipei 101 in Taiwan, record setter for height (508m) in 2004 and currently the world's fourth tallest completed building.

Structures not generally thought of as pagodas, but which have some pagoda-like characteristics:

* The Hall of Prayer for Good Harvests at the Temple of Heaven * Wongudan Altar in Korea

*

The Iron Pagoda
Iron Pagoda
of Kaifeng , China
China
, built in 1049 CE *

Five-story pagoda of Mt. Haguro , Japan
Japan
*

Wooden three-story pagoda of Ichijō-ji in Japan, built in 1171 CE

*

Yingde pagoda, Qingyuan, Guangdong Province, China, from Johan Nieuhof (1618–1672); Jean-Baptiste Le Carpentier (1606 – c. 1670): L'ambassade de la Compagnie Orientale des Provinces Unies vers l'Empereur de la Chine, 1665 *

One Pillar Pagoda, Hanoi
Hanoi
, Vietnam
Vietnam
. *

The nine-story Xumi Pagoda , Hebei, China, built in 636 CE *

Nyatapola
Nyatapola
Temple located in Bhaktapur
Bhaktapur
, Nepal
Nepal
, built in 1701–1702 CE *

Taipei 101 in Taipei , Taiwan
Taiwan
*

The Bombardier Pagoda
Pagoda
at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway
Indianapolis Motor Speedway
*

Great Shwedagon Pagoda
Shwedagon Pagoda
located in Yangon
Yangon
, Myanmar
Myanmar
. The whole structure is coated with 60 tons of pure gold

SEE ALSO

* Architecture of the Song Dynasty * Cetiya
Cetiya
* Chaitya
Chaitya
* Chinese architecture * Chinese pagodas * Gongbei – Chinese Muslim mausoleum with pagoda-style architecture * Stupa * – Japanese pagodas * Vihara
Vihara

NOTES

* ^ "The Origin of Pagodas". China.org.cn. 2002-09-19. Retrieved 2017-01-23. * ^ "Pagoda". Webpages.uidaho.edu. Retrieved 2017-01-23. * ^ "DEVELOPMENT OF STUPA ARCHITECTURE IN INDIA" (PDF). Shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in. Retrieved 2017-01-23. * ^ "The stupa (article)". Khan Academy. Retrieved 2017-01-23. * ^ "The Origin of Pagodas". China.org.cn. 2002-09-19. Retrieved 2017-01-23. * ^ The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press * ^ "Chinese origin of the term pagoda". David Robbins Tien. Comments on Etymology, October 2014, Vol.44, no. 1, pp. 2–6. * ^ Random House Unabridged Dictionary , Second Edition. Random House, New York, 1993. * ^ Hobson-Jobson: The Anglo-Indian Dictionary by Henry Yule & Arthur Coke Burnell, first printed 1896, reprinted by Wordsworth Editions, 1996, p. 291. Online Etymology Dictionary by Douglas Harper, s.v. pagoda, at http://www.etymonline.com/ (Accessed 29 April 2016) * ^ A B C Editors, The (2012-01-26). "pagoda architecture". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2017-01-23. * ^ A World History of Architecture. Michael W. Fazio, Marian Moffett, Lawrence Wodehouse. Published 2003. McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 0-07-141751-6 . * ^ The Impact of Buddhism
Buddhism
on Chinese Material Culture. John Kieschnick. Published 2003. Princeton University Press . ISBN 0-691-09676-7 . * ^ "Nepal, China
China
commemorate 57-year-long friendship - China News". SINA English. Retrieved 2017-01-23. * ^ The Evolution of Indian Stupa Architecture in East Asia. Eric Stratton. New Delhi, Vedams, 2002, viii, ISBN 81-7936-006-7 * ^ The Impact of Buddhism
Buddhism
on Chinese Material Culture. John Kieschnick. Published 2003. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-09676-7 . page 83 * ^ The Impact of Buddhism
Buddhism
on Chinese Material Culture. John Kieschnick. Published 2003. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-09676-7 . page 84 * ^ Terry, T. Philip (1914). Terry\'s Japanese Empire. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin. p. 257. * ^ Chihara, Daigorō. Hindu- Buddhist
Buddhist
Architecture in Southeast Asia. Retrieved 2017-01-23. * ^

REFERENCES

* The Impact of Buddhism
Buddhism
on Chinese Material Culture. John Kieschnick. Published 2003. Princeton University Press . ISBN 0-691-09676-7 . * A World History of Architecture. Michael W. Fazio, Marian Moffett, Lawrence Wodehouse. Published 2003. McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 0-07-141751-6 . * Psycho-cosmic symbolism of the Buddhist
Buddhist
stupa. A. B. Govinda. 1976, Emeryville, California. Dharma
Dharma
Publications.

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikimedia Commons

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