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Padang
Padang
(Indonesian pronunciation: [ˈpadaŋ] Jawi: ڤادڠ‬) is the capital of the province of West Sumatra
West Sumatra
in Indonesia. With an area of 695 square kilometres (268 sq mi) and a population of 1,000,096 in 2014, it is the 16th-most populated city in Indonesia, the most populated city on Sumatra's western coast, and fifth-most populated city on Sumatra.[1] The city had historically been a trading center since the precolonial era, trading in pepper and gold. The Dutch made contact with the city in the mid 17th century, eventually constructing a fortress and taking over control of the city from the Pagaruyung Kingdom. Save several interruptions of British rule, Padang
Padang
remained part of the Dutch East Indies as one of its major cities until Indonesian independence.[2]

Contents

1 History 2 Geography

2.1 Climate

3 Governance

3.1 Administrative districts 3.2 Adipura award

4 Culture

4.1 Cuisine

5 Tourism

5.1 Landmarks 5.2 Beaches and parks 5.3 Shopping

6 Sports 7 Infrastructure

7.1 Public transport 7.2 Airport 7.3 Seaport 7.4 Toll road 7.5 Railroad 7.6 Tsunami
Tsunami
shelter

8 Education 9 Sister cities and twin towns 10 See also 11 References

11.1 Notes

12 External links

History[edit]

Historical Affiliations

Dutch East India 1663-1781 British Empire
British Empire
1781-1784 Dutch East India 1784-1795 British Empire
British Empire
1795-1819 Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies
1819-1942 Japanese occupation 1942-1945 Republic of Indonesia
Indonesia
1945-present

Padang
Padang
circa 1795

Padang, 1859

Padang
Padang
has been a trade centre since the 16th century, having been controlled by the Pagaruyung Kingdom
Pagaruyung Kingdom
and the Aceh Sultanate.[3] During the 16th and 17th centuries pepper was cultivated and traded with India, Portugal, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the Netherlands. In 1663 the city came under the authority of the Dutch and a trading post was built in 1680. The city came under the British Empire
British Empire
twice, firstly from 1781 to 1784 during the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War, and again from 1795 to 1819 during the Napoleonic Wars. In 1819 the city was transferred back to the Netherlands. Up to circa 1780 the most important trade product was gold originating from gold mines in the region. When the mines were exhausted, the focus turned to other products such as coffee, salts and textiles. In 1797 Padang
Padang
was inundated by a tsunami with an estimated flow depth of 5–10 meters, following an earthquake, estimated to be 8.5–8.7 Mw, which occurred off the coast. The shaking caused considerable damage and the deaths of two people, while the tsunami resulted in several houses being washed away and several deaths at the village of Air Manis. Boats moored in the Arau river ended up on dry land, including a 200-ton sailing ship which was deposited about 1 kilometre upstream. In 1833 another tsunami inundated Padang
Padang
with an estimated flow depth of 3–4 meters as a result of an earthquake, estimated to be 8.6–8.9 Mw, which occurred off Bengkulu. The shaking caused considerable damage in Padang, and due to the tsunami boats moored in the Arau river broke their anchors and were scattered.[4] The population of Padang
Padang
in 1920 was 28,754, the second largest city in Sumatra
Sumatra
behind Palembang.[5] At the time of independence in the 1940s the city had around 50,000 inhabitants. Coffee was still important, but copra was also a major item produced by farmers in its hinterland. The population growth since then has been partly a result of growth in the area of the city, but largely is a result of the migration to major cities seen in so many developing nations. From 1950 the Ombilin
Ombilin
coal field developed with Padang
Padang
as its outlet port. This was seen by some observers as reflecting the economic and political colonisation of Indonesia. On 30 September 2009, a 7.9 magnitude earthquake hit about 50 kilometres off the coast of Padang. There were more than 1,100 fatalities, 313 of which occurred within Padang.[6][7][8] Geography[edit] Padang
Padang
is exactly at the antipodes of Esmeraldas, Ecuador. Climate[edit] Padang
Padang
features a tropical rainforest climate under Köppen’s climate classification. Padang
Padang
is one of Indonesia’s wettest cities, with frequent rainfall throughout the course of the year. The city averages roughly 4300 mm of rain per year. Padang’s driest month is February, where 250 mm of precipitation on average is observed. The city temperatures are relatively constant throughout the year, with an average of 26 degrees Celsius.

Climate data for Padang

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 33.9 (93) 34.4 (93.9) 33.9 (93) 33.3 (91.9) 33.9 (93) 33.9 (93) 33.3 (91.9) 33.3 (91.9) 32.8 (91) 33.3 (91.9) 32.8 (91) 32.8 (91) 34.4 (93.9)

Average high °C (°F) 30.6 (87.1) 31.7 (89.1) 31.7 (89.1) 31.7 (89.1) 32.2 (90) 32.2 (90) 31.7 (89.1) 32.2 (90) 32.2 (90) 31.7 (89.1) 31.1 (88) 30.6 (87.1) 31.6 (88.9)

Daily mean °C (°F) 27.0 (80.6) 27.0 (80.6) 27.0 (80.6) 27.2 (81) 27.5 (81.5) 27.0 (80.6) 25.0 (77) 25.0 (77) 26.7 (80.1) 26.7 (80.1) 26.7 (80.1) 26.7 (80.1) 26.6 (79.9)

Average low °C (°F) 23.3 (73.9) 24.4 (75.9) 23.9 (75) 23.9 (75) 23.9 (75) 23.9 (75) 23.3 (73.9) 23.3 (73.9) 23.9 (75) 23.9 (75) 23.9 (75) 23.9 (75) 23.8 (74.8)

Record low °C (°F) 21.1 (70) 20.6 (69.1) 21.1 (70) 21.7 (71.1) 21.7 (71.1) 20.0 (68) 21.1 (70) 20.6 (69.1) 21.1 (70) 21.1 (70) 21.1 (70) 21.1 (70) 20.0 (68)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 351 (13.82) 259 (10.2) 307 (12.09) 363 (14.29) 315 (12.4) 307 (12.09) 277 (10.91) 348 (13.7) 352 (13.86) 495 (19.49) 518 (20.39) 480 (18.9) 4,172 (164.25)

Mean monthly sunshine hours 175 181 175 188 200 206 200 186 136 135 167 167 2,116

Source #1: Sistema de Clasificación Bioclimática Mundial[9]

Source #2: Deutscher Wetterdienst
Deutscher Wetterdienst
(sun, 1961–1990)[10][a]

Governance[edit] By 2007 the city government began a number of religiously motivated policies. One requires females of all religious backgrounds who are municipal employees and students in government schools to wear jilbab (hijab), and high school students now take classes on reading the Qur'an. Municipal employees are required to pay zakat.[11] Administrative districts[edit]

Map showing the 11 districts of Padang

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1819 8,500 —    

1874 25,000 +194.1%

1920 28,754 +15.0%

1930 40,744 +41.7%

1961 143,699 +252.7%

1971 350,277 +143.8%

1980 480,922 +37.3%

1990 631,263 +31.3%

2010 833,562 +32.0%

2013 876,678 +5.2%

The city of Padang
Padang
is divided into 11 districts (kecamatan):

Bungus Teluk Kabung Koto Tangah Kuranji Lubuk Begalung Lubuk Kilangan Nanggalo Padang
Padang
Barat Padang
Padang
Selatan Padang
Padang
Timur Padang
Padang
Utara Pauh

Adipura award[edit] As of 2017, Padang
Padang
had received the "Adipura" (cleanest and greenest city) award in the category of large city 18 times[12] and the "Adipura Kencana" award three times.[13] Culture[edit] Cuisine[edit] Main article: Minangkabau cuisine The cuisine of the Minangkabau people
Minangkabau people
is commonly called Padang cuisine. Padang
Padang
restaurants are common throughout the country and are famous for their spicy food. Padang
Padang
food is usually cooked once per day, and all customers choose from those dishes, which are left out on display until no food is left. It is served in small portions of various dishes, but constituting, with rice, a complete meal. Customers take – and pay for – only what they want from this array of dishes. The best known Padang
Padang
dish is rendang, a spicy meat stew. Soto Padang
Padang
(crispy beef in spicy soup) is local residents' breakfast favourite, meanwhile sate (beef satay in curry sauce served with ketupat) is a treat in the evening. Tourism[edit]

Old Town Padang

Padang
Padang
is a common transit point for surfers travelling to Batu Islands and Mentawai Islands, and for tourists visiting the West Sumatran highlands. Padang
Padang
beach (known as Taplau or Tapi Lauik) which located from Samudra Street until Puruih, is well known for its beautiful sunset and hundreds of food stalls. Kuranji River flows in Padang
Padang
and on top area of the river at Batu Busuk, Lambung Bukit sub-district is suitable for white water activities. Bungus bay, to the south of Padang, is suitable for swimming and boating. There are some pleasant offshore islands near Bungus, such as Sikuai island and Pagang island. Many beautiful spots which can be visited for snorkelling, fishing or just relaxing on the white sandy beaches. Currently, Regional Development Planning Board (Bappeda) of Padang
Padang
has established development plans " Padang
Padang
Old City" in Kampung Pondok, South Padang
Padang
district as a tourist area.[14] Mayor of Padang
Padang
has been designate 73 historic buildings as cultural heritage of Padang.[15] Landmarks[edit]

Masjid Muhammadan, a historic mosque in Padang

Facade of Ganting Grand Mosque, 2013

There are many old buildings in Padang
Padang
that still retain their Dutch and Chinese architecture. The old city of Padang, located next to Muaro Harbor at Arau River, which formerly functioned as the city's main commercial avenue. The old city was the former business district of Padang, there are many important buildings such as Padang
Padang
City Hall, De Javaschebank (present-day Bank Indonesia), Nederlandsch Spaarbank, Geo Wehry & Co, Escompto Maatschappij Office, warehouses, and merchant houses. There are several historic places such as Adityawarman Museum
Adityawarman Museum
which specialises in the history and culture of the local Minangkabau ethnic group, and the main exhibits are housed within a Rumah Gadang
Rumah Gadang
style building. Grand Mosque of West Sumatra, a new modern large mosque that is built with Minangkabau architecture. The Mosque is located on Jalan Khatib Sulaiman, city centre of Padang. Ganting Grand Mosque, the oldest mosque in Padang
Padang
and one of the oldest in Indonesia, is a popular tourist attraction. Muhammadan Mosque, founded by Indian merchant, is also located in the city centre. St. Leo Monastery features a mixture of traditional Minang architecture on its bell tower roofing and Dutch architecture
Dutch architecture
on the church building, is one of the oldest churches in Padang. Along the beachside road, just down from the Tourist Information office is a Buddhist Temple, Vihara Buddha Warman, opened in 2006 for the large Chinese Buddhist community. Beaches and parks[edit] Air Manis Beach, sweet water beach is located 10 km south of Padang, location of the legendary Malin Kundang Stone. The rock formations are found which resemble ship wrecks. Across from the Arau River is the Siti Nurbaya Park which can reached by bridge or boat. There are still remains of Japanese cannons and bunkers from World War II. There are great views of Padang
Padang
city, Arau River and the Indian Ocean. Bung Hatta Nature Reserve (Taman Hutan Raya Bung Hatta) is situated 18 km east of the city, with diverse flora and fauna including a few Sumatran tigers, tapirs, wild goats, bears, as well as Raflesia Gaduansi, Balangphora, and Amorphopalus. Shopping[edit] Padang
Padang
also has some modern malls, the most popular malls are Transmart, Basko Grand Mall, SPR Plaza, Plaza Andalas, and Rocky Plaza. The upcoming malls in the city are Padang
Padang
Landmark Mall and Padang
Padang
Green City. Sports[edit] Padang
Padang
is the home town of the soccer team Semen Padang, with Haji Agus Salim Stadium being the home stadium of the club. Padang
Padang
is home to an annual international dragon boat competition.[16] Infrastructure[edit] Public transport[edit] The Trans Padang
Padang
bus rapid transit service was developed used Jakarta's TransJakarta
TransJakarta
system as a model, but without a dedicated lane and comfortable shelters. Today Trans Padang
Padang
runs only from Lubuk Buaya to Pasar Raya, a distance of 18 km, with a fleet of 10 large buses (capacity 60) and 15 medium buses (capacity 40). Daily passengers number 7000 in corridor 1, an increase from the initial ridership of 4000. The load factor is 128% in the morning and evening rush hours.[citation needed]

Corridor # Origin-Destination Opened [17]

1 Lubuk Buaya - Pasar Raya February 2014

2 Bungus - Pasar Raya planned

3 Air Pacah - Pasar Raya planned

4 Teluk Bayur
Teluk Bayur
- Lubuk Buaya planned

5 Indarung - Pasar Raya planned

6 Limau Manis - Pasar Raya planned

Airport[edit] The city is served by the newly opened Minangkabau International Airport in Ketaping, Padang
Padang
Pariaman. It replaces the old Tabing Airport, which is currently used as a military base. There is one terminal building for both international and domestic flights. The airport has 4 aerobridges, 17 check-in counters, 5 baggage conveyors, and 9 ticket sales counters.[18] In late 2013, the runway was lengthened by 250 m so that it could accommodate Boeing 747 and Airbus A340 planes, and there is also a plan to connect the airport to the city of Padang
Padang
with a train service.[19] A terminal expansion (Phase II) has been announced with the rendering already released on the Angkasa Pura 2 website.[20] Seaport[edit] Padang's Teluk Bayur
Teluk Bayur
harbour (the former Emmahaven Port) is the largest and busiest harbour on the west coast of Sumatra. It serves inter-island as well as international routes. It was built in 1888 by the colonial government of the Netherlands. On 29 April 2013 a new container terminal was officially opened by West Sumatra
West Sumatra
Governor which can hold more than 4,000 containers in 46,886 square-meter area.[21] The port is the main gateway to the Mentawai islands, including Siberut, Sipora, and South Pagai. There are also ferry connections between Padang
Padang
to Jakarta
Jakarta
and Sibolga
Sibolga
next to Gunung Sitoli (Nias). Toll road[edit] West Sumatra
West Sumatra
administration has secured lands for the construction of a 27-kilometer toll road between Padang
Padang
and Sicincin district with about Rp.1.3 trillion ($141.7 million) investment. 80 percent of the land with a width of 30 meters has been acquired, but they will acquire more land to meet an ideal width of 50 meters. The construction project will be initialised in 2012.[22] Railroad[edit] Railroad tracks connect Padang
Padang
to Pariaman
Pariaman
to the north, Padangpanjang to the northeast, Solok
Solok
and Sawahlunto
Sawahlunto
to the east. The largest train station is Padang
Padang
Station, known as Simpang Haru station. Sibinuang and Dang Tuanku provides the trip services from Padang
Padang
(Simpang Haru) to Pariaman
Pariaman
vice versa. Tsunami
Tsunami
shelter[edit] Government and the people of Hill Pangilun has agreed to make Mount Pangilun as tsunami shelter. Better road access to the hill will be built, as well as temporary shelters, including their facilities.[23] Education[edit]

Andalas University, Limau Manis campus

Minangkabau people
Minangkabau people
highly respect education. Many intellectual figures come from West Sumatra. There are two institutes of higher education in Padang, i.e. Andalas University
Andalas University
and the State University of Padang. Andalas University
Andalas University
is the oldest university in Indonesia
Indonesia
outside of Java. The main campus is located at Limau Manis, about 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) from the centre of Padang. The Faculty of Medicine and Faculty of Dentistry are located in the city centre, near the Central General Hospital M. Djamil. State University of Padang located in Air Tawar. The other universities in Padang
Padang
are Imam Bonjol State Institute of Islamic Literature, Institut Teknologi Padang
Padang
in Lapai, Bung Hatta University in Ulak Karang, Baiturrahmah University in Air Pacah, Universitas Putra Indonesia
Indonesia
YPTK, Ekasakti University, Universitas Muhammadiyah Sumatera Barat, and Tamansiswa University. The local library of West Sumatra, located in Padang
Padang
is considered as one of the best Libraries in Indonesia, with the number of collection of 30 k titles, including facilities and maximum conserve, and the highest number of Encyclopedic visitors.

Formal education state and private Elementary School neither Madrasah Ibtidaiyah (MI) state and private Junior High (JHS) or MTs state and private SHS state and private MA state and private Vocational High School
High School
(VHS) College

Quantity 477 129 49 10 42 58

Data sekolah di Kota Padang Source:[24][25][26]

Sister cities and twin towns[edit]

City Country

Hildesheim Germany

Vung Tau Vietnam

Beit Lahiya Palestine

Chonburi Thailand

Bandung Indonesia

Perth[27] Australia

Dubai[27] United Arab Emirates

See also[edit]

Indonesia
Indonesia
portal

List of twin towns and sister cities in Indonesia

References[edit]

^ http://padangkota.bps.go.id Badan Pusat Statistik Kota Padang[permanent dead link] ^ http://www.kicc.jp Indonesia: Surabaya
Surabaya
And Padang ^ Kathirithamby-Wells, J. (December 1969). "Achehnese Control over West Sumatra
West Sumatra
up to the Treaty of Painan, 1663". Journal of Southeast Asian History. 10 (3). Retrieved 5 October 2017.  ^ Natawidjaja, D. H.; K. Sieh; M. Chlieh; J. Galetzka; B. W. Suwargadi; H. Cheng; R. L. Edwards; J.-P. Avouac; S. N. Ward (June 2006). "Source parameters of the great Sumatran megathrust earthquakes of 1797 and 1833 inferred from coral microatolls" (PDF). Journal of Geophysical Research. 111 (B06403): B06403. Bibcode:2006JGRB..11106403N. doi:10.1029/2005JB004025. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 August 2010.  ^ A.J. Gooszen; A Demographic History of the Indonesian Archipelago, 1880-1942; KITLV Press, 1999 ^ Telly Nathalia (30 September 2009). "Indonesian quake toll at 100-200: disaster agency". Reuters. Retrieved 28 September 2011.  ^ " Indonesia
Indonesia
quake deaths pass 700". BBC. 1 October 2009. Retrieved 28 September 2011.  ^ B Kunto Wibisono (14 October 2009). "Number of fatalities in W Sumatra
Sumatra
quake now 1,115". ANTARA News. Archived from the original on 15 October 2009. Retrieved 28 September 2011.  ^ "Indonesia–Padang". Centro de Investigaciones Fitosociológicas. Retrieved 18 June 2015.  ^ "Station 96163: Mia Padang". Global station data 1961–1990—Sunshine Duration. Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 18 June 2015.  ^ Warburton, Eve (January–March 2007). "No longer a choice" (89 ed.). Inside Indonesia. Retrieved 2017-06-20.  ^ "Setelah 8 Tahun, Kota Padang
Padang
Kembali Raih Piala Adipura". Tempo.co. 2017.  ^ "9 (Sembilan) Kota Sumatera Barat Meraih Penghargaan Adipura Tahun 2017". West Sumatra
West Sumatra
Province website.  ^ http://sumbar.antaranews.com Padang
Padang
Old City
City
Defined as Tourism Object Archived 7 June 2015 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Kota Tua Padang". kotatuapadang.tumblr.com.  ^ "Dragon Boat Races International". Archived from the original on 5 July 2008.  ^ "Rute Baru Trans Padang
Padang
Sejauh Total 33 Km Akan Dioperasikan 2015". Retrieved 4 June 2015.  ^ (Persero), PT Angkasa Pura II. "Halaman Tidak Ditemukan - PT Angkasa Pura II". www.angkasapura2.co.id.  ^ "Minangkabau Airport". Archived from the original on 23 July 2015.  ^ "PT Angkasa Pura II (Persero)". www.angkasapura2.co.id.  ^ " Teluk Bayur
Teluk Bayur
container terminal inaugurated". 30 April 2013.  ^ "Jasa Marga sets sights on 27-kilometer Padang
Padang
toll road". 17 April 2012.  ^ "Gunung Pangilun Ditetapkan Jadi Shelter". 30 April 2012.  ^ http://www.diknas-padang.org Profil Sekolah. ^ http://www.padang.go.id Dinas Pendidikan Archived 14 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine.. ^ nisn.jardiknas.org Data Siswa[permanent dead link]. ^ a b "Wako: Kerjasama Padang-Perth- Dubai
Dubai
Saling Menguntungkan". 2015-09-15. Retrieved 2015-12-27. 

Notes[edit]

^ Station ID for Mia Padang
Padang
is 96163 Use this station ID to locate the sunshine duration

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Padang.

(in Indonesian) Official website Padang
Padang
travel guide from Wikivoyage Informasi Padang Informasi Minang

v t e

Regencies and Cities of West Sumatra

Capital: Padang

Regencies

Agam Dharmasraya Lima Puluh Kota Mentawai Islands Padang
Padang
Pariaman Pasaman South Pesisir Sijunjung Solok South Solok Tanah Datar West Pasaman

Cities

Bukittinggi Padang Padang
Padang
Panjang Pariaman Payakumbuh Sawahlunto Solok

See also: List of regencies and cities of Indonesia

v t e

Indonesian cities with a 200,000+ population

2,000,000 and more

Jakarta Surabaya Bekasi Bandung Medan

1,000,000-1,999,999

Semarang Palembang Makassar Tangerang Batam Depok South Tangerang Pekanbaru Bogor Bandar Lampung Padang

400,000-999,999

Malang Denpasar Samarinda Tasikmalaya Banjarmasin Serang Balikpapan Pontianak Cimahi Jambi Surakarta Manado Mataram

200,000-399,999

Yogyakarta Cilegon Palu Kupang Ambon Bengkulu Sukabumi Cirebon Kendari Pekalongan Kediri Jayapura Dumai Binjai Tegal Pematang Siantar Purwokerto Banda Aceh Palangka Raya Probolinggo Lubuklinggau Singkawang

v t e

Dutch Empire

Colonies and trading posts of the Dutch East India Company (1602–1798)

Governorate General

Batavia

Governorates

Ambon Banda Islands Cape Colony Celebes Ceylon Coromandel Formosa Malacca Moluccas Northeast coast of Java

Directorates

Bengal Persia Suratte

Commandments

Bantam Malabar West coast of Sumatra

Residencies

Bantam Banjarmasin Batavia Cheribon Palembang Preanger Pontianak

Opperhoofd settlements

Myanmar Canton Dejima Mauritius Siam Timor Tonkin

Colonies and trading posts of the Dutch West India Company (1621–1792)

Colonies in the Americas

Berbice 1 Brazil Cayenne Curaçao
Curaçao
and Dependencies Demerara Essequibo New Netherland Pomeroon Sint Eustatius
Sint Eustatius
and Dependencies Surinam 2 Tobago Virgin Islands

Trading posts in Africa

Arguin Gold Coast Loango-Angola Senegambia Slave Coast

1 Governed by the Society of Berbice 2 Governed by the Society of Suriname

Settlements of the Noordsche Compagnie
Noordsche Compagnie
(1614–1642)

Settlements

Jan Mayen Smeerenburg

Colonies of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Netherlands
(1815–1962)

Until 1825

Bengal Coromandel Malacca Suratte

Until 1853

Dejima

Until 1872

Gold Coast

Until 1945

Dutch East Indies

Until 1954

Curaçao
Curaçao
and Dependencies 3 Surinam 3

Until 1962

New Guinea

3 Became constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; Suriname
Suriname
gained full independence in 1975, Curaçao
Curaçao
and Dependencies was renamed to the Netherlands
Netherlands
Antilles, which was eventually dissolved in 2010.

Kingdom of the Netherlands
Netherlands
(1954–present)

Constituent countries

Aruba Curaçao Netherlands Sint Maarten

Public bodies of the Netherlands

Bonaire Saba Sint Eustatius

v t e

British Empire

Legend Current territory Former territory * Now a Commonwealth realm Now a member of the Commonwealth of Nations Historical flags of the British Empire

Europe

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17th century and before 18th century 19th and 20th century

1579 New Albion 1583–1907 Newfoundland 1605–1979 *Saint Lucia 1607–1776 Virginia Since 1619 Bermuda 1620–1691 Plymouth 1623–1883 Saint Kitts 1624–1966 *Barbados 1625–1650 Saint Croix 1627–1979 *Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1628–1883 Nevis 1629–1691 Massachusetts Bay 1632–1776 Maryland since 1632 Montserrat 1632–1860 Antigua 1635–1644 Saybrook 1636–1776 Connecticut 1636–1776 Rhode Island 1637–1662 New Haven

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and Barbuda 1862–1863 Stickeen 1866–1871 British Columbia 1867–1931 * Dominion
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Saint Kitts
and Nevis 1889–1962 Trinidad and Tobago 1907–1949 Newfoundland3 1958–1962 West Indies Federation

1. Occupied jointly with the United States. 2. In 1931, Canada and other British dominions obtained self-government through the Statute of Westminster. See Name of Canada. 3. Gave up self-rule in 1934, but remained a de jure Dominion until it joined Canada in 1949.

South America

1631–1641 Providence Island 1651–1667 Willoughbyland 1670–1688 Saint Andrew and Providence Islands4 1831–1966 Guiana Since 1833 Falkland Islands5 Since 1908 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands5

4. Now a department of Colombia. 5. Occupied by Argentina during the Falklands War
Falklands War
of April–June 1982.

Africa

17th and 18th centuries 19th century 20th century

Since 1658 Saint Helena14 1792–1961 Sierra Leone 1795–1803 Cape Colony

Since 1815 Ascension Island14 Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14 1806–1910 Cape of Good Hope 1807–1808 Madeira 1810–1968 Mauritius 1816–1965 The Gambia 1856–1910 Natal 1862–1906 Lagos 1868–1966 Basutoland 1874–1957 Gold Coast 1882–1922 Egypt

1884–1900 Niger Coast 1884–1966 Bechuanaland 1884–1960 Somaliland 1887–1897 Zululand 1890–1962 Uganda 1890–1963 Zanzibar 1891–1964 Nyasaland 1891–1907 Central Africa 1893–1968 Swaziland 1895–1920 East Africa 1899–1956 Sudan

1900–1914 Northern Nigeria 1900–1914 Southern Nigeria 1900–1910 Orange River 1900–1910 Transvaal 1903–1976 Seychelles 1910–1931 South Africa 1914–1960 Nigeria 1915–1931 South-West Africa 1919–1961 Cameroons6 1920–1963 Kenya 1922–1961 Tanganyika6 1923–1965 and 1979–1980 Southern Rhodesia7 1924–1964 Northern Rhodesia

6. League of Nations mandate. 7. Self-governing Southern Rhodesia
Southern Rhodesia
unilaterally declared independence in 1965 (as Rhodesia) and continued as an unrecognised state until the 1979 Lancaster House Agreement. After recognised independence in 1980, Zimbabwe was a member of the Commonwealth until it withdrew in 2003.

Asia

17th and 18th century 19th century 20th century

1685–1824 Bencoolen 1702–1705 Pulo Condore 1757–1947 Bengal 1762–1764 Manila and Cavite 1781–1784 and 1795–1819 Padang 1786–1946 Penang 1795–1948 Ceylon 1796–1965 Maldives

1811–1816 Java 1812–1824 Banka and Billiton 1819–1826 Malaya 1824–1948 Burma 1826–1946 Straits Settlements 1839–1967 Aden 1839–1842 Afghanistan 1841–1997 Hong Kong 1841–1946 Sarawak 1848–1946 Labuan 1858–1947 India 1874–1963 Borneo

1879–1919 Afghanistan (protectorate) 1882–1963 North Borneo 1885–1946 Unfederated Malay States 1888–1984 Brunei 1891–1971 Muscat and Oman 1892–1971 Trucial States 1895–1946 Federated Malay States 1898–1930 Weihai 1878–1960 Cyprus

1907–1949 Bhutan (protectorate) 1918–1961 Kuwait 1920–1932 Mesopotamia8 1921–1946 Transjordan8 1923–1948 Palestine8 1945–1946 South Vietnam 1946–1963 North Borneo 1946–1963 Sarawak 1946–1963 Singapore 1946–1948 Malayan Union 1948–1957 Federation of Malaya Since 1960 Akrotiri and Dhekelia
Akrotiri and Dhekelia
(before as part of Cyprus) Since 1965 British Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
Territory (before as part of Mauritius and the Seychelles)

8 League of Nations mandate. Iraq's mandate was not enacted and replaced by the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty

Oceania

18th and 19th centuries 20th century

1788–1901 New South Wales 1803–1901 Van Diemen's Land/Tasmania 1807–1863 Auckland Islands9 1824–1980 New Hebrides 1824–1901 Queensland 1829–1901 Swan River/Western Australia 1836–1901 South Australia since 1838 Pitcairn Islands

1841–1907 New Zealand 1851–1901 Victoria 1874–1970 Fiji10 1877–1976 Western Pacific Territories 1884–1949 Papua 1888–1901 Rarotonga/Cook Islands9 1889–1948 Union Islands9 1892–1979 Gilbert and Ellice Islands11 1893–1978 Solomon Islands12

1900–1970 Tonga 1900–1974 Niue9 1901–1942 *Australia 1907–1947 *New Zealand 1919–1942 and 1945–1968 Nauru 1919–1949 New Guinea 1949–1975 Papua and New Guinea13

9. Now part of the *Realm of New Zealand. 10. Suspended member. 11. Now Kiribati
Kiribati
and *Tuvalu. 12. Now the *Solomon Islands. 13. Now *Papua New Guinea.

Antarctica and South Atlantic

Since 1658 Saint Helena14 Since 1815 Ascension Island14 Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14 Since 1908 British Antarctic Territory15 1841–1933 Australian Antarctic Territory
Australian Antarctic Territory
(transferred to the Commonwealth of Australia) 1841–1947 Ross Dependency
Ross Dependency
(transferred to the Realm of New Zealand)

14. Since 2009 part of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Ascension Island
Ascension Island
(1922–) and Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
(1938–) were previously dependencies of Saint Helena. 15. Both claimed in 1908; territories formed in 1962 (British Antarctic Territory) and 1985 (South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands).

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 234790

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