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PADANG (Indonesian pronunciation: Jawi : ڤادڠ‎) is the capital of the province of West Sumatra in Indonesia. It is the largest city on the western coast of Sumatra . Before Indonesia's independence, Padang
Padang
was one of the major cities in the Dutch East Indies . It has an area of 695 square kilometres (268 sq mi) and the population of 1,000,096 in 2014.

As of 2009, Padang
Padang
had received the "Adipura" (cleanest and greenest city) award in the category of large city 17 times and the "Adipura Kencana" award three times.

Padang
Padang
is exactly at the antipodes of Esmeraldas, Ecuador .

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Administrative districts

* 3 Public transport

* 3.1 Airport * 3.2 Seaport * 3.3 Toll road * 3.4 Railroad

* 4 Education * 5 Climate * 6 Politics

* 7 Culture

* 7.1 Cuisine * 7.2 Sport

* 8 Tourism

* 8.1 Landmarks * 8.2 Beaches and parks * 8.3 Shopping

* 9 Tsunami shelter * 10 Sister cities and twin towns * 11 See also

* 12 References

* 12.1 Notes

* 13 External links

HISTORY

Historical Affiliations Dutch Empire 1663-1781

British Empire 1781-1784 Dutch Empire 1784-1795 British Empire 1795-1819 Dutch Empire 1819-1942 Empire of Japan 1942-1945 _ Republic of Indonesia
Indonesia
1945-present_ Padang
Padang
circa 1795 Padang, 1859

Padang
Padang
has been a trade centre since the 16th century. During the 16th and 17th centuries pepper was cultivated and traded with India, Portugal, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the Netherlands. In 1663 the city came under the authority of the Dutch and a trading post was built in 1680. The city came under the British Empire twice, firstly from 1781 to 1784 during the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War , and again from 1795 to 1819 during the Napoleonic Wars . In 1819 the city was transferred back to the Netherlands. Up to circa 1780 the most important trade product was gold originating from gold mines in the region. When the mines were exhausted, the focus turned to other products such as coffee, salts and textiles.

In 1797 Padang
Padang
was inundated by a tsunami with an estimated flow depth of 5–10 meters, following an earthquake , estimated to be 8.5–8.7 Mw , which occurred off the coast. The shaking caused considerable damage and the deaths of two people, while the tsunami resulted in several houses being washed away and several deaths at the village of Air Manis. Boats moored in the Arau river ended up on dry land, including a 200-ton sailing ship which was deposited about 1 kilometre upstream. In 1833 another tsunami inundated Padang
Padang
with an estimated flow depth of 3–4 meters as a result of an earthquake , estimated to be 8.6–8.9 Mw , which occurred off Bengkulu . The shaking caused considerable damage in Padang, and due to the tsunami boats moored in the Arau river broke their anchors and were scattered.

The population of Padang
Padang
in 1920 was 28,754, the second largest city in Sumatra behind Palembang. At the time of independence in the 1940s the city had around 50,000 inhabitants. Coffee was still important, but copra was also a major item produced by farmers in its hinterland. The population growth since then has been partly a result of growth in the area of the city, but largely is a result of the migration to major cities seen in so many developing nations. From 1950 the Ombilin coal field developed with Padang
Padang
as its outlet port. This was seen by some observers as reflecting the economic and political colonisation of Indonesia.

On 30 September 2009, a 7.9 magnitude earthquake hit about 50 kilometres off the coast of Padang. There were more than 1,100 fatalities, 313 of which occurred within Padang.

ADMINISTRATIVE DISTRICTS

HISTORICAL POPULATION

YEAR POP. ±%

1819 8,500 —

1874 25,000 +194.1%

1920 28,754 +15.0%

1930 40,744 +41.7%

1961 143,699 +252.7%

1971 350,277 +143.8%

1980 480,922 +37.3%

1990 631,263 +31.3%

2010 833,562 +32.0%

2013 876,678 +5.2%

The city of Padang
Padang
is divided into 11 districts (_kecamatan_):

* Bungus Teluk Kabung * Koto Tangah * Kuranji * Lubuk Begalung * Lubuk Kilangan * Nanggalo * Padang Barat * Padang
Padang
Selatan * Padang
Padang
Timur * Padang
Padang
Utara * Pauh

PUBLIC TRANSPORT

The Trans Padang
Padang
bus rapid transit service was developed used Jakarta's TransJakarta system as a model, but without a dedicated lane and comfortable shelters. Today Trans Padang
Padang
runs only from Lubuk Buaya to Pasar Raya, a distance of 18 km, with a fleet of 10 large buses (capacity 60) and 15 medium buses (capacity 40). Daily passengers number 7000 in corridor 1, an increase from the initial ridership of 4000. The load factor is 128% in the morning and evening rush hours.

CORRIDOR # ORIGIN-DESTINATION OPENED

1 Lubuk Buaya - Pasar Raya February 2014

2 Bungus - Pasar Raya planned

3 Air Pacah - Pasar Raya planned

4 Teluk Bayur - Lubuk Buaya planned

5 Indarung - Pasar Raya planned

6 Limau Manis - Pasar Raya planned

AIRPORT

The city is served by the newly opened Minangkabau International Airport in Ketaping, Padang Pariaman . It replaces the old Tabing Airport , which is currently used as a military base. There is one terminal building for both international and domestic flights. The airport has 4 aerobridges, 17 check-in counters, 5 baggage conveyors, and 9 ticket sales counters. In late 2013, the runway was lengthened by 250 m so that it could accommodate Boeing 747 and Airbus A340 planes, and there is also a plan to connect the airport to the city of Padang
Padang
with a train service. A terminal expansion (Phase II) has been announced with the rendering already released on the Angkasa Pura 2 website.

SEAPORT

Padang's Teluk Bayur harbour (the former Emmahaven Port) is the largest and busiest harbour on the west coast of Sumatra . It serves inter-island as well as international routes. It was built in 1888 by the colonial government of the Netherlands
Netherlands
. On 29 April 2013 a new container terminal was officially opened by West Sumatra Governor which can hold more than 4,000 containers in 46,886 square-meter area. The port is the main gateway to the Mentawai islands , including Siberut , Sipora , and South Pagai . There are also ferry connections between Padang
Padang
to Jakarta and Sibolga next to Gunung Sitoli ( Nias ).

TOLL ROAD

West Sumatra administration has secured lands for the construction of a 27-kilometer toll road between Padang
Padang
and Sicincin district with about Rp.1.3 trillion ($141.7 million) investment. 80 percent of the land with a width of 30 meters has been acquired, but they will acquire more land to meet an ideal width of 50 meters. The construction project will be initialised in 2012.

RAILROAD

Railroad tracks connect Padang
Padang
to Pariaman to the north, Padangpanjang to the northeast, Solok and Sawahlunto to the east. The largest train station is Padang
Padang
Station , known as Simpang Haru station. Sibinuang and Dang Tuanku provides the trip services from Padang
Padang
(Simpang Haru) to Pariaman vice versa.

EDUCATION

Andalas University , Limau Manis campus

Minangkabau people highly respect education. Many intellectual figures come from West Sumatra. There are two institutes of higher education in Padang, i.e. Andalas University and the State University of Padang
Padang
. Andalas University is the oldest university in Indonesia outside of Java. The main campus is located at Limau Manis, about 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) from the centre of Padang. The Faculty of Medicine and Faculty of Dentistry are located in the city centre, near the Central General Hospital M. Djamil. State University of Padang located in Air Tawar.

The other universities in Padang
Padang
are Imam Bonjol State Institute of Islamic Literature, Institut Teknologi Padang
Padang
in Lapai, Bung Hatta University in Ulak Karang, Baiturrahmah University in Air Pacah, Universitas Putra Indonesia
Indonesia
YPTK, Ekasakti University, Universitas Muhammadiyah Sumatera Barat, and Tamansiswa University.

The local library of West Sumatra, located in Padang
Padang
is considered as one of the best Libraries in Indonesia, with the number of collection of 30 k titles, including facilities and maximum conserve, and the highest number of Encyclopedic visitors.

FORMAL EDUCATION STATE AND PRIVATE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL NEITHER MADRASAH IBTIDAIYAH (MI) STATE AND PRIVATE JUNIOR HIGH (JHS) OR MTS STATE AND PRIVATE SHS STATE AND PRIVATE MA STATE AND PRIVATE VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL (VHS) COLLEGE

QUANTITY 477 129 49 10 42 58

Data sekolah di Kota Padang Source:

CLIMATE

Padang
Padang
features a tropical rainforest climate under Köppen’s climate classification . Padang
Padang
is one of Indonesia’s wettest cities, with frequent rainfall throughout the course of the year. The city averages roughly 4300 mm of rain per year. Padang’s driest month is February, where 250 mm of precipitation on average is observed. The city temperatures are relatively constant throughout the year, with an average of 26 degrees Celsius.

CLIMATE DATA FOR PADANG

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 33.9 (93) 34.4 (93.9) 33.9 (93) 33.3 (91.9) 33.9 (93) 33.9 (93) 33.3 (91.9) 33.3 (91.9) 32.8 (91) 33.3 (91.9) 32.8 (91) 32.8 (91) 34.4 (93.9)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 30.6 (87.1) 31.7 (89.1) 31.7 (89.1) 31.7 (89.1) 32.2 (90) 32.2 (90) 31.7 (89.1) 32.2 (90) 32.2 (90) 31.7 (89.1) 31.1 (88) 30.6 (87.1) 31.6 (88.9)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 27.0 (80.6) 27.0 (80.6) 27.0 (80.6) 27.2 (81) 27.5 (81.5) 27.0 (80.6) 25.0 (77) 25.0 (77) 26.7 (80.1) 26.7 (80.1) 26.7 (80.1) 26.7 (80.1) 26.6 (79.9)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 23.3 (73.9) 24.4 (75.9) 23.9 (75) 23.9 (75) 23.9 (75) 23.9 (75) 23.3 (73.9) 23.3 (73.9) 23.9 (75) 23.9 (75) 23.9 (75) 23.9 (75) 23.8 (74.8)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) 21.1 (70) 20.6 (69.1) 21.1 (70) 21.7 (71.1) 21.7 (71.1) 20.0 (68) 21.1 (70) 20.6 (69.1) 21.1 (70) 21.1 (70) 21.1 (70) 21.1 (70) 20.0 (68)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 351 (13.82) 259 (10.2) 307 (12.09) 363 (14.29) 315 (12.4) 307 (12.09) 277 (10.91) 348 (13.7) 352 (13.86) 495 (19.49) 518 (20.39) 480 (18.9) 4,172 (164.25)

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 175 181 175 188 200 206 200 186 136 135 167 167 2,116

Source #1: Sistema de Clasificación Bioclimática Mundial

Source #2: Deutscher Wetterdienst (sun, 1961–1990)

POLITICS

By 2007 the city government began a number of religiously motivated policies. One requires females of all religious backgrounds who are municipal employees and students in government schools to wear _jilbab_ (hijab), and high school students now take classes on reading the _Qur\'an _. Municipal employees are required to pay _zakat _.

CULTURE

CUISINE

Main article: Minangkabau cuisine

The cuisine of the Minangkabau people is commonly called Padang cuisine . Padang
Padang
restaurants are common throughout the country and are famous for their spicy food. Padang
Padang
food is usually cooked once per day, and all customers choose from those dishes, which are left out on display until no food is left. It is served in small portions of various dishes, but constituting, with rice, a complete meal. Customers take – and pay for – only what they want from this array of dishes. The best known Padang
Padang
dish is rendang , a spicy meat stew. _Soto Padang_ (crispy beef in spicy soup) is local residents' breakfast favourite, meanwhile _sate_ (beef satay in curry sauce served with ketupat ) is a treat in the evening.

SPORT

Padang
Padang
is the home town of the soccer team Semen Padang
Padang
, with Haji Agus Salim Stadium being the home stadium of the club. Padang
Padang
is home to an annual international dragon boat competition.

TOURISM

Old Town Padang
Padang

Padang
Padang
is a common transit point for surfers travelling to Batu Islands and Mentawai Islands , and for tourists visiting the West Sumatran highlands. Padang
Padang
beach (known as Taplau or Tapi Lauik) which located from Samudra Street until Puruih, is well known for its beautiful sunset and hundreds of food stalls. Kuranji River flows in Padang
Padang
and on top area of the river at Batu Busuk, Lambung Bukit sub-district is suitable for white water activities. Bungus bay, to the south of Padang, is suitable for swimming and boating. There are some pleasant offshore islands near Bungus, such as Sikuai island and Pagang island. Many beautiful spots which can be visited for snorkelling , fishing or just relaxing on the white sandy beaches.

Currently, Regional Development Planning Board (Bappeda) of Padang has established development plans " Padang
Padang
Old City" in Kampung Pondok, South Padang
Padang
district as a tourist area. Mayor of Padang
Padang
has been designate 73 historic buildings as cultural heritage of Padang.

LANDMARKS

Masjid Muhammadan
Masjid Muhammadan
, a historic mosque in Padang
Padang
Facade of Ganting Grand Mosque , 2013

There are many old buildings in Padang
Padang
that still retain their Dutch and Chinese architecture . The old city of Padang, located next to Muaro Harbor at Arau River, which formerly functioned as the city's main commercial avenue. The old city was the former business district of Padang, there are many important buildings such as Padang
Padang
City Hall, De Javaschebank (present-day Bank Indonesia
Indonesia
), Nederlandsch Spaarbank, Geo Wehry border:solid #aaa 1px">

* Indonesia
Indonesia
portal

* List of twin towns and sister cities in Indonesia
Indonesia

REFERENCES

* ^ http://www.kicc.jp Indonesia: Surabaya And Padang * ^ http://padangkota.bps.go.id Badan Pusat Statistik Kota Padang * ^ Natawidjaja, D. H.; K. Sieh; M. Chlieh; J. Galetzka; B. W. Suwargadi; H. Cheng; R. L. Edwards; J.-P. Avouac; S. N. Ward (June 2006). "Source parameters of the great Sumatran megathrust earthquakes of 1797 and 1833 inferred from coral microatolls" (PDF). _Journal of Geophysical Research_. 111 (B06403): B06403. Bibcode :2006JGRB..11106403N. doi :10.1029/2005JB004025 . * ^ A.J. Gooszen; A Demographic History of the Indonesian Archipelago, 1880-1942; KITLV Press, 1999 * ^ Telly Nathalia (30 September 2009). "Indonesian quake toll at 100-200: disaster agency". Reuters . Retrieved 28 September 2011. * ^ " Indonesia
Indonesia
quake deaths pass 700". BBC
BBC
. 1 October 2009. Retrieved 28 September 2011. * ^ B Kunto Wibisono (14 October 2009). "Number of fatalities in W Sumatra quake now 1,115". ANTARA News. Retrieved 28 September 2011. * ^ "Rute Baru Trans Padang
Padang
Sejauh Total 33 Km Akan Dioperasikan 2015". Retrieved 4 June 2015. * ^ PT Angkasapura II – Minangkabau Airport Facilities * ^ Minangkabau Airport * ^ PT Angkasapura II * ^ " Teluk Bayur container terminal inaugurated". 30 April 2013. * ^ "Jasa Marga sets sights on 27-kilometer Padang