The PACIFIC NORTHWEST (in the United States, commonly abbreviated as PNW), sometimes referred to as CASCADIA, is a geographic region in western North America bounded by the Pacific Ocean to the west and (loosely) by the Rocky Mountains on the east. Though no agreed boundary exists, a common conception includes the U.S. states of Oregon and Washington and the Canadian province of British Columbia . Broader conceptions reach north into Alaska and Yukon , south into far northern California and east to the Continental Divide , thus including Idaho , Western Montana , and western Wyoming . Narrower conceptions may be limited to the northwestern US or to the coastal areas west of the Cascade and Coast mountains. The variety of definitions can be attributed to partially overlapping commonalities of the region's history, geography, society, and other factors.
The NORTHWEST COAST is the coastal region of the Pacific Northwest and the NORTHWEST PLATEAU (also commonly known as "the Interior " in British Columbia and the Inland Empire in the United States) is the inland region. The term "Pacific Northwest" should not be confused with the Northwest Territory (also known as the Great Northwest, a historical term in the United States) or the Northwest Territories of Canada .
The region's largest metropolitan areas are Greater Seattle , Washington, with 3.7 million people, Greater Portland , Oregon, with 2.4 million people and Greater Vancouver , British Columbia, with 2.4 million people.
A key aspect of the Pacific Northwest is the US–Canada international border , which the United States and the United Kingdom established at a time when the region's inhabitants were composed mostly of indigenous peoples . The border — in two sections, along the 49th parallel south of British Columbia and the Alaska Panhandle west of northern British Columbia — has had a powerful effect on the region. According to Canadian historian Ken Coates , the border has not merely influenced the Pacific Northwest—rather, "the region's history and character have been determined by the boundary."
* 1 Definition
* 2 History
* 2.1 Indigenous peoples * 2.2 Initial European exploration * 2.3 Boundary disputes
* 3 Geology * 4 Geography * 5 Climate * 6 Ecoregions
* 7 Population
* 7.1 List of largest cities by population in the Pacific Northwest
* 8 Politics * 9 Economy * 10 Education
* 11 Culture
* 12 See also * 13 Notes and references * 14 Further reading * 15 External links
None of the multiple possible definitions of the Pacific Northwest is universally accepted. This map shows three possibilities: (1) The shaded area shows the historical Oregon Country . (2) The green line shows the Cascadia bioregion . (3) The labeled states and provinces include Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and British Columbia.
Definitions of the Pacific Northwest region vary, and even Pacific Northwesterners do not agree on the exact boundary. A common conception of the Pacific Northwest includes the U.S. states of Oregon and Washington as well as the Canadian province of British Columbia .
Broader definitions of the region have included the U.S. state of Alaska , :8 the Canadian territory of the Yukon , the northwestern portion of the state of California , and even areas reaching east to the Rocky Mountains.
Definitions based on the historic Oregon Country reach east to the Continental Divide , thus including nearly all of Idaho and parts of western Montana and western Wyoming . Sometimes the Pacific Northwest is defined as being the Northwestern United States specifically, excluding Canada . Note that these types of definitions are often made by government agencies whose scope is limited to the United States.
In addition to the conventional grouping of Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and British Columbia, some definitions also include Southeast Alaska , western Montana , the coast of northern California , and a small part of northwestern Wyoming .
The Pacific Northwest has been occupied by a diverse array of indigenous peoples for millennia. The Pacific Coast is seen by some scholars as a major coastal migration route in the settlement of the Americas by late Pleistocene peoples moving from northeast Asia into the Americas.
The coastal migration hypothesis has been bolstered by findings such as the report that the sediments in the Port Eliza caves on Vancouver Island indicate the possibility of survivable climate as far back as 16 ka (16,000 years) in the area, while the continental ice sheets were nearing their maximum extent. Other evidence for human occupation dating back as much as 14,500 years ago is emerging from Paisley Caves in south-central Oregon. However, despite such research, the coastal migration hypothesis is still subject to considerable debate.
Due in part to the richness of Pacific Northwest Coast and river fisheries, some of the indigenous peoples developed complex sedentary societies while remaining hunter-gatherers . The Pacific Northwest Coast is one of the few places where politically complex hunter-gatherers evolved and survived to historic contacts, and therefore has been vital for anthropologists and archaeologists seeking to understand how complex hunter and gatherer societies function. When Europeans first arrived on the Northwest Coast, they found one of the world's most complex hunting and fishing societies, with large sedentary villages, large houses, systems of social rank and prestige, extensive trade networks, and many other factors more commonly associated with societies based on domesticated agriculture. In the interior of the Pacific Northwest, the indigenous peoples, at the time of European contact, had a diversity of cultures and societies. Some areas were home to mobile and egalitarian societies. Others, especially along major rivers such as the Columbia and Fraser, had very complex, affluent, sedentary societies rivaling those of the coast.
In British Columbia and Southeast Alaska, the Tlingit and Haida erected large and elaborately carved totem poles that have become iconic of Pacific Northwest artistic traditions. Throughout the Pacific Northwest, thousands of indigenous people live, and some continue to practice their rich cultural traditions, "organizing their societies around cedar and salmon."
INITIAL EUROPEAN EXPLORATION
Main article: History of the west coast of North America
In 1579 the British captain and erstwhile privateer Francis Drake sailed up the west coast of North America perhaps as far as Oregon before returning south to land and make ship repairs. At this landing site, probably near present-day San Francisco , Drake made a symbolic claim of the region for England, naming it New Albion . :11–12 Juan de Fuca , a Greek captain sailing for the Crown of Spain , supposedly found the Strait of Juan de Fuca around 1592. The strait was named for him, but whether he discovered it or not has long been questioned. During the early 1740s, Imperial Russia sent the Dane Vitus Bering to the region. By the late 18th century and into the mid-19th century, Russian settlers had established several posts and communities on the northeast Pacific coast, eventually reaching as far south as Fort Ross, California . The Russian River was named after these settlements.
In 1774 the viceroy of New Spain sent Spanish navigator Juan Pérez in the ship _Santiago_ to the Pacific Northwest. Peréz made landfall on Haida Gwaii (Queen Charlotte Islands) on July 18, 1774. The northernmost latitude he reached was 54°40′ N . This was followed, in 1775, by another Spanish expedition, under the command of Bruno de Heceta and including Juan Peréz and Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra as officers. On July 14, 1775, they landed on the Olympic Peninsula near the mouth of the Quinault River . On August 17, 1775, Heceta, returning south, sighted the mouth of the Columbia River and named it _Bahia de la Asunción_. While Heceta sailed south, Quadra continued north in the expedition's second ship, the _Sonora_, reaching Alaska , at 59° N . In 1778 English mariner Captain James Cook visited Nootka Sound on Vancouver Island and also voyaged as far as Prince William Sound .
In 1779 a third Spanish expedition, under the command of Ignacio de Artega in the ship _Princesa_, and with Quadra as captain of the ship _Favorite_, sailed from Mexico to the coast of Alaska, reaching 61° N . Two further Spanish expeditions, in 1788 and 1789, both under Esteban Jose Martínez and Gonzalo López de Haro , sailed to the Pacific Northwest. During the second expedition, they met the American captain Robert Gray near Nootka Sound . Upon entering Nootka Sound, they found William Douglas and his ship the _Iphigenia_. Conflict led to the Nootka Crisis , which was resolved by agreements known as the Nootka Convention . In 1790 the Spanish sent three ships to Nootka Sound, under the command of Francisco de Eliza . After establishing a base at Nootka, Eliza sent out several exploration parties. Salvador Fidalgo was sent north to the Alaska coast. Manuel Quimper , with Gonzalo López de Haro as pilot, explored the Strait of Juan de Fuca, discovering the San Juan Islands and Admiralty Inlet in the process. Francisco de Eliza himself took the ship _San Carlos_ into the Strait of Juan de Fuca. From a base at Port Discovery , his _pilotos_ (masters ) José María Narváez and Juan Carrasco explored the San Juan Islands , Haro Strait , Rosario Strait , and Bellingham Bay . In the process, they discovered the Strait of Georgia and explored it as far north as Texada Island . The expedition returned to Nootka Sound by August 1791. Alessandro Malaspina , sailing for Spain, explored and mapped the coast from Yakutat Bay to Prince William Sound in 1791, then sailed to Nootka Sound. Performing a scientific expedition in the manner of James Cook, Malaspina's scientists studied the Tlingit and Nuu-chah-nulth peoples before returning to Mexico. Another Spanish explorer, Jacinto Caamaño , sailed the ship _Aranzazu_ to Nootka Sound in May 1792. There he met Quadra, who was in command of the Spanish settlement and Fort San Miguel . Quadra sent Caamaño north, to carefully explore the coast between Vancouver Island and Bucareli Bay , Alaska. Various Spanish maps, including Caamaño's, were given to George Vancouver in 1792, as the Spanish and British worked together to chart the complex coastline.
From 1792 to 1794, George Vancouver charted the Pacific Northwest on behalf of Great Britain, including the Strait of Georgia, the bays and inlets of Puget Sound , and the Johnstone Strait –Queen Charlotte Strait and much of the rest of the British Columbia Coast and southeast Alaska shorelines. For him the city of Vancouver and Vancouver Island are named, as well as Vancouver, Washington . From Mexico, Malaspina dispatched the last Spanish exploration expedition in the Pacific Northwest, under Dionisio Alcalá Galiano and Cayentano Valdes aboard the schooners _Sutil _ and _Mexicana _. They met Vancouver in the Strait of Georgia on June 21, 1792. Vancouver had explored Puget Sound just previously. The Spanish explorers knew of Admiralty Inlet and the unexplored region to the south, but they decided to sail north. They discovered and entered the Fraser River shortly before meeting Vancouver. After sharing maps and agreeing to cooperate, Galiano, Valdés, and Vancouver sailed north to Desolation Sound and the Discovery Islands , charting the coastline together. They passed through Johnstone Strait and Cordero Channel and returned to Nootka Sound. As a result, the Spanish explorers, who had set out from Nootka, became the first Europeans to circumnavigate Vancouver Island. Vancouver himself had entered the Strait of Juan de Fuca directly without going to Nootka first, so had not sailed completely around the island.
In 1786 Jean-François de La Pérouse , representing France, sailed to Haida Gwaii after visiting Nootka Sound but any possible French claims to this region were lost when La Pérouse and his men and journals were lost in a shipwreck near Australia. Upon encountering the Salish coastal tribes, either Pérouse or someone in his crew remarked, "What must astonish most is to see painting everywhere, everywhere sculpture, among a nation of hunters". Maritime fur trader Charles William Barkley also visited the area in the _Imperial Eagle _, a British ship falsely flying the flag of the Austrian Empire . American merchant sea-captain Robert Gray traded along the coast and discovered the mouth of the Columbia River .
US Navy Admiral Charles Wilkes ' 1841 Map of the Oregon Territory from "Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition." Philadelphia: 1845
Initial formal claims to the region were asserted by Spain in 1513 with explorer Nuñez de Balboa , the first European to sight the Pacific Ocean from the Americas. Russian Maritime Fur Trade activity, through the Russian-America Company , extended from the farther side of the Pacific to _ Russian America ._ This prompted Spain to send expeditions north to assert Spanish ownership, while Captain James Cook and subsequent expeditions by George Vancouver advanced British claims. As of the Nootka Conventions , the last in 1794, Spain gave up its exclusive a priori claims and agreed to share the region with the other Powers , giving up its garrison at Nootka Sound in the process.
The United States established a claim based on the discoveries of Robert Gray , the Lewis and Clark Expedition , the construction of Fort Astoria , and the acquisition of Spanish claims given to the United States in the Adams–Onís Treaty . From the 1810s until the 1840s, modern-day Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and western Montana, along with most of British Columbia, were part of what the United States called the Oregon Country and Britain called the Columbia District . This region was jointly claimed by the United States and Great Britain after the Treaty of 1818 , which established a co-dominion of interests in the region in lieu of a settlement. In 1840 American Charles Wilkes explored in the area. John McLoughlin , Chief Factor of the Hudson\'s Bay Company , headquartered at Fort Vancouver , was the _de facto_ local political authority for most of this time.
This arrangement ended as U.S. settlement grew and President James K. Polk was elected on a platform of calling for annexation of the entire Oregon Country and of Texas. After his election, supporters coined the famous slogan "Fifty-four Forty or Fight", referring to 54°40\' north latitude —the northward limit of the United States' claim. After a war scare with the United Kingdom, the Oregon boundary dispute was settled in the 1846 Oregon Treaty , partitioning the region along the 49th parallel and resolving most but not all of the border disputes (see Pig War ).
The mainland territory north of the 49th parallel remained unincorporated until 1858, when a mass influx of Americans and others during the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush forced the hand of Colony of Vancouver Island 's Governor James Douglas , who declared the mainland a Crown Colony . The two colonies were amalgamated in 1866 to cut costs, and joined the Dominion of Canada in 1871. The U.S. portion became the Oregon Territory in 1848. It was later subdivided into Oregon Territory and Washington Territory . These territories became the states of Oregon, Idaho, Washington and parts of other Western states.
American expansionist pressure on British Columbia persisted after the colony became a province of Canada, even though Americans living in the province did not harbor annexationist inclinations. The Fenian Brotherhood openly organized and drilled in Washington, particularly in the 1870s and the 1880s, though no cross-border attacks were experienced. During the Alaska Boundary Dispute , U.S. President Teddy Roosevelt threatened to invade and annex British Columbia if Britain would not yield on the question of the Yukon ports. In more recent times, during the so-called " Salmon War " of the 1990s, Washington Senator Slade Gorton called for the U.S. Navy to "force" the Inside Passage , even though it is not an official international waterway. Disputes between British Columbia and Alaska over the Dixon Entrance of the Hecate Strait between Prince Rupert and Haida Gwaii have not been resolved.
Further information: Geology of the Pacific Northwest
The Northwest is still highly geologically active, with both active volcanoes and geologic faults .
Mount Rainier in Washington State
The Pacific Northwest is a diverse geographic region, dominated by several mountain ranges, including the Coast Mountains , the Cascade Range , the Olympic Mountains , the Columbia Mountains , and the Rocky Mountains . The highest peak in the Pacific Northwest is Mount Rainier , in the Washington Cascades, at 14,410 feet (4,392 m). Immediately inland from the Cascade Range are broad, generally dry plateaus. In the US, this region is known as the Columbia Plateau , while in British Columbia it is the Interior Plateau , also called the Fraser Plateau . The Columbia Plateau was the scene of massive ice-age floods, and as a consequence, there are many coulees , canyons, and the Channeled Scablands . Much of the plateau, especially in eastern Washington, is irrigated farmland . The Columbia River cuts a deep and wide gorge around the rim of the Columbia Plateau and through the Cascade Range on its way to the Pacific Ocean.
Because many areas have plentiful rainfall and mild summers, the Pacific Northwest has some of North America's most lush and extensive forests, which are extensively populated with Coast Douglas fir trees, the second tallest growing evergreen conifer on earth. The region also contains specimens of the tallest trees on earth, the coast redwoods , in southwestern Oregon, but the largest of these trees are located just south of the California border in northwestern California. Coastal forests in some areas are classified as temperate rain forest .
Coastal features are defined by the interaction with the Pacific and the North American continent. The coastline of the Pacific Northwest is dotted by numerous fjords, bays, islands, and mountains. Some of these features include the Oregon Coast , Burrard Inlet , Puget Sound , and the highly complex fjords of the British Columbia Coast and Southeast Alaska . The region has one of the world's longest fjord coastlines.
The major cities of Vancouver , Portland , Seattle , and Tacoma all began as seaports supporting the logging, mining, and farming industries of the region but have developed into major technological and industrial centers (such as the Silicon Forest ), which benefit from their location on the Pacific Rim .
If defined as Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia, the Pacific Northwest has four US National Parks : Crater Lake in Oregon, plus Olympic , Mount Rainier , and North Cascades in Washington. If a larger regional definition is used, then other US National Parks might be included, such as Redwood National and State Parks , Glacier Bay National Park , Wrangell–St. Elias National Park , Grand Teton National Park , and parts of Glacier National Park and Yellowstone National Park . There are several Canadian National Parks in the Pacific Northwest, including Pacific Rim National Park on the west coast of Vancouver Island, Mount Revelstoke National Park and Glacier National Park in the Selkirk Range alongside Rogers Pass , Kootenay National Park and Yoho National Park on the British Columbia flank of the Rockies, Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve in Haida Gwaii, and the Gulf Islands National Park Reserve in the Strait of Georgia. There are numerous protected areas in British Columbia and in the United States .
Other outstanding natural features include the Columbia River Gorge , Fraser Canyon , Mount St. Helens , Malaspina Glacier , and Hells Canyon . The south-central Coast Mountains in British Columbia contain the five largest mid-latitude icefields in the world.
The Pacific Northwest experiences a wide variety of climates. An oceanic climate ("marine west coast climate ") occurs in most coastal areas, typically between the ocean and high mountain ranges. An Alpine climate dominates in the high mountains. Semi-arid and arid climates are found east of the higher mountains, especially in rainshadow areas. The Harney Basin of Oregon is an example of arid climate in the Pacific Northwest. Humid continental climates occur inland on windward sides, in places such as Revelstoke, British Columbia . A subarctic climate can be found farther north, especially in Yukon and Alaska.
Under the Köppen climate classification , a cool-summer version of the _dry-summer mediterranean_ (_Csb_) designation, is assigned to many areas of the Pacific Northwest as far north as central Vancouver Island and the Gulf Islands , including cities such as Victoria, British Columbia , Seattle, and Portland. These zones are not associated with a typical mediterranean climate, and would be classified as Temperate Oceanic (_Cfb_), except dry-summer patterns typical to the Pacific Northwest meet Koeppen's minimum _Cs_ thresholds. Other climate classification systems, such as Trewartha , place these areas firmly in the Oceanic zone (_Do_).
Much of the Pacific Northwest is forested. The Georgia Strait – Puget Sound basin is shared between British Columbia and Washington, and the Pacific temperate rain forests ecoregion, which is the largest of the world's temperate rain forest ecozones in the system created by the World Wildlife Fund , stretches along the coast from Alaska to California. The dryland area inland from the Cascade Range and Coast Mountains is very different from the terrain and climate of the coastal area due to the rain shadow effect of the mountains, and comprises the Columbia, Fraser and Thompson Plateaus and mountain ranges contained within them. The interior regions' climates largely within eastern Washington, south central British Columbia, eastern Oregon, and southern Idaho are a northward extension of the Great Basin Desert , which spans the Great Basin farther south, although by their northern and eastern reaches, dryland and desert areas verge at the end of the Cascades' and Coast Mountains ' rain shadows with the boreal forest and various alpine flora regimes characteristic of eastern British Columbia , northern Idaho and western Montana roughly along a longitudinal line defined by the Idaho border with Washington and Oregon.
Map of "megacity ", showing population density (shades of yellow/brown), highways (red), and major railways (black). Public land shown in shades of green.
Most of the population of the Pacific Northwest is concentrated in the Portland–Seattle– Vancouver corridor. This area is sometimes seen as a megacity (also known as a conurbation , an agglomeration , or a megalopolis ). This "megacity" stretches along Interstate 5 in the states of Oregon and Washington and Hwy 99 in the province of British Columbia . As of 2004, the combined populations of the Lower Mainland region (which includes Greater Vancouver ), the Seattle metropolitan area and the Portland metropolitan area totaled around eight million people. However, beyond the megacity with few exceptions, the PNW region is characterized by a relatively low density population distribution. Some other regions of greater population density outside this corridor include the Okanagan Valley in the British Columbia interior (about 350,000 people centered around the city of Kelowna, which has close to 200,000 people) and the greater Spokane area (close to half a million). Large geographical areas may only have one mid-sized to small sized city as a regional center (often a county seat) with smaller cities and towns scattered around. Vast areas of the region may have little or no population at all, largely due to the presence of extensive mountains and forests, and plateaus containing both extensive farm and range lands, much of which is protected from development in large parks and preserves, or by zoning use regulation related to traditional land use. For example, all cities within the portion of California included in the Pacific Northwest have populations less than 100,000, with that portion of the state containing millions of acres of national forests and parks.
LIST OF LARGEST CITIES BY POPULATION IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST
CITY STATE/PROVINCE POPULATION METROPOLITAN AREA
Seattle Washington 7005668342000000000♠668,342 7006390502600000000♠3,905,026
Portland Oregon 7005632309000000000♠632,309 7006238922800000000♠2,389,228
Surrey British Columbia 7005517887000000000♠517,887
Boise Idaho 7005223154000000000♠223,154 7005691423000000000♠691,423
Spokane Washington 7005210721000000000♠210,721 7005556634000000000♠556,634
Tacoma Washington 7005198397000000000♠198,397
Richmond British Columbia 7005190473000000000♠190,473
Vancouver Washington 7005161791000000000♠161,791
Eugene Oregon 7005156185000000000♠156,185 7005351715000000000♠351,715
Salem Oregon 7005154637000000000♠154,637 7005390738000000000♠390,738
Bellevue Washington 7005136420000000000♠136,420
Abbotsford British Columbia 7005133497000000000♠133,497 7005170191000000000♠170,191
Kent Washington 7005125560000000000♠125,560
Saanich British Columbia 7005109752000000000♠109,752
Gresham Oregon 7005105594000000000♠105,594
Langley (Township) British Columbia 7005104177000000000♠104,177
Everett Washington 7005103019000000000♠103,019
Delta British Columbia 7004998630000000000♠99,863
Renton Washington 7004954480000000000♠95,448
Spokane Valley Washington 7004949190000000000♠94,919
Hillsboro Oregon 7004916110000000000♠91,611
Yakima Washington 7004910670000000000♠91,067 7005243231000000000♠243,231
Beaverton Oregon 7004898030000000000♠89,803
Nampa Idaho 7004815570000000000♠81,557
Bellingham Washington 7004808850000000000♠80,885 7005201140000000000♠201,140
Victoria British Columbia 7004800170000000000♠80,017 7005344615000000000♠344,615
Bend Oregon 7004766390000000000♠76,639 7005170705000000000♠170,705
Maple Ridge British Columbia 7004760520000000000♠76,052
Kennewick Washington 7004762440000000000♠76,244 7005268200000000000♠268,200
Meridian Idaho 7004750920000000000♠75,092
Medford Oregon 7004749070000000000♠74,907 7005207010000000000♠207,010
A major divide in political opinion separates the region's greatly more populated urban core and rural areas west of the mountains from its less populated rural areas to their east and (in British Columbia and Alaska) north. The coastal areas—especially in the cities of Vancouver, Victoria, Bellingham, Seattle, Tacoma, Olympia, Portland, Eugene, and Ashland—are some of the most politically liberal parts of North America, regularly supporting left-wing political candidates and causes by significant majorities, while the Interior and North tend to be more conservative and consistently support right-wing candidates and causes. It should be noted that the religious right has far less influence throughout the region than elsewhere in the U.S., and that certain areas of the BC Interior, particularly the West Kootenay and some areas of Vancouver Island and the BC Coast, have long histories of labour, environmental and social activism (see History of British Columbia#Rise of the labour movement ).
The urban core in addition to certain rural districts is known for supporting liberal political views, perceived as controversial in much of the rest of North America. Many jurisdictions have relatively liberal abortion laws, gender equality laws, legal cannabis , and strong LGBT rights , especially British Columbia, where gay marriage has been legal since 2003, Washington, where it has been legal since 2012, and Oregon, where same-sex marriage was made legal in May 2014. Oregon was the first U.S. state to legalize physician-assisted suicide , with the Death with Dignity Act of 1994. Washington State was the second when I-1000 passed in 2008. Colegio Cesar Chavez , the first fully accredited Hispanic college in the U.S., was founded in Mount Angel, Oregon in 1973. In 1986 King County, Washington , which contains Seattle, renamed itself in honor of Martin Luther King .
These areas, especially around Puget Sound, have a long history of political radicalism. The radical labor organizers called Wobblies were particularly strong there in the mines, lumber camps and shipyards. A number of anarchist communes sprung up there in the early 20th century (see Charles Pierce LeWarne's _Utopias on Puget Sound, 1885-1915_ for an overview of this popular yet forgotten movement). Seattle is one of a handful of major cities in North America in which the populace engaged in a general strike (in 1919) and was the first major American city to elect a woman mayor, Bertha Knight Landes (in 1926). Socialist beliefs were once widespread (thanks in large part to the area's large numbers of Scandinavian immigrants) and the region has had a number of Socialist elected officials. So great was its influence that the U.S. Postmaster General, James Farley, jokingly toasted the "forty-seven states of the Union, and the Soviet of Washington", at a gala dinner in 1936 (although Farley denied ever saying it).
The region also has a long history of starting cooperative and communal businesses and organizations, including Group Health , REI , Puget Consumer's Co-ops and numerous granges and mutual aid societies. It also has a long history of publicly owned power and utilities, with many of the region's cities owning their own public utilities . In British Columbia, credit unions are common and popular cooperatively owned financial institutions.
East of the Cascades, in eastern Washington and eastern Oregon, the population is much more conservative. The eastern portions of Washington and especially Oregon, due to their low populations, do not generally have enough voting power to be competitive at the state level, and thus the governorships and U.S. Senate seats of both Oregon and Washington are usually held by the Democrats . Conservatism in the eastern part of the Pacific Northwest tends to be distrustful of federal government interference and strongly protective of gun rights.
* Agriculture (fruit, potatoes , Tillamook cheese , dairy, wine , vegetables, wheat , Cascade hops , barley , hazelnuts ) * Aerospace ( Boeing Commercial Airplane unit, Air Canada , Alaska Air , CHC Helicopter , Esterline , Glasair Aviation ) * Diversified ( Jim Pattison Group , Finning , Washington Marine Group ) * Entertainment industry (film and television, Lions Gate Entertainment , Lionsgate Studios , Lionsgate Television , Vancouver Film Studios , Bridge Studios ) * Finance and banking (RBC , HSBC Bank Canada , Russell Investments , Umpqua Holdings Corporation ) * Forestry ( Weyerhaeuser , Canfor , Tolko , Boise Cascade , The Teal-Jones Group , Humboldt and Mendocino Redwood Companies , Green Diamond Resource Company ) * Fishing and canning (salmon, halibut, herring, geoducks and other clams, crab, sea-urchin, oyster ) * High Technology and E-commerce ( Microsoft , Microsoft Canada , Intel , F5 Networks , Nintendo of America , Nintendo of Canada , Tektronix , Amazon.com , Expedia , Ballard Power Systems , MacDonald Dettwiler , EA Canada , Cymax Stores , Micron Technology , Electronic Arts , Ballard Technologies ) * Hydroelectric power (Grand Coulee Dam , Bonneville Dam , BC Hydro ) * Mass Retail ( London Drugs , Costco , Blenz , Starbucks , Tullys , Nordstrom , Zumiez , Albertsons ) * Microbrewing (BridgePort , Deschutes , Lost Coast Brewery , MacTarnahan\'s , Nelson , Ninkasi , Pyramid , Widmer Brothers , Yukon ) * Mining ( Goldcorp , Teck Resources ) * Outdoor Tourism (alpine skiing , snowboarding , hiking , kayaking , rafting, fishing, mountain biking , water sports ) * Shoes & Apparel (Nike , Adidas North America , Columbia , R.E.I. , Lululemon , Eddie Bauer , Mountain Equipment Co-op ) * Real estate marketing Portland is considered by Forbes Traveler to be the second most bicycle-friendly city in the world. Portland is also the hub of American bicycle manufacturing; as a whole it generated over $68 million in revenue in 2007 alone. Seattle, Washington has also garnered a reputation for its contributions to public transportation with the Puget Sound Transit system, including an underground light rail system and a 38.9% worker commute rate as of 2011. Politically, the Pacific Northwest is actively involved in environmental efforts. The international organization Greenpeace was born in Vancouver in 1970 as part of a large public opposition movement in British Columbia to US nuclear weapons testing on Amchitka Island in the Aleutians. Liberal and Conservative Northwesterners, such as former U.S. Senator Slade Gorton (R-WA) and moderate Democrats like former Speaker of the House Tom Foley (D-WA), have been prominent in the development of conservative approaches to environmental protection. Seattle in particular is also home to a large number of publications and institutions concerned with the environment and sustainability, including both _ Worldchanging _ and _Grist.org _, the U.S.'s two largest online green magazines. The Pacific Northwest is also noted for a large number of gardening clubs, with Victoria having an annual flower count in February.
The direct-intervention oceanic protection group known as the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society has its headquarters in Friday Harbor on San Juan Island .
Main article: Music of the Pacific Northwest
The modern-era Pacific Northwest is known for indie music , especially grunge , alternative rock , and metal as well as historically-strong folk music and world music traditions. Many are associated with the independent label Sub Pop . Lately the region has also gained notice for its Hip hop music in the Pacific Northwest . KEXP .org is a popular and nationally noted Seattle-based public indie music radio station. Among the area's largest music festivals are the Merritt Mountain Music Festival , the Vancouver Folk Music Festival , the Sasquatch! Music Festival in George, Washington, Seattle's Bumbershoot , and Portland's MusicfestNW . Portland's Waterfront Blues Festival is the largest blues-based festival west of the Mississippi River.
Local artists who became ground-breaking rock bands of their times include Jimi Hendrix , Nirvana , Pearl Jam , Soundgarden , Alice in Chains , Foo Fighters and Sleater-Kinney , But the history of Northwest rock can be traced back to the mid 1950s and 1960s with such bands such as The Sonics , The Ventures , The Kingsmen , and Paul Revere and the Raiders .
Main article: Pacific Northwest cuisine
Cuisine of the area include wild salmon , huckleberries , a wide variety of Asian cuisines , and locally produced fruits, vegetables, and cheeses.
Chinese , Japanese , Korean , Italian , Mexican, and Greek cuisines are prevalent throughout the Northwest, and reflect the historically strong presence of those communities in the restaurant industry there. Teriyaki restaurants are particularly common in the Seattle area. Eateries featuring Persian , Asian Fusion , and Indo-Canadian cuisines are common throughout in Greater Vancouver, as are ethnic specialty restaurants of all kinds. Ethnic staples ranging from frozen perogies to frozen dim sum are common in most supermarkets in these communities.
Locally-made craft beers and premium wines from various wine-growing area within the region are popular with drinkers and diners. Northern latitude and coastal breezes create a climate that attracts international recognition for its mostly family-owned and operated vineyards and wineries.
Portland is a major microbrewery center in America, and is home to the Widmer Brothers Brewery .
CenturyLink Field, home of Seattle Seahawks and Sounders FC
Skiing, snowboarding, cycling, mountaineering, hiking, camping, hunting, fishing, boating, and water sports are popular outdoor activities. Vancouver, Seattle, Tacoma, Portland, and Spokane are home to numerous professional sports teams, including the BC Lions , Vancouver Canucks , Vancouver Canadians , Vancouver Whitecaps FC , Vancouver Stealth , Seattle Mariners , Seattle Seahawks , Seattle Sounders FC , Seattle Reign FC , Seattle Storm , Everett Aquasox , Tacoma Rainiers , Portland Trail Blazers , Portland Timbers , Portland Thorns FC , Hillsboro Hops , Salem-Keizer Volcanoes , Eugene Emeralds , and Spokane Indians .
The region's three USSF Division 1 Major League Soccer teams the Whitecaps FC, Sounders FC, and Timbers play to sold out crowds and compete annually for the Cascadia Cup . The USSF Division 4 USL Premier Development League also has seven teams in the Northwest Division. In addition to all this the region has its own representative non-FIFA team which joined the N.F.-Board officially in 2013 to participate in friendlies and the VIVA World Cup .
Hockey is the most popular spectator sport in British Columbia, with the Vancouver Canucks of the NHL being the most popular professional team, although the Vancouver Giants of the Western Hockey League also have a very strong following. The CFL's BC Lions are considered Vancouver's second most popular team, although soccer and the Whitecaps FC have been rising in popularity in recent years. Hockey is slowly gaining popularity south of the border too, with the Portland Winterhawks .
Followers of the Portland Trail Blazers basketball team refer to themselves as the _Sixth Man_ and _Blazermania_ refers to the extraordinary dedication fans have shown the team. In Seattle many fans are still upset over the move of the Seattle SuperSonics while supporters of the Seattle Seahawks football team are known officially as the 12th Man. And the supporter groups , (namely the Emerald City Supporters , Timbers Army , and Vancouver Southsiders ) of the three MLS teams of the region are renowned for their passion and dedication to their teams.
The only NASCAR track in the Seattle / Portland region is Evergreen Speedway , the largest short track west of the Mississippi River and has hosted many of the marquee drivers of NASCAR. With three oval tracks, a figure eight track and various road course variants, Evergreen Speedway operates year-round events. Evergreen Speedway hosts the NASCAR Whelen All American Series, the NASCAR K however, the overall African American population has been growing in other smaller urban areas throughout the region, such as Spokane and Eugene. African Americans tend to concentrate in western urban areas such as Tacoma, south Seattle, and Portland. Nonetheless, blacks have a very large presence in Tacoma's Hilltop and South Tacoma neighborhoods, Seattle's Central District and Rainier Valley neighborhoods, and in Portland's Northeast Quadrant. There are growing numbers in Vancouver as well, particularly Africans, Jamaicans and blacks from the United States. As of the first decade of the 21st century, many Asians were moving out and into middle class suburbs, though some would voice concern about preserving historical communities particularly in Vancouver. British Columbia has the largest Asian presence per-capita in North America, with 10% of the population being of Chinese ancestry and also large numbers of South Asians , Filipinos , and others. The Asian presence in the U.S. section of the Pacific Northwest is comparably smaller, with all Asian groups together comprising about 8% of Washington state's population, and smaller figures in Oregon and Idaho. This is due to immigration quotas at the federal level, as while Canada has one-tenth the population of the United States, it takes in one-quarter as many immigrants.
British Columbians of many ethnicities are prominent in all levels of politics and government, and the province has a number of "firsts" in Canadian political history, including the first non-white Premier , Ujjal Dosanjh (who is Indo-Canadian ) and the first Asian Lieutenant-Governor , the Hon. David Lam . The Lieutenant-Governor from 2007 to 2012, Steven Point , was of aboriginal origin, being Stó:lō (the dominant type of Coast Salish in BC's Lower Mainland) from the Chilliwack area. The leader of the opposition party from 2005 to 2011, the NDP , was Carole James , of partial Métis origin. Colonial governor James Douglas was himself mulatto of Guyanese extraction and his wife was of Cree origin.
On LGBT representation in government, Oregon has been a national leader. At the time of his election to the office of Portland mayor in 2008, Sam Adams was the first openly gay individual to represent a city of Portland's size in the United States. In Silverton, Oregon , the same year, Stu Rasmussen was elected the first transgender mayor in U.S. history. The first two LGBT state supreme court justices in the country both sit on the Oregon Supreme Court . Governor of Oregon Kate Brown is the highest-ranking openly bisexual politician in the United States.
Most Americans and Canadians consider the Pacific Northwest English accent "neutral," though indistinct from the Midwestern dialects that some believe typify American speech. It possess the low back vowel merger, or the cot–caught merger . Canadian raising occurs in British Columbia and some speakers in Washington to a similar degree as it does in southern Ontario , but weaker than other parts of Canada . The California Vowel Shift also affects speech in the region.
Chinook Jargon was a pidgin or trade language established among indigenous inhabitants of the region . After contact with Europeans, French, English, and Cree words entered the language, and "eventually Chinook became the lingua franca for as many as 250,000 people along the Pacific Slope from Alaska to Oregon." Chinook Jargon reached its height of usage in the 19th century though remained common in resource and wilderness areas, particularly but not exclusively by Native Americans and Canadian First Nations people, well into the 20th century. Today its influence is felt mostly in place names and a handful of localized slang terms, particularly the word _skookum _, which remains hallmark of people raised in the region.
Besides English and indigenous languages, Chinese has been common since the gold rushes of the mid-19th century, most particularly in British Columbia. Since the 1980s the Toishan , a Yue dialect predominant in the area, has been replaced by mainstream Cantonese and by Mandarin because of large-scale immigration from Asia. Punjabi is also common in Vancouver, which has very large Sikh communities from India. Spanish is also spoken in parts of Oregon and Washington by Mexicans , both recent immigrants and long-standing communities.
NATIONAL SELF-DETERMINATION DESIRES
Among the fiercely independent and frontier nature of the former OREGON COUNTRY and now Western Part of the United States, are a desire of many Pacific Northwesterners to improve upon their form of Democracy by further subdividing the region into socio-political or bioregion defined nation states . Some desires are transnational and autonomous of the United States while others are in the hope of gaining additional representational control in particular regions of the Northwest. Among these fluidly changing geographical boundaries and areas sought by a segment of the population of the Northwest are the following:
* Pacific Northwest Independence and Secessionist Movements
* Cascadia * Jefferson * Lincoln * Northwest Territory
SPIRITUALITY AND RELIGION
The Pacific Northwest has the lowest rate of church attendance in the United States and consistently reports the highest percentage of atheism ; this is most pronounced on the part of the region west of the Cascades. A recent study indicates that one quarter of those in Washington and Oregon believe in no religion. Similarly, according to the 2011 National Household Survey, 44% of British Columbia residents reported no religion.
Religion plays a smaller part in Pacific Northwest politics than in the rest of the United States. The religious right has considerably less political influence than in other regions. Political conservatives in the Pacific Northwest tend to identify more strongly with free-market libertarian values than they do with more religious social conservatives .
That said, three of the four major international charities in the region are religious in nature: Northwest Medical Teams International , World Concern , World Vision International , and Mercy Corps . This is part of a long tradition of activist religion. The Skid Road Group, a shelter offering soup and sermons to the unemployed and recovering alcoholics , was launched in Vancouver, with the Salvation Army having deep roots in the Gastown district, dating back to the era of the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway (1880s) and attained prominence in the same centers during the Klondike Gold Rush .
The region is also known as a magnet for a wide range of philosophical and spiritual belief systems. Eastern spiritual beliefs have been adopted by an unusually large number of people (by North American standards), and Tibetan Buddhism in particular has a strong local following. The Northwest Tibetan Cultural Association, claimed to be the largest organization of its kind in the world, was founded in Portland in 1993.
The region is home to many unique Christian communities, ranging from the Doukhobors to the Mennonites . The Mennonite Central Committee Supportive Care Services is based in Abbotsford, BC. The Mennonite Central Committee and the Mennonite Disaster Service enjoy a heavy rate of enlistment and donations from the strong Mennonite community in British Columbia's Fraser Valley . The Doukhobors, whose church is the Union of Spiritual Communities of Christ , are a Russian anabaptist sect whose migration to Canada was aided by Count Leo Tolstoy and who are today focussed in the West Kootenay and Boundary regions of Southeastern British Columbia. Their history in Canada includes resistance to state education and industrial development (see Sons of Freedom ). Also, within the region there is a fairly strong representation of Orthodox churches (Greek, Russian, Serbian and others), as well as the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church . Religious sees that are based in the Pacific Northwest include the Roman Catholic ecclesiastical provinces of Portland , Seattle , and Vancouver , Province 8 of the Episcopal Church in the United States of America , the Anglican Ecclesiastical Province of British Columbia and the Yukon , and the suffragan dioceses that make up those provinces.
Yogic teachings, Sufism, tribal and ancient beliefs and other philosophies are widely studied and appreciated in the region. The Lower Mainland of British Columbia has a very large Sikh community. Oregon has a considerable Quaker ( Society of Friends ) population. There has been major growth in Chinese Buddhist temples since the increase in immigration from East Asia in the 1980s, especially in Vancouver .
Also in Vancouver, there is a small Hindu population, a number of Parsee (Zoroastrians ), and an emerging Muslim population from South Asia , the Middle East, Africa, the Balkans, Southeast Asia and elsewhere.
Some people in the area also embrace alternative religion , such as New Age spirituality and Neo-Paganism . A New Thought church called Living Enrichment Center with 4,000 members was located in Wilsonville, Oregon from 1992 to 2004.
* Brother Twelve ran a controversial commune in the Gulf Islands of British Columbia early in the 20th century * The Emissaries of Divine Light are a notable presence in the region of 100 Mile House, British Columbia and also have a large ashram on Kootenay Lake , northeast of Nelson, British Columbia * Gangaji , an internationally recognized spiritual teacher and disciple of Poonjaji , lives in Ashland, Oregon * The followers of the Guru Rajneesh , the _sannyasin _s, established a center for their beliefs and lifestyle near Antelope, Oregon , which included an ashram complex as well as, for a while, an attempted takeover of the local economy * The training school of the immortal (according to the organization) being Ramtha is headquartered in Yelm, Washington * Eckhart Tolle , author of _ The Power Of Now _, lives in Vancouver, British Columbia * Neale Donald Walsch , author of _ Conversations with God _, lives in Ashland, Oregon , where he runs a retreat center * Oregon's Willamette Valley has a large population of Russian Old Believers
NOTES AND REFERENCES
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ Part of Greater Vancouver . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Part of Seattle metropolitan area (Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue, WA MSA). * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Part of Portland metropolitan area (Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro, OR-WA MSA). * ^ Part of Greater Victoria . * ^ Part of Spokane metropolitan area (Spokane-Spokane Valley, WA MSA). * ^ _A_ _B_ Part of Boise metropolitan area (Boise City–Nampa, Idaho Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA)).
* ^ "Interior Savings Centre in Kamloops, British Columbia". Interiorsavingscentre.com. Archived from the original on 2010-08-12. Retrieved 2010-08-18. * ^ "Best Places to Live in Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue, Washington Metro Area (WA)". Bestplaces.net. Retrieved 2010-08-18. * ^ "Doing Business In Portland, Oregon". _Business.GOV_. * ^ "Statistics Canada: Population of census metropolitan areas". Archived from the original on 2011-05-24. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Coates, Ken S. (2002). "1. Border Crossings". In Findlay, John M.; Coates, Ken S. _Parallel Destinies: Canadian-American Relations West of the Rockies_. University of Washington Press. pp. 3–5. ISBN 978-0-295-98252-6 . Retrieved 2010-12-14. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Map of Cascadia". Sightline.org. Retrieved 2011-02-19.
* ^ Schwantes, Carlos A. (1 January 1996). _The Pacific Northwest: an interpretive history_. University of Nebraska Press. pp. 1–2. ISBN 978-0-8032-9228-4 . Retrieved 2010-12-14. * ^ Richards, Kent D. (November 1981), "In Search of the Pacific Northwest: The Historiography of Oregon and Washington", _Pacific Historical Review_, University of California Press, 50 (4): 415–443, JSTOR 3639158 access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ _A_ _B_ Hayes, Derek (1999). _Historical atlas of the Pacific Northwest: maps of exploration and discovery : British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, Alaska, Yukon_. Sasquatch Books. ISBN 978-1-57061-215-2 . Retrieved 2011-07-12. * ^ See, for example, this US EPA map Archived July 27, 2011, at the Wayback Machine .. * ^ Apostol, Dean; Sinclair, Marcia; Society for Ecological Restoration International (2006). _Restoring the Pacific Northwest: the art and science of ecological restoration in Cascadia_. Island Press. p. 24. ISBN 978-1-55963-078-8 . Retrieved 2010-12-14. * ^ Surovell, Todd A. (2003). "Simulating Coastal Migration in New World Colonization". _ Current Anthropology _. Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research . 44 (4): 580–91. ISSN 1537-5382 . JSTOR 10.1086/377651 . doi :10.1086/377651 – via JSTOR . (Registration required (help)). * ^ Majid Al-Suwaidi (2006), _A Multi-disciplinary Study of Port Eliza Cave Sediments and Their Implications for Human Coastal Migration_, Library and Archives Canada (Bibliothèque et Archives Canada), ISBN 0494032995 , _... A multi-disciplinary study at Port Eliza cave on Vancouver Island has refined the timing and character of late Wisconsinan environments and has significant implications for the human Coastal Migration Hypothesis ..._ * ^ "Ancient site of human activity found on Oregon coast". Oregon State University. 6 November 2002. * ^ Loren G. Davis (2008), "New Support for a Late-Pleistocene Coastal Occupation at the Indian Sands Site, Oregon" (PDF), _Archaeology: North America_, 25, pp. 74–76 * ^ Nina G. Jablonski (2002), _The First Americans: The Pleistocene Colonization of the New World_, University of California Press, ISBN 0940228505 , _... Recent discoveries and events have breathed new life into the coastal migration theory, which suggests just the opposite of the ice-free corridor hypothesis—that maritime peoples first traveled around the North Pacific Coast then followed river valleys leading inland from the sea. Having a coastal route available, however, does not prove that such a maritime migration took place. Archaeological evidence for early boat use from islands along the western margin of the Pacific may support the idea that such a journey was technologically feasible, but archaeological data from the Pacific coast of North and South America are presently ambiguous about the origins of the earliest coastal occupants. ..._ * ^ Christy G. Turner (2003), "Three ounces of sea shells and one fish bone do not a coastal migration make", _American Antiquity_, Society for American Archaeology, 68 (2): 391–395, JSTOR 3557086 , doi :10.2307/3557086 * ^ Diamond, Jared (1999). _Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies_. W. W. Norton. p. 90. ISBN 978-0-393-06922-8 . Retrieved 14 May 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ Pauketat, Timothy (2012). _The Oxford Handbook of North American Archaeology_. Oxford University Press. pp. 160–162, 167. ISBN 978-0-19-538011-8 . Retrieved 14 May 2013. * ^ Harris, Marvin (2001). _Cultural Materialism: The Struggle for a Science of Culture_. Rowman Altamira. p. 85. ISBN 978-0-7591-0135-7 . Retrieved 14 May 2013. * ^ Pauketat, Timothy (2012). _The Oxford Handbook of North American Archaeology_. Oxford University Press. pp. 173–175. ISBN 978-0-19-538011-8 . Retrieved 14 May 2013. * ^ Nash, Gary B. _Red, White and Black_. Pearson. Los Angeles 2015. Chapter 1, pg. 5 * ^ Quanchi, Max; Robson, John (2005). _Historical dictionary of the discovery and exploration of the Pacific islands_. Scarecrow Press. pp. 84–85, 207. ISBN 978-0-8108-5395-9 . Retrieved 12 July 2011. * ^ Hayes, Derek (1999). _Historical atlas of the Pacific Northwest: maps of exploration and discovery : British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, Alaska, Yukon_. Sasquatch Books. p. 16. ISBN 978-1-57061-215-2 . Retrieved 12 July 2011. * ^ " Vitus Bering Biography Summary". BookRags.com. Retrieved 2010-08-18. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Historical Timeline". Ubcic.bc.ca. 2007-09-13. Retrieved 2010-08-18. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Hayes, Derek (1999). _Historical Atlas of the Pacific Northwest: Maps of exploration and Discovery_. Sasquatch Books. ISBN 1-57061-215-3 . * ^ "Captain Alexandro Malaspina". Malaspina University-College. Retrieved 2008-02-05. * ^ Boyer, Paul S. _The Enduring Vision: A History of the American People_. (Lexington MA 1996), p. 6 * ^ Miller, Robert J. (2006). _Native America, Discovered and Conquered: Thomas Jefferson, Lewis & Clark, and Manifest Destiny_. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 133–134. ISBN 978-0-275-99011-4 . * ^ "Fifty-Four Forty or Fight". Geography.about.com. 2010-06-14. Retrieved 2010-08-18. * ^ "The Alaska Boundary Dispute" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-12-18. Retrieved 2010-08-18. * ^ " Volcano Seismicity in the Pacific Northwest". Pnsn.org. Archived from the original on 2010-08-14. Retrieved 2010-08-18. * ^ Howe, J. A. (2010). _ Fjord Systems and Archives_. Geological Society of London. pp. 144–150. ISBN 978-1-86239-312-7 . * ^ "HESS - Abstract - Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification". Hydrol-earth-syst-sci.net. 2010-07-04. Retrieved 2010-08-18. * ^ "Global Ecological Zoning for the Global Forest Resources Assessment 2000". Fao.org. Retrieved 2010-08-18. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ "U.S. Census Bureau Delivers Washington\'s 2010 Census Population Totals". United States Census Bureau . February 23, 2011. Retrieved 11 July 2011. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ "Population and Housing Occupancy Status: 2010 - United States -- Metropolitan Statistical Area; and for Puerto Rico". _2010 United States Census_. United States Census Bureau , Population Division. April 14, 2011. Retrieved 12 July 2011. * ^ _A_ _B_ Campion-Smith, Bruce (February 8, 2017). "Canada\'s population grew 1.7M in 5 years, latest census shows". _Toronto Star_. Toronto. Retrieved February 8, 2017. * ^ "Surrey, City , British Columbia and British Columbia ". Statistics Canada . 2016. Retrieved February 8, 2017. * ^ "Census Profile - Census Subdivision". 2.statcan.ca. 2012-02-01. Retrieved 2012-03-01. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016". United States Census Bureau . Retrieved 26 May 2017. * ^ "Washington population by county - Census 2010: Washington". The Spokesman-Review . Retrieved 12 July 2011. * ^ "Census Profile - Census Subdivision". 2.statcan.ca. 2012-02-01. Retrieved 2012-03-01. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ "U.S. Census Bureau Delivers Oregon\'s 2010 Census Population Totals". United States Census Bureau . February 23, 2011. Retrieved 31 December 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Census Profile - Census Subdivision". 2.statcan.ca. 2012-02-01. Retrieved 2012-03-01. * ^ "Census Profile - Census Subdivision". 2.statcan.ca. 2012-02-01. Retrieved 2012-03-01. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Census Profile - Census Subdivision". 2.statcan.ca. 2012-02-01. Retrieved 2012-03-01. * ^ "Census Profile - Census Subdivision". 2.statcan.ca. 2012-02-01. Retrieved 2012-03-01. * ^ "Census Profile - Census Subdivision". 2.statcan.ca. 2012-02-01. Retrieved 2012-03-01. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Census Profile - Census Subdivision". 2.statcan.ca. 2012-02-01. Retrieved 2012-03-01. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Washington population by city - Census 2010: Washington". The Spokesman-Review . Retrieved 12 July 2011. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Census Profile - Census Subdivision". 2.statcan.ca. 2012-02-01. Retrieved 2012-03-01. * ^ "Census Profile - Census Subdivision". 2.statcan.ca. 2012-02-01. Retrieved 2012-03-01. * ^ "Census Profile - Census Subdivision". 2.statcan.ca. 2012-02-01. Retrieved 2012-03-01. * ^ "Census Profile - Census Subdivision". 2.statcan.ca. 2012-02-01. Retrieved 2012-03-01. * ^ "Census Profile - Census Subdivision". 2.statcan.ca. 2012-02-01. Retrieved 2012-03-01. * ^ "QuickFacts Whatcom County Washington". Retrieved 2017-02-05. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Census Profile - Census Subdivision". 2.statcan.ca. 2012-02-01. Retrieved 2012-03-01. * ^ _A_ _B_ "USA: Oregon". Citypopulation.de. 2010. Retrieved 25 June 2012. * ^ "Census Profile - Census Subdivision". 2.statcan.ca. 2012-02-01. Retrieved 2012-03-01. * ^ http://data.spokesman.com/census/2010/idaho/cities/meridian-id/ * ^ Font size Print E-mail Share (2000-10-25). "Northwest Passage". CBS News. Retrieved 2010-08-18. * ^ Archived June 29, 2011, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ "Communism in Washington State - History and Memory Project". Depts.washington.edu. Retrieved 2011-02-19. * ^ "HistoryLink Essay: Group Health Cooperative - Part 1: Planting the Seeds, 1911-1945". Historylink.org. 2005-11-13. Retrieved 2011-02-19. * ^ Aluminum, Columbia River History, Northwest Power & Conservation Council * ^ Arthur Frommer (2008-12-08). "Vancouver\'s melting pot makes a terrific cultural stew". _ Chicago Tribune _. Archived from the original on 2013-12-03. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link ) * ^ The Republic of Cascadia Retrieved on 2009-12-23 * ^ "Retrieved on 2009-12-23". Cascadia-bioregion.tripod.com. 1924-05-03. Retrieved 2011-02-19. * ^ _A_ _B_ Abbott, Carl (2002). "8. That Long Western Border". In Findlay, John M.; Coates, Ken S. _Parallel Destinies: Canadian-American Relations West of the Rockies_. University of Washington Press. pp. 203–213–5. ISBN 978-0-295-98252-6 . Retrieved 14 December 2010. * ^ Frequently Asked Questions - Medical Use of Marihuana, Health Canada * ^ Washington Medical Marijuana Legality, Washington State RCW * ^ " Oregon Medical Marijuana Legality". Oregon.gov. 2011-02-01. Archived from the original on 2009-01-22. Retrieved 2011-02-19. * ^ Richardson, Jeff (22 May 2011). "Without dispensaries, Alaska has avoided federal medical marijuana prosecutions". Juneau Empire. Retrieved 14 June 2012. * ^ Oke, Chris (14 May 2010). "Medical marijuana, coming to a store near you". Yukon News. Retrieved 14 June 2012. * ^ Martin, Jonathan (November 6, 2012). "Voters agree to legalize pot". Seattle Times. Retrieved November 6, 2012. * ^ "November 5, 2012 General Election Results.". The state of Washington. 2012-11-05. Archived from the original on November 12, 2012. * ^ Svoboda, Elizabeth (2010-08-07). "America\'s 50 Greenest Cities Popular Science". Popsci.com. Retrieved 2010-08-18. * ^ _A_ _B_ Bower, Craig S. (2008-06-19). "North America\'s most bike-friendly cities - Travel - Active Travel - msnbc.com". MSNBC. Retrieved 2010-08-18. * ^ "The Best Cities for Public Transportation SmartAsset.com". _smartasset.com_. Retrieved 2016-05-10. * ^ "Anti-whaling boat owned by San Juan\'s Sea Shepherd Society takes on water near Antarctica". _Journal of the San Juans_. January 6, 2010. Retrieved September 11, 2016. * ^ _“Louie Louie” and the History of Northwest Rock and Radio._ DVD. Directed by SoundWorks USA. Rolling Bay, WA: Soundworks USA, 2012. * ^ Edge, John T. (January 5, 2010), "A City’s Specialty, Japanese in Name Only", _ The New York Times _ * ^ Kauffman, Jonathan (August 14, 2007), "How Teriyaki Became Seattle\'s Own Fast-Food Phenomenon", _ Seattle Weekly _ * ^ Gross, Matt (May 10, 2009). "Frugal Portland". _The New York Times_. Retrieved May 20, 2010. * ^ "Spirit of 12". Seahawks.com. Archived from the original on February 9, 2009. Retrieved 2010-08-18. * ^ http://www.gohuskies.com/facilities/husky-stadium.html * ^ http://www.michigandaily.com/content/j-brady-mccollough-duck-duck-lose * ^ " Seattle Top Gaming City?". Digital Trends. May 2, 2006. * ^ "uwnews.washington.edu". uwnews.washington.edu. 1997-01-15. Retrieved 2011-02-19. * ^ Quintard Taylor, "Blacks and Asians in a white city: Japanese Americans and African Americans in Seattle, 1890-1940." _Western Historical Quarterly_ (1991): 401-429.in JSTOR * ^ Quintard Taylor, "The Emergence of Black Communities in the Pacific Northwest: 1865-1910." _Journal of Negro History_ (1979): 342-354. in JSTOR * ^ "Can We Still Speak Chinook?". Thetyee.ca. Retrieved 2011-02-19. * ^ " Religion and Public Life in the Pacific Northwest". Religionatlas.org. Retrieved 2011-02-19. * ^ "Charting the unchurched in America". _USA Today_. March 7, 2002. Retrieved May 20, 2010. * ^ "Religious identification in the U.S". Religioustolerance.org. Retrieved 2011-02-19. * ^ "American Religious Identification Survey" (PDF). March 2009. * ^ "National Household Survey". 2011. * ^ Vance, Chris (July 24, 2007). "Crosscut Seattle - Why Washington Republicans got creamed in 2006 and what they can do about it". Crosscut.com . Archived from the original on July 29, 2012. Retrieved 2011-08-13. * ^ Yardley, William (April 11, 2008). "Dalai Lama Arrives for a Five-Day Conference in Seattle, Very Much His Kind of Town". _The New York Times_. Retrieved May 20, 2010. * ^ Mennonite Central Committee Supportive Care Services Archived August 19, 2006, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ "ABC News: School Says Halloween Disrespectful to Witches". Abcnews.go.com. 2004-10-21. Retrieved 2011-02-19. * ^ Janine Robben (May 19, 2004). "the Prophet margin". _wweek.com_. Retrieved November 22, 2012. * ^ Oregon Historical Society article about Old Believers. Retrieved February 9, 2007.
* Blair, Karen J., ed. _Women in Pacific Northwest History: An Anthology_ (2nd ed. U of Washington Press, 2014). * Blumm, Michael C. "Environment, Economy, and Community in the Pacific Northwest." _Public Land and Resources Law Review_ 17.1 (2013): 2+ online * Gastil, Raymond D., and Barnett Singer. _The Pacific Northwest: Growth of a Regional Identity_ (McFarland, 2010) 221 pp. ISBN 978-0-7864-4540-0 * Inglis, Robin. _Historical Dictionary of the Discovery and Exploration of the Northwest Coast of America_ (Scarecrow, 2008) lxxvi+429 pp. ISBN 978-0-8108-5551-9 * Lavender, David. _Land of Giants: The Drive to the Pacific Northwest, 1750- 1950_ (1958) online * Pomeroy, Earl. _The Pacific Slope: A History Of California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Utah, And Nevada_ (2nd ed. 2003) * Schwantes, Carlos. _The Pacific Northwest: An Interpretive History_ (2nd ed. 1996) online * Vogel, Eve. "Defining one Pacific Northwest among many possibilities: The political construction of a region and its river during the New Deal." _Western Historical Quarterly_ 42.1 (2011): 28-53. in JSTOR * Warren, Sidney. _Farthest Frontier: The Pacific Northwest_ (1949) online * White, Richard. _The organic machine: The remaking of the Columbia River_ (Macmillan, 2011) online (PDF) * Winther, Oscar Osburn. _The great northwest: a history_ (Greenwood Press, 1981)
_ Wikivoyage has a travel guide for PACIFIC NORTHWEST _.
_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to PACIFIC NORTHWEST _.
* v * t * e
Regions of North America