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IBM
IBM
PC DOS
DOS
(an acronym for IBM
IBM
personal computer disk operating system) is a discontinued operating system for the IBM
IBM
Personal Computer, manufactured and sold by IBM
IBM
from the early 1980s into the 2000s. Before version 6.1, PC DOS
DOS
was an IBM-branded version of MS-DOS. From version 6.1 on, PC DOS
DOS
became IBM's independent product.

Contents

1 History 2 Versions

2.1 PC DOS
DOS
1.x 2.2 PC DOS
DOS
2.x 2.3 PC DOS
DOS
3.x 2.4 PC DOS
DOS
4.x 2.5 PC DOS
DOS
5 2.6 PC DOS
DOS
6.1 2.7 PC DOS
DOS
6.3 2.8 PC DOS
DOS
7 2.9 PC DOS
DOS
2000 2.10 PC DOS
DOS
7.1

3 PC DOS
DOS
as a distributed file client 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 Further reading

History[edit] The IBM
IBM
task force assembled to develop the PC decided that critical components of the machine, including the operating system, would come from outside vendors. This radical break from company tradition of in-house development was one of the key decisions that made the IBM
IBM
PC an industry standard. At that time private company Microsoft, founded five years before by Bill Gates, was eventually selected for the operating system. IBM
IBM
wanted Microsoft
Microsoft
to retain ownership of whatever software it developed, and wanted nothing to do with helping Microsoft, other than making suggestions from afar. According to task force member Jack Sams,

The reasons were internal. We had a terrible problem being sued by people claiming we had stolen their stuff. It could be horribly expensive for us to have our programmers look at code that belonged to someone else because they would then come back and say we stole it and made all this money. We had lost a series of suits on this, and so we didn't want to have a product which was clearly someone else's product worked on by IBM
IBM
people. We went to Microsoft
Microsoft
on the proposition that we wanted this to be their product.[1][citation needed][page needed]

IBM
IBM
first contacted Microsoft
Microsoft
to look the company over in July 1980. Negotiations continued over the next months, and the paperwork was officially signed in early November.[2][page needed] Although IBM
IBM
expected that most customers would use PC DOS,[3] the IBM PC also supported CP/M-86, which became available six months after PC DOS,[4]and UCSD p-System
UCSD p-System
operating systems.[5] IBM's expectation proved correct: one survey found that 96.3% of PCs were ordered with the $40 PC- DOS
DOS
compared to 3.4% for the $240 CP/M-86.[6] Versions[edit] PC DOS
DOS
1.x[edit]

User manual and diskette for IBM
IBM
PC DOS
DOS
1.1

Microsoft
Microsoft
first licensed,[7] then purchased[8] 86- DOS
DOS
from Seattle Computer Products (SCP), which was modified for the IBM
IBM
PC by Microsoft
Microsoft
employee Bob O'Rear with assistance from SCP (later Microsoft) employee Tim Paterson.[9] O'Rear got 86- DOS
DOS
to run on the prototype PC in February 1981. 86- DOS
DOS
had to be converted from 8-inch to 5.25-inch floppy disks and integrated with the BIOS, which Microsoft
Microsoft
was helping IBM
IBM
to write.[10] IBM
IBM
had more people writing requirements for the computer than Microsoft
Microsoft
had writing code. O'Rear often felt overwhelmed by the number of people he had to deal with at the ESD (Entry Systems Division) facility in Boca Raton, Florida. Perhaps the first public mention of the operating system was in July 1981, when Byte discussed rumors of a forthcoming personal computer with "a CP/M-like DOS
DOS
... to be called, simply, ' IBM
IBM
Personal Computer DOS.'"[11] 86- DOS
DOS
was rebranded IBM
IBM
PC DOS
DOS
1.0 for its August 1981 release with the IBM
IBM
PC. The initial version of DOS
DOS
was largely based on CP/M-80
CP/M-80
1.x and most of its architecture, function calls and file naming conventions were copied directly from the older OS. The most significant difference was the fact that it introduced a different file system, FAT12. Unlike all later DOS
DOS
versions, the DATE and TIME commands were separate executables rather than part of COMMAND.COM. Single-sided 160 kilobyte (kB) 5.25" floppies were the only disk format supported. In late 1981 Paterson, now at Microsoft, began writing PC DOS
DOS
1.10. It debuted in May 1982 along with the Revision B IBM
IBM
PC. Support for the new double-sided drives was added, allowing 320 kB per disk. A number of bugs were fixed, and error messages and prompts were made less cryptic. The DEBUG utility was now able to load files greater than 64k in size. PC DOS
DOS
2.x[edit] Later, a group of Microsoft
Microsoft
programmers (primarily Paul Allen, Mark Zbikowski and Aaron Reynolds)[10] began work on PC DOS
DOS
2.0. Completely rewritten, DOS
DOS
2.0 added subdirectories and hard disk support for the new IBM
IBM
XT, which debuted in March 1983. A new 9-sector format bumped the capacity of floppy disks to 360 kB. The Unix-inspired kernel featured file handles in place of the CP/M-derivative file control blocks and loadable device drivers could now be used for adding hardware beyond what the IBM
IBM
PC BIOS
BIOS
supported. BASIC and most of the utilities provided with DOS
DOS
were substantially upgraded as well. A major undertaking that took almost 10 months of work, DOS
DOS
2.0 was more than twice as big as DOS
DOS
1.x, occupying around 28k of RAM compared to the 12k of its predecessor. It would form the basis for all Microsoft consumer-oriented OSes until 2001, when Windows XP
Windows XP
(based on Windows NT) was released.[10] In October 1983 (officially November 1)[12] DOS
DOS
2.1 debuted. It fixed some bugs and added support for half height floppy drives and the new IBM
IBM
PCjr. In 1983, Compaq
Compaq
released the Compaq
Compaq
Portable, the first 100% IBM
IBM
PC compatible and licensed their own OEM version of DOS
DOS
1.10 (quickly replaced by DOS
DOS
2.00) from Microsoft. Other PC compatibles followed suit, most of which included hardware-specific DOS
DOS
features, but some were generic. PC DOS
DOS
3.x[edit] In August 1984, IBM
IBM
introduced the Intel 80286-derived IBM
IBM
PC/AT, its next-generation machine. Along with this was DOS
DOS
3.00. Despite jumping a whole version number, it again proved little more than an incremental upgrade, adding nothing more substantial than support for the AT's new 1.2 megabyte (MB) floppy disks. Planned networking capabilities in DOS
DOS
3.00 were judged too buggy to be usable and Microsoft
Microsoft
disabled them prior to the OS's release. In any case, IBM's original plans for the AT had been to equip it with a proper next-generation OS that would use its extended features, but this never materialized.[2] PC DOS
DOS
3.1 (released March 1985) fixed the bugs in DOS
DOS
3.00 and supported IBM's Network Adapter card on the IBM
IBM
PC Network. PC DOS
DOS
3.2 added support for 3½-inch double-density 720 kB floppy disk drives, supporting the IBM
IBM
PC Convertible, IBM's first computer to use 3½-inch floppy disks, released April 1986. And later the IBM
IBM
Personal System/2 in 1987. In June 1985, IBM
IBM
and Microsoft
Microsoft
signed a long-term Joint Development Agreement to share specified DOS
DOS
code and create a new operating system from scratch, known at the time as Advanced DOS. On April 2, 1987 OS/2
OS/2
was announced as the first product produced under the agreement.[13] At the same time, IBM
IBM
released its next generation of personal computers, the IBM
IBM
Personal System/2 (PS/2).[2] PC DOS
DOS
3.3, released with the PS/2 line, added support for high density 3½-inch 1.44 megabyte (MB) floppy disk drives, which IBM
IBM
introduced in its 80286-based and higher PS/2 models. The upgrade from DOS
DOS
3.2 to 3.3 was completely written by IBM, with no development effort on the part of Microsoft, who were working on "Advanced DOS
DOS
1.0". DOS
DOS
3.30 was the last version designed with the IBM
IBM
XT and floppy-only systems in mind; it became one of the most popular versions and many users preferred it to its buggy successor. PC DOS
DOS
4.x[edit] PC DOS
DOS
4.0 (internally known as DOS
DOS
3.4 originally), shipped July 1988. DOS
DOS
4.0 had some compatibility issues with low-level disk utilities due to some internal data structure changes. DOS
DOS
4.0 used more memory than DOS
DOS
3.30 and it also had a few glitches. Newly added EMS drivers were only compatible with IBM's EMS boards and not the more common[citation needed] Intel and AST ones. DOS
DOS
4.0 is also notable for including the first version of the DOS
DOS
Shell, a full screen utility designed to make the command-line OS more user friendly. Microsoft
Microsoft
took back control of development and released a bug-fixed DOS
DOS
4.01[14] PC DOS
DOS
5[edit] DOS
DOS
5 debuted in June 1991. This is one of the biggest upgrades of DOS in its history. DOS
DOS
5 supported the use of the High Memory Area
High Memory Area
(HMA) and Upper Memory Blocks
Upper Memory Blocks
(UMBs) on 80286 and later systems to reduce its conventional memory usage. Also all DOS
DOS
commands now supported the /? option to display command syntax. Aside from IBM's PC DOS, MS- DOS
DOS
was the only other version available as OEM editions vanished since by this time PCs were 100% compatible so customizations for hardware differences were no longer necessary. This was the last version of DOS
DOS
that IBM
IBM
and Microsoft
Microsoft
shared the full code for, and the DOS
DOS
that was integrated into OS/2
OS/2
2.0's, and later Windows NT's, virtual DOS
DOS
machine. PC DOS
DOS
6.1[edit] PC- DOS
DOS
remained a rebranded version of MS DOS
DOS
until 1993. IBM
IBM
and Microsoft
Microsoft
parted ways—MS- DOS
DOS
6 was released in March, and PC DOS
DOS
6.1 (separately developed) followed in June. Most of the new features from MS- DOS
DOS
6.0 appeared in PC DOS
DOS
6.1 including the new boot menu support and the new commands CHOICE, DELTREE and MOVE. QBasic
QBasic
was dropped and the MS- DOS
DOS
Editor was replaced with the IBM
IBM
E Editor. PC DOS
DOS
6.1 reports itself as DOS
DOS
6.00. PC DOS
DOS
6.3[edit] PC DOS
DOS
6.3 followed in December. PC DOS
DOS
6.30 was also used in OS/2
OS/2
for the PowerPC. PC DOS
DOS
6.3 also featured SuperStor disk compression technology from Addstor. PC DOS
DOS
7[edit] PC DOS
DOS
7 was released in April 1995 and was the last release of DOS before IBM's Boca Raton facility closed. The REXX
REXX
programming language was added, as well as support for a new floppy disk format, XDF, which extended a standard 1.44 MB floppy disk to 1.86 MB. SuperStor disk compression technology was replaced with Stac Electronics' STACKER. An algebraic command line calculator and a utility program to load device drivers from the command line were added. PC DOS
DOS
7 also included many optimizations to increase performance and reduce memory usage.[15] PC DOS
DOS
2000[edit] The most recent retail release was PC DOS
DOS
2000 – released from Austin in 1998 – which found its niche in the embedded software market and elsewhere. PC DOS
DOS
2000 is a slipstream of 7.0 with Y2K and other fixes applied. To applications, PC DOS
DOS
2000 reports itself as " IBM
IBM
PC DOS
DOS
7.00, revision 1", in contrast to the original PC DOS
DOS
7, which reported itself as " IBM
IBM
PC DOS
DOS
7.00, revision 0".[nb 1] Hitachi
Hitachi
used PC DOS
DOS
2000 in their legacy Drive Fitness Test (4.15) and Hitachi
Hitachi
Feature Tool (2.15) until 2009.[16] ThinkPad
ThinkPad
products had a copy of the latest version of PC DOS
DOS
in their Rescue and Recovery partition.[17] PC DOS
DOS
7.1[edit] PC DOS
DOS
7.1 added support for Logical Block Addressing
Logical Block Addressing
(LBA) and FAT32 partitions.[nb 1] Various builds from 1999 up to 2003 were not released in retail, but used in products such as the IBM
IBM
ServerGuide Scripting Toolkit.[18] A build of this version of DOS
DOS
appeared in Norton Ghost
Norton Ghost
from Symantec.[19] Version 7.1 indicates support for FAT32 also in MS-DOS.[15] Most builds of this version of DOS
DOS
are limited to the kernel files IBMBIO.COM, IBMDOS.COM and COMMAND.COM. The updated programs FDISK32, FORMAT32 allow one to prepare FAT32 disks. Additional utilities are taken from PC DOS
DOS
2000, where needed. PC DOS
DOS
as a distributed file client[edit] In 1986, IBM
IBM
announced PC DOS
DOS
support for client access to the file services defined by Distributed Data Management Architecture
Distributed Data Management Architecture
(DDM). This enabled programs on PCs to create, manage, and access record-oriented files available on IBM
IBM
System/36, IBM
IBM
System/38 and IBM
IBM
mainframe computers running CICS. In 1988, client support for stream-oriented files and hierarchical directories was added to PC DOS when they became available on the DDM server systems. See also[edit]

Timeline of DOS
DOS
operating systems Comparison of DOS
DOS
operating systems List of DOS
DOS
commands

Notes[edit]

^ a b For PC DOS
DOS
the DOS
DOS
INT 21h function 30h Get DOS
DOS
version returns OEM code 00h for IBM
IBM
instead of FFh for Microsoft. This is particularly important for DOS
DOS
7, because various features introduced in MS- DOS
DOS
7.0 and 7.1 are not supported in PC DOS
DOS
7.x, and vice versa, e.g., MS- DOS
DOS
does not support REXX, and PC DOS
DOS
7 and 2000 do not support LBA access.

References[edit]

^ "The History of DOS". Retrieved 2017-11-10.  ^ a b c Wallace, J. & Erickson, J. (1992). Hard Drive, John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-56886-4. ^ Bunnell, David (Feb–Mar 1982). "The Man Behind The Machine?: A PC Exclusive Interview With Software Guru Bill Gates". PC Magazine. p. 16. Retrieved July 12, 2016.  ^ Edlin, Jim (June–July 1982). "CP/M Arrives". PC Magazine. p. 43. Retrieved July 12, 2016.  ^ Lemmons, Phil (October 1981). "The IBM
IBM
Personal Computer: First Impressions". Byte. p. 36. Retrieved July 12, 2016.  ^ " CP/M-86
CP/M-86
Price Plunges to $60". PC Magazine. February 1983. p. 56. Retrieved 11 October 2017.  ^ 86- DOS
DOS
version 0.3 (1980-11-15) License Agreement between Seattle Computer Products and Microsoft[dead link], dated 1981-01-06, published as part of the Comes v. Microsoft
Microsoft
case as exhibit #1/#2, retrieved 2013-04-01. ^ 86- DOS
DOS
Sales Agreement between Seattle Computer Products
Seattle Computer Products
and Microsoft[dead link], dated 1981-06-21, published as part of the Comes v. Microsoft
Microsoft
case as exhibit #2/#3, retrieved 2013-04-01. ^ Tim Paterson (2007-08-08). "Is DOS
DOS
a Rip-Off of CP/M?". DosMan Drivel. Retrieved 2014-02-13.  ^ a b c Duncan, Ray (1988). The MS- DOS
DOS
Encyclopedia, Microsoft
Microsoft
Press. ISBN 1-55615-049-0. ^ Morgan, Chris (July 1981). "IBM's Personal Computer". BYTE. p. 6. Retrieved 18 October 2013.  ^ http://www.os2museum.com/wp/?page_id=630 ^ Michal Necasek (2004-06-24). " Microsoft
Microsoft
Operating System/2 With Windows Presentation Manager Provides Foundation for Next Generation of Personal Computer Industry". The History of OS/2. Archived from the original on 2010-04-10.  — a copy of Microsoft's 1987-04-02 press release announcing OS/2 ^ History of Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows and MS- DOS
DOS
(Miscellaneous) TACKtech Corp. ^ a b Vernon Brooks. "PC DOS
DOS
Retro - Information and history about PC DOS
DOS
and MS-DOS". Retrieved 2014-01-10.  ^ "Drivers and Software for Legacy (Discontinued) Products". HGST. 2009. Retrieved 2014-02-13.  ^ "How to use the pre-boot service partition to recover your software". Lenovo. Retrieved 2014-02-11. An additional undocumented feature added to the User Interface is the ability to drop directly out to a DOS
DOS
prompt. Pressing F3 (there is no prompt for this) will exit the recovery utility and go to a DOS
DOS
prompt  ^ " IBM
IBM
ServerGuide Scripting Toolkit, DOS
DOS
Edition, version 1.3.07". IBM. 2008-01-24. MIGR-53564. Archived from the original on 2016-03-11. Retrieved 2014-02-13.  ^ "Create a Standard Ghost Boot Disk". Symantec. 2004-01-03. TECH108761. Retrieved 2014-02-13. 

Further reading[edit]

IBM
IBM
Corporation and Microsoft, Inc. DOS
DOS
3.30: User's Guide. IBM Corporation, 1987. Part number 80X0933. IBM
IBM
Corporation and Microsoft, Inc. DOS
DOS
3.30: Reference (Abridged). IBM
IBM
Corporation, 1987. Part number 94X9575. IBM
IBM
Corporation. Getting Started with Disk Operating System Version 4.00. IBM
IBM
Corporation, 1988. Part number 15F1370. IBM
IBM
Corporation. Using Disk Operating System Version 4.00. IBM Corporation, 1988. Part number 15F1371. IBM
IBM
Corporation. IBM
IBM
Disk Operating System Version 5.0. User Guide and Reference. IBM
IBM
Corporation, 1991. Part number 07G4584. Que Corporation. IBM
IBM
PC DOS
DOS
and Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows User's Guide. Suzanne Weixel, 2nd ed., Indianapolis, 1995. ISBN 0-7897-0276-2. IBM
IBM
Corporation. PC DOS
DOS
7 User's Guide. Margaret Averett, 1995. Part number 83G9260 (S83G-9260-00). IBM
IBM
Corporation. PC DOS
DOS
7 Technical Update. IBM
IBM
Redbooks, 1995. ISBN 0-7384-0677-5.

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