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PADANG (Indonesian pronunciation: Jawi : ڤادڠ‎) is the capital of the province of West Sumatra
West Sumatra
in Indonesia. It is the largest city on the western coast of Sumatra
Sumatra
. Before Indonesia's independence, Padang
Padang
was one of the major cities in the Dutch East Indies . It has an area of 695 square kilometres (268 sq mi) and the population of 1,000,096 in 2014.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 2 Geography

* 2.1 Climate

* 3 Governance

* 3.1 Administrative districts * 3.2 Adipura award

* 4 Culture

* 4.1 Cuisine

* 5 Tourism

* 5.1 Landmarks * 5.2 Beaches and parks * 5.3 Shopping

* 6 Sports

* 7 Infrastructure

* 7.1 Public transport * 7.2 Airport * 7.3 Seaport * 7.4 Toll road * 7.5 Railroad * 7.6 Tsunami
Tsunami
shelter

* 8 Education * 9 Sister cities and twin towns * 10 See also

* 11 References

* 11.1 Notes

* 12 External links

HISTORY

Historical Affiliations Dutch Empire
Dutch Empire
1663-1781

British Empire
British Empire
1781-1784 Dutch Empire
Dutch Empire
1784-1795 British Empire
British Empire
1795-1819 Dutch Empire
Dutch Empire
1819-1942 Empire of Japan
Empire of Japan
1942-1945 Republic of Indonesia
Indonesia
1945-present Padang
Padang
circa 1795 Padang, 1859

Padang
Padang
has been a trade centre since the 16th century, having been controlled by the Pagaruyung Kingdom and the Aceh Sultanate . During the 16th and 17th centuries pepper was cultivated and traded with India, Portugal, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the Netherlands. In 1663 the city came under the authority of the Dutch and a trading post was built in 1680. The city came under the British Empire
British Empire
twice, firstly from 1781 to 1784 during the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War
Fourth Anglo-Dutch War
, and again from 1795 to 1819 during the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
. In 1819 the city was transferred back to the Netherlands. Up to circa 1780 the most important trade product was gold originating from gold mines in the region. When the mines were exhausted, the focus turned to other products such as coffee, salts and textiles.

In 1797 Padang
Padang
was inundated by a tsunami with an estimated flow depth of 5–10 meters, following an earthquake , estimated to be 8.5–8.7 Mw , which occurred off the coast. The shaking caused considerable damage and the deaths of two people, while the tsunami resulted in several houses being washed away and several deaths at the village of Air Manis. Boats moored in the Arau river ended up on dry land, including a 200-ton sailing ship which was deposited about 1 kilometre upstream. In 1833 another tsunami inundated Padang
Padang
with an estimated flow depth of 3–4 meters as a result of an earthquake , estimated to be 8.6–8.9 Mw , which occurred off Bengkulu
Bengkulu
. The shaking caused considerable damage in Padang, and due to the tsunami boats moored in the Arau river broke their anchors and were scattered.

The population of Padang
Padang
in 1920 was 28,754, the second largest city in Sumatra
Sumatra
behind Palembang. At the time of independence in the 1940s the city had around 50,000 inhabitants. Coffee was still important, but copra was also a major item produced by farmers in its hinterland. The population growth since then has been partly a result of growth in the area of the city, but largely is a result of the migration to major cities seen in so many developing nations. From 1950 the Ombilin coal field developed with Padang
Padang
as its outlet port. This was seen by some observers as reflecting the economic and political colonisation of Indonesia.

On 30 September 2009, a 7.9 magnitude earthquake hit about 50 kilometres off the coast of Padang. There were more than 1,100 fatalities, 313 of which occurred within Padang.

GEOGRAPHY

Padang
Padang
is exactly at the antipodes of Esmeraldas, Ecuador
Esmeraldas, Ecuador
.

CLIMATE

Padang
Padang
features a tropical rainforest climate under Köppen’s climate classification . Padang
Padang
is one of Indonesia’s wettest cities, with frequent rainfall throughout the course of the year. The city averages roughly 4300 mm of rain per year. Padang’s driest month is February, where 250 mm of precipitation on average is observed. The city temperatures are relatively constant throughout the year, with an average of 26 degrees Celsius.

CLIMATE DATA FOR PADANG

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 33.9 (93) 34.4 (93.9) 33.9 (93) 33.3 (91.9) 33.9 (93) 33.9 (93) 33.3 (91.9) 33.3 (91.9) 32.8 (91) 33.3 (91.9) 32.8 (91) 32.8 (91) 34.4 (93.9)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 30.6 (87.1) 31.7 (89.1) 31.7 (89.1) 31.7 (89.1) 32.2 (90) 32.2 (90) 31.7 (89.1) 32.2 (90) 32.2 (90) 31.7 (89.1) 31.1 (88) 30.6 (87.1) 31.6 (88.9)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 27.0 (80.6) 27.0 (80.6) 27.0 (80.6) 27.2 (81) 27.5 (81.5) 27.0 (80.6) 25.0 (77) 25.0 (77) 26.7 (80.1) 26.7 (80.1) 26.7 (80.1) 26.7 (80.1) 26.6 (79.9)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 23.3 (73.9) 24.4 (75.9) 23.9 (75) 23.9 (75) 23.9 (75) 23.9 (75) 23.3 (73.9) 23.3 (73.9) 23.9 (75) 23.9 (75) 23.9 (75) 23.9 (75) 23.8 (74.8)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) 21.1 (70) 20.6 (69.1) 21.1 (70) 21.7 (71.1) 21.7 (71.1) 20.0 (68) 21.1 (70) 20.6 (69.1) 21.1 (70) 21.1 (70) 21.1 (70) 21.1 (70) 20.0 (68)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 351 (13.82) 259 (10.2) 307 (12.09) 363 (14.29) 315 (12.4) 307 (12.09) 277 (10.91) 348 (13.7) 352 (13.86) 495 (19.49) 518 (20.39) 480 (18.9) 4,172 (164.25)

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 175 181 175 188 200 206 200 186 136 135 167 167 2,116

Source #1: Sistema de Clasificación Bioclimática Mundial

Source #2: Deutscher Wetterdienst
Deutscher Wetterdienst
(sun, 1961–1990)

GOVERNANCE

By 2007 the city government began a number of religiously motivated policies. One requires females of all religious backgrounds who are municipal employees and students in government schools to wear jilbab (hijab), and high school students now take classes on reading the Qur\'an . Municipal employees are required to pay zakat .

ADMINISTRATIVE DISTRICTS

HISTORICAL POPULATION

YEAR POP. ±%

1819 8,500 —

1874 25,000 +194.1%

1920 28,754 +15.0%

1930 40,744 +41.7%

1961 143,699 +252.7%

1971 350,277 +143.8%

1980 480,922 +37.3%

1990 631,263 +31.3%

2010 833,562 +32.0%

2013 876,678 +5.2%

The city of Padang
Padang
is divided into 11 districts (kecamatan):

* Bungus Teluk Kabung * Koto Tangah * Kuranji * Lubuk Begalung * Lubuk Kilangan * Nanggalo * Padang Barat * Padang
Padang
Selatan * Padang
Padang
Timur * Padang
Padang
Utara * Pauh

ADIPURA AWARD

As of 2017, Padang
Padang
had received the "Adipura" (cleanest and greenest city) award in the category of large city 18 times and the "Adipura Kencana" award three times.

CULTURE

CUISINE

Main article: Minangkabau cuisine

The cuisine of the Minangkabau people is commonly called Padang cuisine . Padang
Padang
restaurants are common throughout the country and are famous for their spicy food. Padang
Padang
food is usually cooked once per day, and all customers choose from those dishes, which are left out on display until no food is left. It is served in small portions of various dishes, but constituting, with rice, a complete meal. Customers take – and pay for – only what they want from this array of dishes. The best known Padang
Padang
dish is rendang , a spicy meat stew. Soto Padang
Padang
(crispy beef in spicy soup) is local residents' breakfast favourite, meanwhile sate (beef satay in curry sauce served with ketupat ) is a treat in the evening.

TOURISM

Old Town Padang
Padang

Padang
Padang
is a common transit point for surfers travelling to Batu Islands and Mentawai Islands
Mentawai Islands
, and for tourists visiting the West Sumatran highlands. Padang
Padang
beach (known as Taplau or Tapi Lauik) which located from Samudra Street until Puruih, is well known for its beautiful sunset and hundreds of food stalls. Kuranji River flows in Padang
Padang
and on top area of the river at Batu Busuk, Lambung Bukit sub-district is suitable for white water activities. Bungus bay, to the south of Padang, is suitable for swimming and boating. There are some pleasant offshore islands near Bungus, such as Sikuai island and Pagang island. Many beautiful spots which can be visited for snorkelling , fishing or just relaxing on the white sandy beaches.

Currently, Regional Development Planning Board (Bappeda) of Padang has established development plans " Padang
Padang
Old City" in Kampung Pondok, South Padang
Padang
district as a tourist area. Mayor of Padang
Padang
has been designate 73 historic buildings as cultural heritage of Padang.

LANDMARKS

Masjid Muhammadan
Masjid Muhammadan
, a historic mosque in Padang
Padang
Facade of Ganting Grand Mosque , 2013

There are many old buildings in Padang
Padang
that still retain their Dutch and Chinese architecture
Chinese architecture
. The old city of Padang, located next to Muaro Harbor at Arau River, which formerly functioned as the city's main commercial avenue. The old city was the former business district of Padang, there are many important buildings such as Padang
Padang
City Hall, De Javaschebank (present-day Bank Indonesia
Indonesia
), Nederlandsch Spaarbank, Geo Wehry ">

CORRIDOR # ORIGIN-DESTINATION OPENED

1 Lubuk Buaya - Pasar Raya February 2014

2 Bungus - Pasar Raya planned

3 Air Pacah - Pasar Raya planned

4 Teluk Bayur - Lubuk Buaya planned

5 Indarung - Pasar Raya planned

6 Limau Manis - Pasar Raya planned

AIRPORT

The city is served by the newly opened Minangkabau International Airport in Ketaping, Padang Pariaman
Padang Pariaman
. It replaces the old Tabing Airport , which is currently used as a military base. There is one terminal building for both international and domestic flights. The airport has 4 aerobridges, 17 check-in counters, 5 baggage conveyors, and 9 ticket sales counters. In late 2013, the runway was lengthened by 250 m so that it could accommodate Boeing 747 and Airbus A340 planes, and there is also a plan to connect the airport to the city of Padang
Padang
with a train service. A terminal expansion (Phase II) has been announced with the rendering already released on the Angkasa Pura 2 website.

SEAPORT

Padang's Teluk Bayur harbour (the former Emmahaven Port) is the largest and busiest harbour on the west coast of Sumatra
Sumatra
. It serves inter-island as well as international routes. It was built in 1888 by the colonial government of the Netherlands
Netherlands
. On 29 April 2013 a new container terminal was officially opened by West Sumatra
West Sumatra
Governor which can hold more than 4,000 containers in 46,886 square-meter area. The port is the main gateway to the Mentawai islands , including Siberut , Sipora , and South Pagai
South Pagai
. There are also ferry connections between Padang
Padang
to Jakarta
Jakarta
and Sibolga next to Gunung Sitoli ( Nias
Nias
).

TOLL ROAD

West Sumatra
West Sumatra
administration has secured lands for the construction of a 27-kilometer toll road between Padang
Padang
and Sicincin district with about Rp.1.3 trillion ($141.7 million) investment. 80 percent of the land with a width of 30 meters has been acquired, but they will acquire more land to meet an ideal width of 50 meters. The construction project will be initialised in 2012.

RAILROAD

Railroad tracks connect Padang
Padang
to Pariaman
Pariaman
to the north, Padangpanjang to the northeast, Solok and Sawahlunto
Sawahlunto
to the east. The largest train station is Padang
Padang
Station , known as Simpang Haru station. Sibinuang and Dang Tuanku provides the trip services from Padang
Padang
(Simpang Haru) to Pariaman
Pariaman
vice versa.

TSUNAMI SHELTER

Government and the people of Hill Pangilun has agreed to make Mount Pangilun as tsunami shelter. Better road access to the hill will be built, as well as temporary shelters, including their facilities.

EDUCATION

Andalas University , Limau Manis campus

Minangkabau people highly respect education. Many intellectual figures come from West Sumatra. There are two institutes of higher education in Padang, i.e. Andalas University and the State University of Padang
Padang
. Andalas University is the oldest university in Indonesia outside of Java. The main campus is located at Limau Manis, about 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) from the centre of Padang. The Faculty of Medicine and Faculty of Dentistry are located in the city centre, near the Central General Hospital M. Djamil. State University of Padang located in Air Tawar.

The other universities in Padang
Padang
are Imam Bonjol State Institute of Islamic Literature, Institut Teknologi Padang
Padang
in Lapai, Bung Hatta University in Ulak Karang, Baiturrahmah University in Air Pacah, Universitas Putra Indonesia
Indonesia
YPTK, Ekasakti University, Universitas Muhammadiyah Sumatera Barat, and Tamansiswa University.

The local library of West Sumatra, located in Padang
Padang
is considered as one of the best Libraries in Indonesia, with the number of collection of 30 k titles, including facilities and maximum conserve, and the highest number of Encyclopedic visitors.

FORMAL EDUCATION STATE AND PRIVATE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL NEITHER MADRASAH IBTIDAIYAH (MI) STATE AND PRIVATE JUNIOR HIGH (JHS) OR MTS STATE AND PRIVATE SHS STATE AND PRIVATE MA STATE AND PRIVATE VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL (VHS) COLLEGE

QUANTITY 477 129 49 10 42 58

Data sekolah di Kota Padang Source:

SISTER CITIES AND TWIN TOWNS

CITY COUNTRY

HILDESHEIM Germany
Germany

VUNG TAU Vietnam
Vietnam

BEIT LAHIYA Palestine

CHONBURI Thailand
Thailand

BANDUNG Indonesia
Indonesia

PERTH Australia
Australia

DUBAI United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates

SEE ALSO

* Indonesia
Indonesia
portal

* List of twin towns and sister cities in Indonesia
Indonesia

REFERENCES

* ^ http://www.kicc.jp Indonesia: Surabaya
Surabaya
And Padang * ^ http://padangkota.bps.go.id Badan Pusat Statistik Kota Padang * ^ Kathirithamby-Wells, J. (December 1969). "Achehnese Control over West Sumatra
West Sumatra
up to the Treaty of Painan, 1663". Journal of Southeast Asian History. 10 (3). Retrieved 5 October 2017. * ^ Natawidjaja, D. H.; K. Sieh; M. Chlieh; J. Galetzka; B. W. Suwargadi; H. Cheng; R. L. Edwards; J.-P. Avouac; S. N. Ward (June 2006). "Source parameters of the great Sumatran megathrust earthquakes of 1797 and 1833 inferred from coral microatolls" (PDF). Journal of Geophysical Research. 111 (B06403): B06403. Bibcode :2006JGRB..11106403N. doi :10.1029/2005JB004025 . * ^ A.J. Gooszen; A Demographic History of the Indonesian Archipelago, 1880-1942; KITLV Press, 1999 * ^ Telly Nathalia (30 September 2009). "Indonesian quake toll at 100-200: disaster agency". Reuters
Reuters
. Retrieved 28 September 2011. *