1 Tribes 2 Origin 3 Paeonian kingdom
3.1 Kings 3.2 Foreign rulers
4 Culture 5 Decline 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References
Tribes The Paeonian tribes were:
Agrianes (also, Agriani and Agrii), it is also claimed that the tribe was Thracian. Almopians (also Almopioi) Laeaeans (also Laeaei and Laiai) Derrones (also Derroni), it is also claimed that the tribe was Thracian. Odomantes (also Odomanti), it is also claimed that the tribe was Thracian. Paeoplae Doberes Siropaiones
Paeonia as part of Epirus environs.
Some modern scholars consider the Paionians to have been of either
Thracian, or of mixed
Thraco-Illyrian origins. Some of the
names of the Paionians are also definitely Hellenic (Lycceius,
Ariston, Audoleon), although relatively little is known about
them. Linguistically, the very small number of surviving words in
Paeonian language have been variously connected to its neighboring
languages – Illyrian and Thracian; (and every possible
Thraco-Illyrian mix in between). Several eastern Paeonian tribes,
including the Agrianes, clearly fell within the Thracian sphere of
influence. Yet, according to the national legend, they were
Teucrian colonists from Troy. Homer speaks of
Paeonians from the Axios fighting on the side of the Trojans, but the Iliad
Iliad does not mention whether the Paeonians
Paeonians were kin to the Trojans. Homer
Homer calls the Paeonian leader Pyraechmes (parentage unknown); later on in the Iliad (Book 21), Homer
Homer mentions a second leader, Asteropaeus, son of Pelagon. Before the reign of Darius Hystaspes, they had made their way as far east as Perinthus
Perinthus in Thrace
Thrace on the Propontis. At one time all Mygdonia, together with Crestonia, was subject to them. When Xerxes crossed Chalcidice
Chalcidice on his way to Therma (later renamed Thessalonica), he is said to have marched through Paeonian territory. They occupied the entire valley of the Axios (Vardar) as far inland as Stobi, the valleys to the east of it as far as the Strymon and the country round Astibus
Astibus and the river of the same name, with the water of which they anointed their kings. Emathia, roughly the district between the Haliacmon
Haliacmon and Axios, was once called Paeonia; and Pieria and Pelagonia were inhabited by Paeonians. As a consequence of the growth of Macedonian power, and under pressure from their Thracian neighbors, their territory was considerably diminished, and in historical times was limited to the north of Macedonia from Illyria to the Strymon. In Greek mythology, the Paeonians
Paeonians were said to have derived their name from Paeon the son of Endymion.
In early times, the chief town and seat of the Paionian kings was
Bylazora (now Veles in Republic of Macedonia) on the Vardar; later, the seat of the kings was moved to Stobi
Stobi (near modern Gradsko). Subjugation of the Paeonians
Paeonians happened as a part of Persian military operations initiated by Darius the Great
Darius the Great (521–486) in 513 – after immense preparations – a huge Achaemenid army invaded the Balkans and tried to defeat the European Scythians
Scythians roaming to the north of the Danube
Danube river. Darius' army subjugated several Thracian peoples, and virtually all other regions that touch the European part of the Black Sea, such as parts of nowadays Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, and Russia, before it returned to Asia Minor. Darius left in Europe one of his commanders named Megabazus whose task was to accomplish conquests in the Balkans. The Persian troops subjugated gold-rich Thrace, the coastal Greek cities, as well as defeating and conquering the powerful Paeonians. At some point after the Greco-Persian Wars, the Paeonian princedoms coalesced into a kingdom centred in the central and upper reaches of the Axios and Strymon rivers, corresponding with today's northern Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia and western Bulgaria. They joined with the Illyrians
Illyrians to attack the northern areas of the kingdom of Macedonia. The Illyrians, who had a culture of piracy, would have been cut off from some trade routes if movement through this land had been blocked. They unsuccessfully attacked the northern defences of Macedonian territory in an attempt to occupy the region. In 360–359 BC, southern Paeonian tribes were launching raids into Macedon, (Diodorus XVI. 2.5) in support of an Illyrian invasion. The Macedonian Royal House was thrown into a state of uncertainty by the death of Perdiccas III, but his brother Philip II assumed the throne, reformed the army (providing phalanxes), and proceeded to stop both the Illyrian invasion and the Paeonian raids through the boundary of the "Macedonian Frontier", which was the northern perimeter which he intended to defend as an area of his domain. He followed Perdiccas's success in 358 BC with a campaign deep into the north, into Paeonia itself. This reduced the Paeonian kingdom (then ruled by Agis) to a semi-autonomous, subordinate status, which led to a process of gradual and formal Hellenization
Hellenization of the Paeonians, who, during the reign of Philip II, began to issue coins with Greek legends like the Macedonian ones. A Paeonian contingent, led by Ariston, was attached to Alexander the Great's army. At the time of the Persian invasion, the Paeonians
Paeonians on the lower Strymon had lost, while those in the north maintained, their territorial integrity. The daughter of Audoleon, a king of Paeonia, was the wife of Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, and Alexander the Great wished to bestow the hand of his sister Cynane upon Langarus, king of the Agrianians, who had shown himself loyal to Philip II. Kings
Kings of Paeonia
Agis ?–359 BC
Lycceius 356–340 BC
Patraus 340–315 BC Audoleon son of Patraus
Patraus 315–285 BC Ariston 286–285 BC son of Audoleon Leon 278–250 BC Dropion son of Leon 250–230 BC Bastareus ?–? BC
Agis: founded the Paeonian kingdom; pretender to the Macedonian throne
in a time of instability.
Lycceius: joined anti-Macedonian coalition with
Thrace in 356 BC. Patraus Audoleon: reduced to great straits by the Autariatae, but was succoured by Cassander. Ariston Leon of Paeonia: consolidated and restored lost lands after the Gallic Invasions in 280/279 BC. Dropion: last known Paeonian king in 230 BC, of a dwindling kingdom.
Pigres: one of the two tyrant brothers which in 511 BC persuaded
Darius I to deport the coastal Paeonians
Paeonians to Asia. Mantyes: one of the two tyrant brothers which in 511 BC persuaded Darius I
Darius I to deport the coastal Paeonians
Paeonians to Asia. Dokidan: of the Derrones; reigned during the 6th century BC. Dokim: of the Derrones; reigned during the 6th century BC. Euergetes: of the Derrones; reigned c. 480–465 BC, known only from his coinage. Teutaos: reigend from c. 450–435 BC; known only from his coinage. Bastareus: reigned from c. 400–380/78 BC, known only from his coinage. Teutamado: reigned from 378 to 359 BC, known only from his coinage. Symnon: great ally of Phillip II from 348 to 336 BC. Nicharchos: reigned from 335 to 323 BC; son of Symon. Langarus: of the Agrianes; invaded the territory of the Autariatae in 335 BC in coalition with Alexander the Great. Dyplaios: of the Agrianes; reigend around 330 BC. Didas: allied Philip V of Macedon
Philip V of Macedon with 4,000 warriors from 215 to 197 BC.
Darius I: subjugated Paeonia in 511/2 BC.
Paeonians in vast Persian army of 481 BC, for the Invasion of Greece.
Paeonians included several independent tribes, all later united under the rule of a single king. Little is known of their manners and customs. They adopted the cult of Dionysus, known amongst them as Dyalus or Dryalus, and Herodotus mentions that the Thracian and Paeonian women offered sacrifice to Queen Artemis
Artemis (probably Bendis). They worshipped the sun in the form of a small round disk fixed on the top of a pole. A passage in Athenaeus
Athenaeus seems to indicate the affinity of their language with Mysian. They drank barley beer and various decoctions made from plants and herbs. The country was rich in gold and a bituminous kind of wood (or stone, which burst into a blaze when in contact with water) called tanrivoc (or tsarivos). The scanty remains of the Paeonian language do not allow a firm judgement to be made. On one side are Wilhelm Tomaschek and Paul Kretschmer, who claim it belonged to the Illyrian family, and on the other side is Dimitar Dečev, who claims affinities with Thracian. On the other hand, the Paeonian kings issued coins from the time of Philip II of Macedon
Philip II of Macedon onwards, bearing their names written in straightforward Greek. All the names of the Paeonian Kings that have come down to us are, in fact, explainable with and clearly related to Greek (Agis, Ariston, Audoleon, Lycceius, etc.), a fact that, according to Irwin L. Merker, puts into question the theories of Illyrian and Thracian connections. The women were famous for their industry. In this connection Herodotus tells the story that Darius, having seen at Sardis
Sardis a beautiful Paeonian woman carrying a pitcher on her head, leading a horse to drink, and spinning flax, all at the same time, inquired who she was. Having been informed that she was a Paeonian, he sent instructions to Megabazus, commander in Thrace, to deport two tribes of the nation without delay to Asia. An inscription, discovered in 1877 at Olympia on the base of a statue, states that it was set up by the community of the Paeonians
Paeonians in honor of their king and founder Dropion. Another king, whose name appears as Lyppeius on a fragment of an inscription found at Athens
Athens relating to a treaty of alliance, is no doubt identical with the Lycceius
Lycceius or Lycpeius of Paeonian coins. Decline In 280 BC, the Gallic invaders under Brennus ravaged the land of the Paeonians, who, being further hard pressed by the Dardani, had no alternative but to join the Macedonians. Despite their combined efforts, however, the Paeonians
Paeonians and Macedonians were defeated. Paeonia consolidated again but, in 217 BC, the Macedonian king Philip V of Macedon (220–179 BC), the son of Demetrius II, succeeded in uniting and incorporating into his empire the separate regions of Dassaretia and Paeonia. A mere 70 years later (in 168 BC), Roman legions conquered Macedon in turn, and a new and much larger Roman province bearing this name was formed. Paeonia around the Axios formed the second and third districts respectively of the newly constituted Roman province of Macedonia. Centuries later under Diocletian, Paeonia and Pelagonia
Pelagonia formed a province called Macedonia Secunda
Macedonia Secunda or Macedonia Salutaris, belonging to the Praetorian prefecture of Illyricum. See also
Agrianes Asteropaeus Bylazora Deuriopus Laeaeans List of ancient Thracian cities § Paeonian Paeonian language Pyraechmes Stobi
^ The Persian Empire: A Corpus of Sources from the Achaemenid
^ Strabo, "Geography", 7, Frg.4, 9.5.1
^ Roisman, Joseph; Worthington, Ian (2010). A Companion to Ancient
Macedonia. John Wiley and Sons. p. 13.
^ "Paeonia". Encyclopædia Britannica online.
^ Reames, Jeanne (2008). Howe, Timothy, ed. Macedonian Legacies.
Regina Books. p. 239. ISBN 1930053568. Paeonia, roughly
where the F.Y.R.O.M. is today.
^ Ovid; Green, Peter (2005). The Poems of Exile. University of
California Press, 2005. p. 319. Ovid was lax in his geography,
not least over Paeonia (in fact roughly coextensive with the present
^ a b Early symbolic systems for communication in Southeast Europe,
Part 2 by Lolita Nikolova, ISBN 1-84171-334-1, 2003, page 529,
"eastern Paionians (Agrianians and Laeaeans)"
^ The Landmark Thucydides: A Comprehensive Guide to the Peloponnesian
War by Thucydides, Robert B. Strassler, Richard Crawley, and Victor
Davis Hanson, 1998, ISBN 0-684-82790-5, page 153,"... of them
still live round Physcasb- and the
Almopians from Almopia. ^ The Cambridge Ancient History, Martin Percival Charlesworth, ISBN 0-521-85073-8, ISBN 978-0-521-85073-5 Volume 4, Persia, Greece
Greece and the Western Mediterranean, C. 525 to 479 B.C, John Boardman, page 252, "The Paeonians
Paeonians were the earlier owners of some of these mines, but after their defeat in the coastal sector they maintained their independence in the mainland and coined large denominations in the upper Strymon and the Upper Axius area in the names of the Laeaei and the Derrones" ^ An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis: An Investigation Conducted by The Copenhagen Polis Centre for the Danish National Research Foundation by Mogens Herman Hansen and Thomas Heine Nielsen, 2005, ISBN 0-19-814099-1, page 854, ... Various tribes have occupied this part of Thrace: Bisaltians (lower Strymon valley), Odomantes
Odomantes (the plain to the north of the Strymon) ... ^ Thrace
Thrace in the Graeco-Roman world, p. 112 but others claim that together with the Agrianes
Agrianes and Odomanti, at least the latter of which were with certainty Thracian, not Paeonian. ^ The Histories (Penguin Classics) by Herodotus, John M. Marincola, and Aubery de Selincourt, ISBN 0-14-044908-6, 2003, page 315, ... "was that a number of Paeonian tribes – the Siriopaeones, Paeoplae, ..." ^ The Histories (Penguin Classics) by Herodotus, John M. Marincola, and Aubery de Selincourt, ISBN 0-14-044908-6, 2003, page 452, "... Then he passed through the country of the Doberes and Paeoplae (Paeonian tribes living north of Pangaeum), and continued in a ..." ^ The Histories (Penguin Classics) by Herodotus, John M. Marincola, and Aubery de Selincourt, ISBN 0-14-044908-6, 2003, page 315, "... was that a number of Paeonian tribes – the Siriopaeones, Paeoplae, ..." ^ The History of the Ancient World: From the Earliest Accounts to the Fall of Rome by Susan Wise Bauer (2007), ISBN 0-393-05974-X, page 518: "... Italy); to the north, Thracian tribes
Thracian tribes known collectively as the Paeonians." ^ See: Encyclopædia Britannica – online edition. ^ “The Ancient Kingdom of Paionia,” Irwin L. Merker, Balkan Studies 6 (1965) 35) ^ Francesco Villari. Gli Indoeuropei e le origini dell'Europa. Il Mulino, 1997. ISBN 88-15-05708-0 ^ Herodotus v. 13 ^ Iliad, book II, line 848 ^ Pausanias, 5.1.5; Smith "Paeon" 3.. ^ a b c d e f "A Companion to Ancient Macedonia". Retrieved 17 December 2014. ^ The Oxford Classical Dictionary by Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth,ISBN 0-19-860641-9,"page 1515,"The Thracians
Thracians were subdued by the Persians by 516" ^ Howe & Reames 2008, p. 239. ^ "Persian influence on Greece
Greece (2)". Retrieved 17 December 2014. ^ Raphael Sealey, A History of the Greek City States, 700–338 BC, University of California Press, 1976, p. 442, on Google books ^ Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond, Guy Thompson Griffith, A History of Macedonia: 550–336 B.C, Clarendon Press, 1979 ^ R. Malcolm Errington, A History of Macedonia, University of California Press, 1990 ^ Carol G. Thomas, Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great in his World, Wiley-Blackwell, 2006 ^ Simon Hornblower, The Greek world, 479–323 BC, Routledge, 2002 ^ Diodorus
Diodorus Siculus, Library, 16.4, on Perseus ^ Catalogue of Greek Coins: Thessaly to Aetolia by Percy Gardner, 2004, Front Matter: "... present to the money of Philip II. of Macedon, and Lycceius
Lycceius and Audoleon, kings of Paeonia, that they must be given ..." ^ A Guide to the Principal Gold and Silver Coins of the Ancients: From Circ. B. C. 700 to a. D. 1. (1895) by British Museum Dept. of Coins and Medals, 2009, page 62: "... of Athena, facing. Bee. AYAnA EONTOZ. Horse. Wt. 193.4 grs. Patraus
Patraus and his son Audoleon
Audoleon reigned over Paeonia between B.C. 340 ..." ^ a b Polyaenus, Stratagems of War, 4.12.3, "Lysimachus conducted Ariston, son of Autoleon, to his father's kingdom in Paeonia; under pretence that the royal youth might be acknowledged by his subjects, and treated with due respect. But as soon as he had bathed in the royal baths in the river Arisbus, and they had set before him an elegant banquet, according to the custom of his country, Lysimachus ordered his guards to arm. Ariston instantly mounted his horse and escaped to the land of the Dardani; and Lysimachus was left in possession of Paeonia." ^ a b c d Pausanias, Description of Greece
Greece Phocis and Ozolian Locri, 10.13.1, "A bronze head of the Paeonian bull called the bison was sent to Delphi by the Paeonian king Dropion, son of Leon." ^ The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 6: The Fourth Century BC by D. M. Lewis, John Boardman, Simon Hornblower, and M. Ostwald, 1994, page 463, "Agis, king of Paeonians" ^ Catalogue of Greek Coins: Thessaly to Aetolia by Percy Gardner, 2004, Front Matter: "...present to the money of Philip II. of Macedon, and Lycceius
Lycceius and Audoleon, kings of Paeonia, that they must be given..." ^ A Guide to the Principal Gold and Silver Coins of the Ancients: From Circ. B. C. 700 to a. D. 1. (1895) by British Museum Dept. of Coins and Medals, 2009, page 62: "... Patraus
Patraus and his son Audoleon
Audoleon reigned over Paaonia between B.C. 340 ..." ^ a b The Histories. Digireads.com. 2009. p. 199. ISBN 9781596258778. Retrieved 2014-10-15. ^ a b c bg:Пеония ^ "Thraco Macedonian Tribes, Derrones, ancient coins index with thumbnails - WildWinds.com". wildwinds.com. Retrieved 2014-10-15. ^ "Ancient Mediterranean and Europe: The Paones". allempires.com. Retrieved 2014-10-15. ^ Introduction générale à l'étude des monnaies de l'antiquité by Ernest Babelon, ISBN 0405123485, 1979, page 224. ^ "Mbretër Ilirë, 2400 Vjet Më Parë, Në Maqedoninë E Sotme". forumishqiptar.com. Retrieved 2014-10-15. ^ a b "I/63 Paionian (512–284 BC)". fanaticus.org. Archived from the original on 2015-03-20. Retrieved 2014-10-15. ^ Smith, William (editor); Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, "Langarus", Boston, (1867). ^ Čausidis, N.; Ugrinovska, L.; Drnkov, B. (1995). Macedonia: Cultural Heritage. Misla. ISBN 9789989390210. Retrieved 2014-10-15. ^ Timothy Howe, Jeanne Reames. Macedonian Legacies: Studies in Ancient Macedonian History and Culture in Honor of Eugene N. Borza (original from the Indiana University) Regina Books, 2008 ISBN 978-1930053564 p 239 ^ Herodotus VII, 185 ^ "The unknown Paeonian world martin kubelka - Academia.edu". academia.edu. Retrieved 2014-10-15. ^ v. 12 ^ B. V. Head, Historia Numorum, 1887, p. 207. ^ Livy xiv. 29.
v t e
Paeon Paeonian art Paeonian pottery Paeonian religion Paeonian clothing Paeonian coinage Paeonian fibulae
Alexander's Balkan campaign Paeonian Kingdom
Astraion Vylazora Astibo Stobi
Agis Lycceius Patraus Audoleon Ariston Leon Dropion Bastareus
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Paionia.
Howe, Timothy; Reames, Jeanne (2008). Macedonian Legacies: Studies in Ancient Macedonian History and Culture in Honor of Eugene N. Borza. Regina Books. ISBN 978-1-930-05356-4. Pausanias, Description of Greece. W. H. S. Jones (translator). Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. (1918). Vol. 1. Books I–II: ISBN 0-674-99104-4. Smith, William, A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology. London. Online at Perseus This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed. (1870). "article name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Paeonia". Encyclopædia Britannica. 20 (11th ed.). Cambridge University