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The Pañca-Parameṣṭhi( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
for "five supreme beings") in Jainism
Jainism
are a fivefold hierarchy of religious authorities worthy of veneration.[1][2]

Contents

1 Overview 2 Five supreme beings

2.1 Arihant

3 See also 4 Notes 5 References

Overview[edit] The five supreme beings are:

Arihant: The awakened souls who have attained keval gyan are considered as Arihant. The 24 Tirthankaraas or Jinas, the legendary founding figures of Jainism
Jainism
in the present time cycle are Arihants. All Tirthankaras are Arihants but not all Arihants are Thirthankars.[2] Siddha (Ashiri): The souls which have been liberated from the birth and death cycle. Acarya Upadhyaya ("Preceptors") Muni or Jain monks

The five initials, viz. A+A+A+U+M are taken as forming the Aum syllable.[1] Five supreme beings[edit]

Obeisance to Pañca-Parameṣṭhi
Pañca-Parameṣṭhi
(five supreme beings)

Dravyasaṃgraha, a major Jain text, succinctly characterizes the five Supreme Beings (Pañca-Parameṣṭhi).[3]

Definition of the World Teacher (Arhat) - verse 50.[4] Definition of the liberated souls (Siddha) - verses 51.[5] Definition of the Chief Preceptor (Acarya) - verse 52. Definition of the Preceptor (Upadhyaya) - verse 53. Definition of the Ascetic (Sadhu) - verse 54.

“ Meditate on, recite or chant the sacred mantras, consisting of thirty-five, sixteen, six, five, four, two and one letter(s), pronouncing the virtues of the five supreme beings (Pañca-Parameṣṭhi). Besides, meditate on and chant other mantras as per the teachings of the Preceptor (guru).[6] ”

Arihant[edit]

Having destroyed the four inimical varieties of karmas (ghātiyā karmas), possessed of infinite faith, happiness, knowledge and power, and housed in most auspicious body (paramaudārika śarīra), that pure soul of the World Teacher (Arhat) should be meditated on. —  Dravyasaṃgraha
Dravyasaṃgraha
(50)[4]

See also[edit]

Namokar Mantra Paramita Jainism

Notes[edit]

^ a b Jaini, Padmanabh S. (1998). The Jaina Path Of Purification. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. p. 163. ISBN 9788120815780. Retrieved 10 December 2012.  ^ a b Shah, Natubhai (1998). Jainism: The World of Conquerors, Volume 1. Sussex Academic Press. p. 174. ISBN 9781898723301. Retrieved 14 December 2012.  ^ Jain 2013, p. 177-196. ^ a b Jain 2013, p. 177. ^ Jain 2013, p. 182. ^ Jain 2013, p. 173.

References[edit]

Johnson, Helen M. (1931), The 108 Qualities of the Pañcaparameṣṭhins (Appendix 1.5 of the Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra), Baroda Oriental Institute  Jain, Vijay K. (2013), Ācārya Nemichandra's Dravyasaṃgraha, ISBN 9788190363952, Non-copyright 

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