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Pacific Islanders or Pasifikas are the peoples of the Pacific Islands. It is a geographic term to describe the inhabitants of any of the three major sub-regions of Oceania: Micronesia, Melanesia
Melanesia
and Polynesia. These people speak various Austronesian languages. New Zealand
New Zealand
has the largest concentration of Pacific Islanders in the world. However, the majority of its people are not identified as Pacific Islanders—instead during the 20th century the country has seen a steady stream of immigration from Polynesian countries such as Samoa, Tonga, the Cook Islands, Niue
Niue
and French Polynesia.

Contents

1 Pacific Islander
Pacific Islander
regions

1.1 Polynesia 1.2 Melanesia 1.3 Micronesia

2 Ethnolinguistics 3 Usage of phrase by country

3.1 Australia 3.2 New Zealand 3.3 United States

4 List of Pacific peoples 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

Pacific Islander
Pacific Islander
regions[edit] See also: Pacific Islands According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, the Pacific islands consist of three regions: Polynesia[edit] The islands scattered across a triangle covering the east-central region of the Pacific Ocean. The triangle is bound by the Hawaiian Islands in the north, New Zealand
New Zealand
in the west, and Easter Island
Easter Island
in the east. The rest of Polynesia
Polynesia
includes the Samoan islands
Samoan islands
(American Samoa
Samoa
and Western Samoa), the Cook Islands, French Polynesia
Polynesia
(Tahiti and The Society Islands, Marquesas Islands, Austral Islands, and the Tuamotu Archipelago), Niue
Niue
Island, Tokelau
Tokelau
and Tuvalu, Tonga, Wallis and Futuna, and Pitcairn Island. Melanesia[edit] The island of New Guinea, the Bismarck and Louisiade archipelagos, the Admiralty Islands, Bougainville Island, Papua New Guinea, Aru Islands, the Solomon Islands, the Santa Cruz Islands
Santa Cruz Islands
(part of the Solomon Islands), New Caledonia
New Caledonia
and Loyalty Islands, Vanuatu
Vanuatu
(formerly New Hebrides), Fiji, Norfolk Island, and various smaller islands. Micronesia[edit] The islands of Kiribati, Nauru, the Marianas
Marianas
( Guam
Guam
and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands), the Republic of the Marshall Islands, Palau, and the Federated States of Micronesia
Micronesia
(Yap, Chuuk, Pohnpei, and Kosrae, all in the Caroline Islands). Sometimes Micronesia
Micronesia
as East Asia The Pacific islands may also refer to any of the other islands in the Pacific Ocean. Ethnolinguistics[edit] Ethnolinguistically, those Pacific islanders who reside in Oceania
Oceania
are divided into two different ethnic classifications.

Austronesian language peoples

Austronesian peoples
Austronesian peoples
who speak the Oceanian languages, numbering about 2.3 million, who occupy Polynesia, Micronesia, and most of the smaller islands of Melanesia.

Papuan language peoples

Papuan peoples, those who speak the Papuan languages, who number about 7 million, and reside on the island of New Guinea
New Guinea
and a few of the smaller islands of Melanesia
Melanesia
located off the northeast coast of New Guinea.[1]

Usage of phrase by country[edit] Australia[edit] In Australia the term South Sea Islander
South Sea Islander
was used to describe Australian descendants of people from the more than 80 islands in the western Pacific who had been brought to Australia to work on the sugar fields of Queensland,[2] in the 19th century called Kanakas. The Pacific Island Labourers Act 1901
Pacific Island Labourers Act 1901
was enacted to restrict entry of Pacific Islanders to Australia and to authorise their deportation. In the legislation Pacific Islanders were defined as:

"Pacific Island Labourer" includes all natives not of European extraction of any island except the islands of New Zealand
New Zealand
situated in the Pacific Ocean beyond the Commonwealth [of Australia] as constituted at the commencement of this Act.[3]

In 2008 a Pacific Seasonal Worker Pilot Scheme was announced as a three-year pilot scheme.[4] The scheme provides visas for workers from Kiribati, Tonga, Vanuatu
Vanuatu
and Papua New Guinea
New Guinea
to work in Australia.[5] The pilot scheme includes one country each from Melanesia
Melanesia
(Vanuatu), Polynesia
Polynesia
(Tonga) and Micronesia
Micronesia
(Kiribati), countries which already send workers to New Zealand
New Zealand
under its seasonal labour scheme. Australia's pilot scheme also includes Papua New Guinea.[6][7] New Zealand[edit] Further information: Samoan New Zealanders, Tongan New Zealanders, and List of ethnic origins of New Zealanders

Cook Island dancers at Auckland's Pasifika Festival, 2010

Local usage in New Zealand
New Zealand
uses "Pacific islander" (or Pasifika) to distinguish those who have emigrated from one of these areas in modern times from the indigenous New Zealand
New Zealand
Māori, who are also Polynesian but arrived in New Zealand
New Zealand
centuries earlier. In the 2013 New Zealand
New Zealand
census, 7.4 percent of the New Zealand population identified with one or more Pacific ethnic groups, although 62.3 percent of these were born in New Zealand.[8] Those with a Samoan background make up the largest proportion, followed by Cook Islands Maori, Tongan, and Niuean.[8] Some smaller island populations such as Niue
Niue
and Tokelau
Tokelau
have the majority of their nationals living in New Zealand.[9] To celebrate the diverse Pacific island cultures, the Auckland
Auckland
region hosts several Pacific island festivals. Two of the major ones are Polyfest, which showcases performances of the secondary school cultural groups in the Auckland
Auckland
region,[10] and Pasifika, a festival that celebrates Pacific island heritage through traditional food, music, dance, and entertainment.[11] United States[edit] According to the U.S. Bureau of the Census, Population Estimates Program (PEP), a " Native Hawaiian
Native Hawaiian
and Other Pacific Islander" is "A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific islands. It includes people who indicate their race as 'Native Hawaiian', 'Guamanian or "Chamorro', 'Samoan', and 'Other Pacific Islander' or provide other detailed Pacific Islander responses."[12] According to the Office of Management and Budget, " Native Hawaiian
Native Hawaiian
or Other Pacific Islander" refers to a person having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands. The term Pacific Islands
Pacific Islands
American is used for ethnic Pacific islander residents in U.S. states, and in the territories of the United States in the region.[13] List of Pacific peoples[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (August 2008)

Austronesian-speaking peoples

Polynesians

Western Polynesian-Melanesian region

Samoans Fijians
Fijians
Lauan Group Rotumans Uveans Futunans Tokelauans Tongans Tuvaluans Niueans

Northeast & South Polynesian region

Hawaiians Māori Tahitians Tuamotuans Tubuai

Rapans

Marquesans Gambier Islanders Cook Islanders Rapanui

Melanesians

'Are'are people Kanak people Kwaio people Motuan people Ni-Vanuatu Fijians

Micronesians

Marshallese Palauans Carolinians Chamorros Chuukese Yapese Kosraens Pohnpeians Nauruans

See also[edit]

Polynesian people Austronesian peoples Asian American and Pacific Islander
Pacific Islander
Policy Research Consortium Pacific Islands
Pacific Islands
Americans Indigenous peoples
Indigenous peoples
of Oceania Indigenous Australians Australian Aborigines Taiwanese Aborigines Tasmanian Aborigines Blackbirding

References[edit]

^ " Pacific Islands
Pacific Islands
on Encyclopædia Britannica".  ^ " South Sea Islander
South Sea Islander
Project". ABC Radio Regional Production Fund. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 2004. Retrieved 2008-08-27. Recognition for Australian South Sea Islanders (ASSI) has been a long time coming. It was not until 1994 that the federal government recognized them as a distinct ethnic group with their own history and culture and not until September 2000 that the Queensland government made a formal statement of recognition.  ^ " Pacific Island Labourers Act 1901
Pacific Island Labourers Act 1901
(Cth)" (PDF). Documenting a Democracy. National Archives of Australia. 1901. Retrieved 2008-08-27.  ^ Australian Institute of Criminology: Australia's Pacific Seasonal Worker Pilot Scheme: Managing vulnerabilities to exploitation ^ "Pacific guestworker scheme to start this year". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 2008-08-17.  ^ "Seasonal Worker Pilot Scheme is more proof of Australia's new Pacific focus" (Press release). The Hon Duncan Kerr SC MP; Parliamentary Secretary for Pacific Island Affairs. 2008-08-20.  ^ Australian classification standards code Pacific islanders, Oceanians, South Sea islanders, and Australasians all with code 1000, i.e., identically. This coding can be broken down into the finer classification of 1,100 Australian Peoples; 1,200 New Zealand
New Zealand
peoples; 1,300 Melanesian and Papuan; 1,400 Micronesian; 1,500 Polynesian. There is no specific coding therefore for "Pacific islander"."Australian Standard Classification of Cultural and Ethnic Groups (ASCCEG) - 2nd edition" (pdf - 136 pages). Australian Bureau of Statistics. 2005-07-07. Retrieved 2008-08-27.  ^ a b "Pacific peoples ethnic group", 2013 Census. Statistics New Zealand. Accessed on 18 August 2017. ^ Smelt, and Lin, 1998 ^ "Polyfest NCEA credits / Pasifika Education Plan / Home - Pasifika". Te Kete Ipurangi (TKI). Retrieved 18 August 2017.  ^ "Thousands turn out for Pasifika Festival". Radio New Zealand. 25 March 2017. Retrieved 18 August 2017.  ^ "Information on Race". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on April 3, 2013. Retrieved March 27, 2013.  ^ Gary Y. Okihiro, American History Unbound: Asians and Pacific Islanders (University of California Press, 2015). xiv, 499 pp.

Further reading[edit]

Lal, B., & Fortune, K. (Eds.). (2000). The Pacific Islands: An encyclopedia. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press. Okihiro, Gary Y. American History Unbound: Asians and Pacific Islanders (University of California Press, 2015). xiv, 499 pp. Smelt, R., & Lin, Y. (1998). Cultures of the world: New Zealand. Tarrytown, NY: Marshall Cavendish Benchmark Thomas, Nicholas, Islanders: The Pacific in the Age of Empire, Yale University Press, 2010. ISBN 978-0-300-12438-5

External links[edit]

Statistics New Zealand
New Zealand
. Retrieved March 21, 2013. Asian Pacific Americans in the U.S. Army Native Hawaiian
Native Hawaiian
Pacific Islander
Pacific Islander
Association

v t e

Culture of indigenous Oceania

List of resources about traditional arts and culture of Oceania

Art

Ahu Australia Austronesia Cook Islands Hawaiʻi kapa (Hawaiʻi) Lei magimagi moai New Zealand

Māori

nguzu nguzu Oceania Papua New Guinea reimiro tā moko tabua ta'ovala tapa ["masi" (Fiji), "ngatu" (Tonga), "siapo" (Sāmoa), " ʻuha" (Rotuma)] tattoo tēfui tivaevae

Broad culture

areca nut kava, " ʻawa" (Hawaii), "yaqona" (Fiji), or "sakau" (Pohnpei) Kava
Kava
culture Lapita Māori Polynesia Polynesian navigation Sāmoa 'ava ceremony wood carving

Geo-specific, general

Australia

Australian Aboriginal astronomy)

Austronesia Caroline Islands, -Pwo Chatham Islands Cook Islands Easter Island Fiji

Lau Islands traditions and ceremonies

Guam Hawaiʻi

Lomilomi massage

Kiribati French Polynesia's Marquesas Islands Marshall Islands

Stick charts of

Federated States of Micronesia Nauru New Caledonia New Zealand Niue Norfolk Island Palau Papua New Guinea Pitcairn Islands Sāmoa Solomon Islands Tonga Torres Strait Islands Tuvalu Vanuatu Wallis and Futuna Yap

navigation Weriyeng navigation school

Canoes

Aboriginal Dugout Alingano Maisu Bangka Drua Dugout (boat) Hawaiʻiloa Hōkūleʻa Kaep Karakoa Malia (Hawaiian) Māori migration Outrigger Paraw Polynesian sailing Proa Vinta Waka

list

Walap

Dance

'Aparima cibi fara fire dancing firewalking haka hivinau hula kailao kapa haka Kiribati meke 'ote'a pa'o'a poi Rotuma siva Tahiti tāmūrē tautoga Tonga 'upa'upa

Festivals

Australia

Garma Festival

Hawaiʻi

Aloha Festivals Merrie Monarch Festival World Invitational Hula
Hula
Festival

Fiji New Zealand

Pasifika Festival

The Pacific Community

Festival of Pacific Arts

Papua New Guinea

Languages

by area

v t e

Languages of Oceania

Sovereign states

Australia Federated States of Micronesia Fiji Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru New Zealand Palau Papua New Guinea Samoa Solomon Islands Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu

Associated states of New Zealand

Cook Islands Niue

Dependencies and other territories

American Samoa Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Easter Island French Polynesia Guam Hawaii New Caledonia Norfolk Island Northern Mariana Islands Pitcairn Islands Tokelau Wallis and Futuna

by category

Languages of Oceania

Literature

v t e

Literature of Oceania

Sovereign states

Australia Federated States of Micronesia Fiji Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru New Zealand Palau Papua New Guinea Samoa Solomon Islands Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu

Associated states of New Zealand

Cook Islands Niue

Dependencies and other territories

American Samoa Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Easter Island French Polynesia Guam Hawaii New Caledonia Norfolk Island Northern Mariana Islands Pitcairn Islands Tokelau Wallis and Futuna

Music

Austral Islands
Austral Islands
(French Polynesia) Australia Austronesia Cook Islands Easter Island Fiji Guam Hawaiʻi Kiribati Lali Melanesia Micronesia Federated States of Micronesia Nauru New Caledonia New Zealand

Māori

Niue Northern Mariana Islands Palau Papua New Guinea Polynesia Sāmoa Slit drum Solomon Islands Tahiti Tokelau Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu Wallis and Futuna

Mythology

Australian Aboriginal Fijian Hawaiian Mangarevan Maohi Māori Melanesian Menehune Micronesian Oceanian legendary creatures Polynesian Rapa Nui Samoan Tuvaluan Vanuatuan

Research

Asian American and Pacific Islander
Pacific Islander
Policy Research Consortium Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies

People

Indigneous Australian Austronesian Bajau Chamorro Chatham Islander (Moriori or Rekohu) Fijian (iTaukei) Igorot Hawaiian (kānaka maoli) Māori Marshallese Melanesian Micronesian Negrito Norfolk Islander Papuan Polynesian Indigenous Polynesian (Mā’ohi) Rapa Nui Rotuman Ryukyuan Samoan (Tagata Māo‘i) Tahitian Taiwanese aborigines Tongan Torres Strait Islander Yami

Religion

v t e

Religion in Oceania

Sovereign states

Australia Federated States of Micronesia Fiji Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru New Zealand Palau Papua New Guinea Samoa Solomon Islands Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu

Associated states of New Zealand

Cook Islands Niue

Dependencies and other territories

American Samoa Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Easter Island French Polynesia Guam Hawaii New Caledonia Norfolk Island Northern Mariana Islands Pitcairn Islands Tokelau Wallis and Futuna

Not included: Oceanian: cinema, (indigenous) currency, dress, folkore, cuisine. Also see Category:Oceanian culture.

v t e

Indigenous peoples
Indigenous peoples
of the world by continent

Africa

Asia

Europe

North America

Oceania

South America

Indigenous peoples
Indigenous peoples
by

.