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Pachacamac
Pachacamac
(Quechua: Pachakamaq) is an archaeological site 40 kilometres (25 mi) southeast of Lima, Peru
Peru
in the Valley of the Lurín River. The site was first settled around A.D. 200 and was named after the "Earth Maker" creator god Pacha Kamaq. The site flourished for about 1,300 years until the Spanish invaded. Pachacamac
Pachacamac
covers about 600 hectares of land.

Contents

1 Pacha Kamaq
Pacha Kamaq
God 2 Pyramids of Pachacamac

2.1 Temple of the Sun 2.2 Other Structures 2.3 Grave Sites

3 Outside influences 4 Spanish Invasion 5 In popular culture 6 References 7 Bibliography 8 External links

Pacha Kamaq
Pacha Kamaq
God[edit] Pacha Kamaq
Pacha Kamaq
('Earth-Maker') was considered the creator god by the people who lived in this part of Peru
Peru
before the Inca
Inca
conquest. The Inca
Inca
took him into their pantheon,[1]:187 but was not an equal of Viracocha; Virachocha
Virachocha
was seen as being more powerful. The myths that survive of Pacha Kamaq
Pacha Kamaq
are sparse and confused: some accounts, for example, identify him as Manco Cápac's cowardly brother Ayca, while others say that he, Manco Cápac
Manco Cápac
and Viracocha
Viracocha
were the sole three sons of Inti, the sun god. Another story says that he made the first man and the first woman, but forgot to give them food – and when the man died and the woman prayed over Pachacamac's head to his father Inti
Inti
to make her the mother of all the peoples of earth, Pachacamac
Pachacamac
was furious. One by one, as the children were born, he tried to kill them – only to be beaten and to be thrown into the sea by her hero-son Wichama, after which he gave up the struggle and contented himself by becoming the supreme god of fish. Pyramids of Pachacamac[edit] In the 1890s archaeologists first began exploring Pachacamac. They found many enormous buildings and burials that had been previously looted. The first (sacred) section of the site includes temples of religious significance and a large cemetery. The second section includes several buildings which are mainly secular pyramids. In this complex of buildings were mud-brick stepped pyramids with ramps and plazas. These buildings were dated between the late 1300s and the mid-1400s. The three most famous pyramids are all found in the first sacred section. These are the Painted Temple, the Temple of the Sun, and the Old Temple of Pachacamac. Peter Eekhout is an archaeologist who studied and excavated the site of Pachacamac. According to Eekhout, "For decades most scholars thought the pyramids (from the second section) were religious "embassies" that housed delegations from far-off communities who came to worship, bring tribute, and make offerings to Pachacamac". However, Eekhout came to a different conclusion after his work at the site. Eekhout and his team found that the structures lacked the features that characterized religious centers of the time. He concluded that the structures were used as palaces for the Ychsma (EESH-ma) lords who ruled Pachacamac. Temple of the Sun[edit] The Temple of the Sun (seen below) is 30,000m squared in size and is in the shape of a trapezoid. It has the common step pyramid architecture which forms terraces around the structure. This temple has been dated to the time of Inca
Inca
control over Pachacamac. Even though there is no concrete proof, some archaeologists believe human sacrifices may have taken place at this the Temple. Sacrifices of women and children were found in an Inca
Inca
cemetery within a portion of the structure. Burial goods found with the sacrifices point to the sacrifices originating from coastal societies.[2] Unfortunately archaeologists are limited in their knowledge of this site because the Temple of the Sun and many other pyramids at Pachacamac
Pachacamac
have been irreversibly damaged by looting and the El Niño
El Niño
weather phenomenon.

Main entrance of the Temple of the Sun (Templo del Sol)

The front side (facing the sea) of the Temple of the Sun

Eastern side of the Temple of the Sun

Southern side of the Temple of the Sun

Walls of the Temple of the Sun

More walls of the Temple of the Sun

Other Structures[edit] Most of the common buildings and temples were built c. 800-1450 CE, shortly before the arrival and conquest by the Inca
Inca
Empire.

Mamacones Enclosure (Recinto de Mamacones)

Tauri Chumbi Palace

Pyramid with ramp

Calle Norte Sur (street)

Grave Sites[edit] Archaeologists had uncovered multiple grave sites. Each site may date back to different time periods of Pachacamac's history, and these grave sites are located in different parts of the city. In the Southeastern part of the city in the Temple of Inti
Inti
(The Inca
Inca
Sun God), archeologists had found a cemetery that was set apart for the mamacuna (Virgins for the Sun), women who had important status. These women wove textiles for priests, and brewed corn beer which was used in Inca
Inca
festivals. The women were sacrificed in the highest ritual; they had been strangled with cotton garrote, and some women still had the cotton twisted around their neck. They were wrapped in fine cloth and they were buried in stone tombs and each have been surround by offering found in the highlands of Peru
Peru
area such as coca, quinoa, and cayenne peppers.[3] In 2012, Belgian archeologists found a 1000 year old tomb in front of the Pachacamac
Pachacamac
containing over 80 skeletons and mummies, many of which were infants. The tomb contained offerings such as ceramic vessels, copper and gold alloy objects, wooden masks, and dogs and guinea pigs.[3][4] Outside influences[edit] The Huari (c. 600-800 CE) reconstructed the city, probably using it as an administrative center. A number of Huari-influenced designs appear on the structures and on the ceramics and textiles found in the cemeteries of this period. After the collapse of the Huari empire, Pachacamac
Pachacamac
continued to grow as a religious center. The majority of the common architecture and temples were built during this stage (c. 800-1450 CE). The Inca Empire
Inca Empire
invaded Pachacamac
Pachacamac
and took over the site around 1470. For the Inca, Pachacamac
Pachacamac
was extremely important to religion as well as an important administration center. When the Inca
Inca
started their conquest, they had their own creation god, Viracocha. However, out of respect for the religion of their conquered people, the Inca
Inca
entered Pacha Kamaq
Pacha Kamaq
into their religion, but Pacha Kamaq
Pacha Kamaq
and Viracocha
Viracocha
were not equals, Viracocha
Viracocha
was believed to be more powerful.[5] Still, Pachacamac
Pachacamac
was allowed an unusual amount of independence from the Inca Empire[2] By the time the Tawantinsuyu ( Inca
Inca
Empire) invaded the area, the valleys of the Rímac and Lurín had a small state which the people called Ichma. They used Pachacamac
Pachacamac
primarily as a religious site for the veneration of the Pacha Kamaq, the creator god. The Ichma
Ichma
joined the Incan Empire along with Pachacamac. The Inca
Inca
maintained it as a religious shrine and allowed the Pachacamac
Pachacamac
priests to continue functioning independently of the Inca
Inca
priesthood. This included the oracle, whom the Inca
Inca
presumably consulted. The Inca
Inca
built five additional buildings, including a temple to the sun on the main square. Archaeologists believe pilgrims may have played a part in life at Pachacamac
Pachacamac
for a couple thousand years before the Inca
Inca
claimed the site as part of their empire.[2] Spanish Invasion[edit] At sites like Pachacamac, the Spanish used local resentment of the Inca
Inca
as a tactic for overthrowing Inca
Inca
rule.[2] After the Battle of Cajamarca, Francisco Pizarro
Francisco Pizarro
sent his brother Hernando Pizarro, and fourteen horsemen, to Pachacamac
Pachacamac
to collect its gold riches. According to Cieza, the priests learned of the Spanish defilement of the Cuzco
Cuzco
temple, and "ordered the virgin mamaconas to leave the Temple of the Sun from where - as well as from the Temple of Pachacamac
Pachacamac
- they say they removed more than four hundred cargas of gold. They hid it in secret places, and it has not appeared to this day, nor will it appear, except by chance, because all those who knew about it and hid it, as well as those ordered it, are dead." Hernando departed Cajamarca on 5 Jan. 1533, and returned on 14 April 1533, after defiling the temple. On the return trip through the Jauja Valley, Hernando received the surrender of Chalcuchimac.[6]:237-237 "In a few years the walls of the temple were pulled down by the Spanish settlers, who found there a convenient quarry for their own edifices."[1]:189 In popular culture[edit]

Pachacamac
Pachacamac
was the name of the ship that carried the abducted Professor Calculus
Professor Calculus
in The Seven Crystal Balls
The Seven Crystal Balls
of The Adventures of Tintin. In the next book, Prisoners of the Sun, Pachacamac
Pachacamac
was the name of the Sun god
Sun god
worshiped by an ancient Incan tribe still active in South America. In the sixth book, The Broken Ear, a wooden head of Pachacamac
Pachacamac
is exhibited in the museum of Ethnography in Brussels. A character in the video game Sonic Adventure
Sonic Adventure
is named Pachacamac after the ancient ruin. Pachacamac
Pachacamac
was also the name of the main villain in Juken Sentai Gekiranger vs. Boukenger, a crossover direct-to-video movie. West German group Alphaville included a song named "Girl from Pachacamac" in their 2003 album CrazyShow.

References[edit]

^ a b Prescott, W.H., 2011, The History of the Conquest of Peru, Digireads.com Publishing, ISBN 9781420941142 ^ a b c d D'Altroy, Terence (2003). The Incas. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. pp. 142, 194, 255, 315. ISBN 978-1405116763.  ^ a b "The little-known Pachacamac
Pachacamac
mummies of Peru". Ancient Origins. Retrieved 2015-12-06.  ^ Fleming, Stuart. "The Mummies of Pachacamac" (PDF). penn.museum. Retrieved December 6, 2015.  ^ " Inca
Inca
Religion: Other Gods - Tackk". Tackk. Retrieved 2015-12-06.  ^ Leon, P., 1998, The Discovery and Conquest of Peru, Chronicles of the New World Encounter, edited and translated by Cook and Cook, Durham: Duke University Press, ISBN 9780822321460

Bibliography[edit]

Mcleish, K. (1996) Myths and Legends of the World, The Complete Companion to all Traditions, Blitz, United Kingdom.[page needed] Eeckhout, Peter (2005). "Ancient Peru's Power Elite". National Geographic. 207 (3): 52–57.  De Cieza De León, Pedro. (1998) The Discovery and Conquest of Peru: Chronicles of the New World Encounter, Duke University Press, Durham and London. Van Stan, Ina. (1967) Textiles From Beneath the Temple of Pachacamac, Peru, The University Museum University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Boone, Elizabeth and Tom Cummins. (1998) Native Traditions in the Postconquest World, Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, D.C. Ravines, Rogger. (1996) Pachacamac: Santuario Universal, Editorial Los Pinos E.I.R.L.

External links[edit]

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v t e

Archaeological
Archaeological
sites in Peru

Acaray Amaru Marka Wasi Arhuaturo Asana Asiru Phat'jata Aspero Awila Qhincha Mach'ay Awkin Punta Awkillu Waqra Awkimarka (Apurímac) Awkimarka (Huánuco) Awqa Punta Aya Muqu Ayamachay Ayawayq'u Azángaro Baths of Boza Bandurria Buena Vista Cahuachi Cajamarquilla Cao Viejo Carajía Caral Caves of Sumbay Cerro Baúl Cerro Pátapo Cerro Trinidad Chacamarca Chan Chan Chanquillo Chauchilla Cemetery Chavín de Huantar Chawaytiri Chichakuri Chipaw Marka Choquepuquio Choquequirao Chuqik'iraw Pukyu Churajón Chuya Ch'iqullu Cochabamba Colcampata Cota Coca Coricancha Cumbe Mayo El Brujo El Cañoncillo El Ingenio El Paraíso Garagay Gran Pajatén Gran Vilaya Guitarrero Cave Hatun Mach'ay Hatun Misapata Hatun Rumiyoc Hatun Uchku Hatun Usnu Hatunmarka Honcopampa Huaca de la Luna Huaca del Dragón Huaca del Sol Huaca Huallamarca Huaca Prieta Huaca Pucllana Huaca San Marcos Huaca Santa Ana Huacramarca Huamanmarca, La Convención Huamboy Huánuco Pampa Huari Huayna Picchu Huayrapongo Huiñao Incahuasi, Lima Inka Mach'ay Inka Raqay, Apurímac Inka Raqay, Ayacucho Inka Tampu, Cajamarca Inka Tampu, Huayopata Inka Tampu, Vilcabamba Inka Tunuwiri Inka Uyu Inka Wasi, Ayacucho Inka Wasi, Huancavelica Inkapintay Inkill Tampu Inti
Inti
Punku Inti
Inti
Watana, Ayacucho Inti
Inti
Watana, Calca Inti
Inti
Watana, Urubamba Intikancha Intini Uyu Pata Intipa Ñawin Intiyuq K'uchu Iskuqucha Isog Jinkiori Jisk'a Iru Muqu Kanamarka Kanichi Kenko Killa Mach'ay Killa Rumi Killarumiyuq Kiswar Kotosh Kuelap Kukuli Kuntur Wasi Kunturmarka, Ayacucho Kunturmarka, Pasco Kuntur Qaqa Kuntuyuq Kusichaka valley Kutimpu Khichuqaqa Khuchi Mach'ay K'allapayuq Urqu K'ipakhara Laguna de las Momias Lauricocha Caves Layzón Llamachayuq Llamachayuq Qaqa Llamayuq Llamuqa Llaqta Qulluy, Acoria Llaqta Qulluy, Conayca Llaqta Qulluy, Tayacaja Llaqta Qulluy, Vilca Llaqtan Llaqtapata Machu Picchu Machu Pirqa Machu Pitumarka Machu Q'inti Machu Qullqa Mameria Maray Qalla Marayniyuq Marcahuamachuco Markahirka Markansaya Markapukyu Marpa Mawk'allaqta, Castilla Mawk'allaqta, Espinar Mawk'allaqta, La Unión Mawk'allaqta, Melgar Mawk'allaqta, Paruro Mawk'allaqta, Sandia Mawk'ataray Mayqu Amaya Mazur Miculla Millka Miraflores Mirq'imarka Miyu Pampa Moray Mulinuyuq Mullu Q'awa Mulluq'u Muyu Muyu Muyu Urqu Muyuq Marka Nazca Lines Nina Kiru Ninamarca Ñawpallaqta, Huanca Sancos Ñawpallaqta, Fajardo Ñawpallaqta, Lucanas Ñusta Hispana Ollantaytambo Pacatnamu Pachacamac Pachatusan Paiján Pañamarca Paracas Candelabra Paraccra Patallaqta Phiruru Pikillaqta Pikimach'ay Pilluchu Pinkuylluna Pirca Pirca, La Libertad Pirca Pirca, Lima Pirhuaylla Pirwayuq Písac Puka Pukara Puka Tampu Puka Urqu Pukara, Coporaque Pukara, Fajardo Pukara, Puno Pukara, Vilcas Huamán Pukarani Pumamarka, San Sebastián Pumamarka, Urubamba Pumaq Hirka Pumawasi Punkuri Puqin Kancha Puruchuco Purunllacta, Cheto Purunllacta, Soloco Pusharo Pusuquy Pata Phuyupatamarka Qaqapatan Qenko Qillqatani Quchapata Qillqa Qillqay Mach'ay Quiaca Qullqapampa Qulu Qulu Qunchamarka Qunchupata Quri Winchus Qurimarka, Apurímac Qurimarka, Cusco Quriwayrachina, Anta Quriwayrachina, Ayacucho Quriwayrachina, La Convención Quyllur Q'arachupa Qasa Pata Qhapaq Kancha Q'illaywasin Raqch'i Revash Rumicolca Rumiwasi Runayuq Runkuraqay Saksaywaman Sara Sara Sayacmarca Sayhuite Sechín Sillustani Sipán Sóndor Susupillu Tambo Totem Tambomachay Tampu Mach'ay, Huancavelica Tampukancha Tanqa Tanqa Tantarica Taqrachullu Tarahuasi Tarmatambo Templo del Zorro The Toads of Wiraqucha Tikra Tinyaq Tipón Titiqaqa Toquepala Caves Toro Muerto Trinchera Túcume Tunanmarca Tunay Q'asa Tupu Inka T'akaq T'uqu T'uquyuq Uchkus Inkañan Urpish Uskallaqta Usnu, Ayacucho Usnu, Huánuco Usnu Muqu Usqunta Uyu Uyu Venado cautivo Ventanillas de Otuzco Ventarron Vilcabamba Vilcashuamán Viracochapampa Vitcos Wallpayunka Waman Pirqa Wamanilla Wamanmarka, Chumbivilcas Wamanmarka, Lima Wanakawri, Cusco Wanakawri, Huánuco Wanqaran Waqlamarka Waqra Pukara Waqutu Warahirka Waraqayuq Waraqu Urqu Warawtampu Wari Willka Waruq Wat'a, Cusco Wat'a, Huánuco Wayna Q'inti Wayna Tawqaray Wichama Wichqana Wich'un Wila Wilani Wilca Willkaraqay Willkawayin Wiñay Wayna Wiraqucha Pirqa Yanaca Yanaqi - Qillqamarka Y

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