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Phase Alternating Line (PAL) is a colour encoding system for analogue television used in broadcast television systems in most countries broadcasting at 625-line / 50 field (25 frame) per second (576i). Other common colour encoding systems are NTSC
NTSC
and SECAM. All the countries using PAL
PAL
are currently in process of conversion or have already converted standards to DVB, ISDB
ISDB
or DTMB. This page primarily discusses the PAL
PAL
colour encoding system. The articles on broadcast television systems and analogue television further describe frame rates, image resolution and audio modulation.

Contents

1 History 2 Colour encoding

2.1 PAL
PAL
vs. NTSC 2.2 PAL
PAL
vs. SECAM 2.3 PAL
PAL
signal details 2.4 PAL
PAL
broadcast systems

2.4.1 PAL-B/G/D/K/I 2.4.2 PAL-M
PAL-M
(Brazil) 2.4.3 PAL-N
PAL-N
(Argentina, Paraguay
Paraguay
and Uruguay) 2.4.4 PAL-L 2.4.5 System A 2.4.6 PAL
PAL
interoperability 2.4.7 Multisystem PAL
PAL
support and " PAL
PAL
60"

3 Countries and territories using PAL

3.1 PAL
PAL
B, D, F, G, H, or K 3.2 PAL-M 3.3 PAL-N 3.4 Countries that have ceased using PAL

4 See also 5 References 6 External links

History[edit] In the 1950s, the Western European countries started planning to introduce colour television, and were faced with the problem that the NTSC
NTSC
standard demonstrated several weaknesses, including colour tone shifting under poor transmission conditions, which became a major issue considering Europe's geographical and weather-related particularities. To overcome NTSC's shortcomings, alternative standards were devised, resulting in the development of the PAL
PAL
and SECAM
SECAM
standards. The goal was to provide a colour TV standard for the European picture frequency of 50 fields per second (50 hertz), and finding a way to eliminate the problems with NTSC. PAL
PAL
was developed by Walter Bruch
Walter Bruch
at Telefunken
Telefunken
in Hanover, Germany, with important input from Dr. Kruse and Gerhard Mahler (de). The format was patented by Telefunken
Telefunken
in 1962, citing Bruch as inventor, and unveiled to members of the European Broadcasting Union
European Broadcasting Union
(EBU) on 3 January 1963. When asked, why the system was named "PAL" and not "Bruch" the inventor answered that a "Bruch system" would probably not have sold very well ("Bruch" lit. means "break"). The first broadcasts began in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in June 1967, followed by West Germany late that year.[1] The one BBC channel initially using the broadcast standard was BBC2, which had been the first UK TV service to introduce "625-lines" in 1964. Telefunken
Telefunken
PALcolor 708T was the first PAL commercial TV set. It was followed by Loewe-Farbfernseher S 920 & F 900. Telefunken
Telefunken
was later bought by the French electronics manufacturer Thomson. Thomson also bought the Compagnie Générale de Télévision where Henri de France
Henri de France
developed SECAM, the first European Standard for colour television. Thomson, now called Technicolor SA, also owns the RCA
RCA
brand and licenses it to other companies; Radio Corporation of America, the originator of that brand, created the NTSC
NTSC
colour TV standard before Thomson became involved. The term PAL
PAL
was often used informally and somewhat imprecisely to refer to the 625-line/50 Hz (576i) television system in general, to differentiate from the 525-line/60 Hz (480i) system generally used with NTSC. Accordingly, DVDs were labelled as PAL
PAL
or NTSC (referring to the line count and frame rate) even though technically the discs carry neither PAL
PAL
nor NTSC
NTSC
encoded signal. CCIR 625/50 and EIA 525/60 are the proper names for these (line count and field rate) standards; PAL
PAL
and NTSC
NTSC
on the other hand are methods of encoding color information in the signal. Colour encoding[edit] Both the PAL
PAL
and the NTSC
NTSC
system use a quadrature amplitude modulated subcarrier carrying the chrominance information added to the luminance video signal to form a composite video baseband signal. The frequency of this subcarrier is 4.43361875 MHz for PAL
PAL
and NTSC
NTSC
4.43, compared to 3.579545 MHz for NTSC
NTSC
3.58. The SECAM
SECAM
system, on the other hand, uses a frequency modulation scheme on its two line alternate colour subcarriers 4.25000 and 4.40625 MHz. The name "Phase Alternating Line" describes the way that the phase of part of the colour information on the video signal is reversed with each line, which automatically corrects phase errors in the transmission of the signal by cancelling them out, at the expense of vertical frame colour resolution. Lines where the colour phase is reversed compared to NTSC
NTSC
are often called PAL
PAL
or phase-alternation lines, which justifies one of the expansions of the acronym, while the other lines are called NTSC
NTSC
lines. Early PAL
PAL
receivers relied on the human eye to do that cancelling; however, this resulted in a comb-like effect known as Hanover bars
Hanover bars
on larger phase errors. Thus, most receivers now use a chrominance analog delay line, which stores the received colour information on each line of display; an average of the colour information from the previous line and the current line is then used to drive the picture tube. The effect is that phase errors result in saturation changes, which are less objectionable than the equivalent hue changes of NTSC. A minor drawback is that the vertical colour resolution is poorer than the NTSC
NTSC
system's, but since the human eye also has a colour resolution that is much lower than its brightness resolution, this effect is not visible. In any case, NTSC, PAL, and SECAM
SECAM
all have chrominance bandwidth (horizontal colour detail) reduced greatly compared to the luminance signal.

Spectrum of a System I television channel with PAL.

RF Spectrogram and Waterfall of an actual PAL-I transmission with NICAM.

Oscillogram of composite PAL
PAL
signal—one frame.

Oscillogram of composite PAL
PAL
signal—several lines.

Oscillogram of composite PAL
PAL
signal—two lines.

The 4.43361875 MHz frequency of the colour carrier is a result of 283.75 colour clock cycles per line plus a 25 Hz offset to avoid interferences. Since the line frequency (number of lines per second) is 15625 Hz (625 lines × 50 Hz ÷ 2), the colour carrier frequency calculates as follows: 4.43361875 MHz = 283.75 × 15625 Hz + 25 Hz. The original colour carrier is required by the colour decoder to recreate the colour difference signals. Since the carrier is not transmitted with the video information it has to be generated locally in the receiver. In order that the phase of this locally generated signal can match the transmitted information, a 10 cycle burst of colour subcarrier is added to the video signal shortly after the line sync pulse, but before the picture information, during the so-called back porch. This colour burst is not actually in phase with the original colour subcarrier, but leads it by 45 degrees on the odd lines and lags it by 45 degrees on the even lines. This swinging burst enables the colour decoder circuitry to distinguish the phase of the R-Y vector which reverses every line. PAL
PAL
vs. NTSC[edit] PAL
PAL
usually has 576 visible lines compared with 480 lines with NTSC, meaning that PAL
PAL
has a 20% higher resolution, in fact it even has a higher resolution than Enhanced Definition standard (854x480).[citation needed] Most TV output for PAL
PAL
and NTSC
NTSC
use interlaced frames meaning that even lines update on one field and odd lines update on the next field. Interlacing frames gives a smoother motion with half the frame rate. NTSC
NTSC
is used with a frame rate of 60i or 30p whereas PAL
PAL
generally uses 50i or 25p; both use a high enough frame rate to give the illusion of fluid motion. This is due to the fact that NTSC
NTSC
is generally used in countries with a utility frequency of 60 Hz and PAL
PAL
in countries with 50 Hz, although there are many exceptions. Both PAL
PAL
and NTSC
NTSC
have a higher frame rate than film which uses 24 frames per second. PAL
PAL
has a closer frame rate to that of film, so most films are sped up 4% to play on PAL
PAL
systems, shortening the runtime of the film and, without adjustment, slightly raising the pitch of the audio track. Film conversions for NTSC instead use 3:2 pull down to spread the 24 frames of film across 60 interlaced fields. This maintains the runtime of the film and preserves the original audio, but may cause worse interlacing artifacts during fast motion. NTSC
NTSC
receivers have a tint control to perform colour correction manually. If this is not adjusted correctly, the colours may be faulty. The PAL
PAL
standard automatically cancels hue errors by phase reversal, so a tint control is unnecessary yet Saturation control can be more useful. Chrominance
Chrominance
phase errors in the PAL
PAL
system are cancelled out using a 1H delay line resulting in lower saturation, which is much less noticeable to the eye than NTSC
NTSC
hue errors. However, the alternation of colour information—Hanover bars—can lead to picture grain on pictures with extreme phase errors even in PAL
PAL
systems, if decoder circuits are misaligned or use the simplified decoders of early designs (typically to overcome royalty restrictions). In most cases such extreme phase shifts do not occur. This effect will usually be observed when the transmission path is poor, typically in built up areas or where the terrain is unfavourable. The effect is more noticeable on UHF than VHF signals as VHF signals tend to be more robust. In the early 1970s some Japanese set manufacturers developed decoding systems to avoid paying royalties to Telefunken. The Telefunken licence covered any decoding method that relied on the alternating subcarrier phase to reduce phase errors. This included very basic PAL decoders that relied on the human eye to average out the odd/even line phase errors. One solution was to use a 1H analog delay line to allow decoding of only the odd or even lines. For example, the chrominance on odd lines would be switched directly through to the decoder and also be stored in the delay line. Then, on even lines, the stored odd line would be decoded again. This method effectively converted PAL
PAL
to NTSC. Such systems suffered hue errors and other problems inherent in NTSC
NTSC
and required the addition of a manual hue control. PAL
PAL
and NTSC
NTSC
have slightly divergent colour spaces, but the colour decoder differences here are ignored. PAL
PAL
vs. SECAM[edit] The SECAM
SECAM
patents predate those of PAL
PAL
by several years (1956 vs 1962). Its creator, Henri de France, in search of a response to known NTSC
NTSC
hue problems, came up with ideas that were to become fundamental to both European systems, namely: 1) colour information on two successive TV lines is very similar and vertical resolution can be halved without serious impact on perceived visual quality 2) more robust colour transmission can be achieved by spreading information on two TV lines instead of just one 3) information from the two TV lines can be recombined using a delay line. SECAM
SECAM
applies those principles by transmitting alternately only one of the U and V components on each TV line, and getting the other from the delay line. QAM is not required, and frequency modulation of the subcarrier is used instead for additional robustness (sequential transmission of U and V was to be reused much later in Europe's last "analog" video systems: the MAC standards). SECAM
SECAM
is free of both hue and saturation errors. It is not sensitive to phase shifts between the color burst and the chrominance signal, and for this reason was sometimes used in early attempts at color video recording, where tape speed fluctuations could get the other systems into trouble. In the receiver, it did not require a quartz crystal (which was an expensive component at the time) and generally could do with lower accuracy delay lines and components. SECAM
SECAM
transmissions are more robust over longer distances than NTSC
NTSC
or PAL. However, owing to their FM nature, the color signal remains present, although at reduced amplitude, even in monochrome portions of the image, thus being subject to stronger cross color. One serious drawback for studio work is that the addition of two SECAM signals does not yield valid colour information, due to its use of frequency modulation. It was necessary to demodulate the FM and handle it as AM for proper mixing, before finally remodulating as FM, at the cost of some added complexity and signal degradation. In its later years, this was no longer a problem, due to the wider use of component and digital equipment. PAL
PAL
can work without a delay line, but this configuration, sometimes referred to as "poor man's PAL", could not match SECAM
SECAM
in terms of picture quality. To compete with it at the same level, it had to make use of the main ideas outlined above, and as a consequence PAL
PAL
had to pay license fees to SECAM. Over the years, this contributed significantly to the estimated 500 million francs gathered by the SECAM
SECAM
patents (for an initial 100 million francs invested in research).[2] Hence, PAL
PAL
could be considered as a hybrid system, with its signal structure closer to NTSC, but its decoding borrowing much from SECAM. There were initial specifications to use color with the French 819 line format (system E). However, " SECAM
SECAM
E" only ever existed in development phases. Actual deployment used the 625 line format. This made for easy interchange and conversion between PAL
PAL
and SECAM
SECAM
in Europe. Conversion was often not even needed, as more and more receivers and VCRs became compliant with both standards, helped in this by the common decoding steps and components. And furthermore, when the SCART
SCART
plug became standard, it could take RGB as an input, effectively bypassing all the color coding formats' peculiarities. When it comes to home VCRs, all video standards use what is called "color under" format. Color is extracted from the high frequencies of the video spectrum, and moved to the lower part of the spectrum available from tape. Luminance then uses what remains of it, above the color frequency range. This is usually done by heterodyning for PAL (as well as NTSC). But the FM nature of color in SECAM
SECAM
allows for a cheaper trick: division by 4 of the subcarrier frequency (and multiplication on replay). This became the standard for SECAM
SECAM
VHS recording in France. Most other countries kept using the same heterodyning process as for PAL
PAL
or NTSC
NTSC
and this is known as MESECAM recording (as it was more convenient for some Middle East countries that used both PAL
PAL
and SECAM
SECAM
broadcasts). Regarding early (analog) videodiscs, the established Laserdisc standard supported only NTSC
NTSC
and PAL. However, a different optical disc format, the Thomson transmissive optical disc made a brief appearance on the market. At some point, it used a modified SECAM signal (single FM subcarrier at 3.6 MHz[3]). The media's flexible and transmissive material allowed for direct access to both sides without flipping the disc, a concept that reappeared in multi-layered DVDs about fifteen years later. PAL
PAL
signal details[edit] For PAL-B/G the signal has these characteristics.

Parameter Value

Bandwidth 7006500000000000000♠5 MHz[4]

Horizontal sync polarity Negative

Total time for each line 6995640000000000000♠64.000 μs[5][6]

Front porch
Front porch
(A) 6994165000000000000♠1.65+0.4 −0.1 μs

Sync pulse length (B) 6994470000000000000♠4.7±0.20 μs

Back porch
Back porch
(C) 6994570000000000000♠5.7±0.20 μs

Active video (D) 6995519500000000000♠51.95+0.4 −0.1 μs

(Total horizontal sync time 12.05 µs) After 0.9 µs a 6994225000000000000♠2.25±0.23 μs colorburst of 7001100000000000000♠10±1 cycles is sent. Most rise/fall times are in 6993250000000000000♠250±50 ns range. Amplitude is 100% for white level, 30% for black, and 0% for sync.[5] The CVBS electrical amplitude is Vpp 7000100000000000000♠1.0 V and impedance of 75 Ω.[7]

The composite video (CVBS) signal used in systems M and N before combination with a sound carrier and modulation onto an RF carrier.

The vertical timings are:

Parameter Value

Vertical lines 312.5 (625 total)

Vertical lines visible 288 (576 total)

Vertical sync polarity Negative (burst)

Vertical frequency 7001500000000000000♠50 Hz

Sync pulse length (F) 6996576000000000000♠0.576 ms (burst)[8]

Active video (H) 18.4 ms

(Total vertical sync time 1.6 ms) As PAL
PAL
is interlaced, every two fields are summed to make a complete picture frame. Luminance,

Y

displaystyle Y

, is derived from red, green, and blue (

R ′

G ′

B ′

displaystyle R'G'B'

) signals:[6]

Y = 0.299

R ′

+ 0.587

G ′

+ 0.114

B ′

displaystyle Y=0.299R'+0.587G'+0.114B'

U

displaystyle U

and

V

displaystyle V

are used to transmit chrominance. Each has a typical bandwidth of 1.3 MHz.

U = 0.492 (

B ′

− Y )

displaystyle U=0.492(B'-Y)

V = 0.877 (

R ′

− Y )

displaystyle V=0.877(R'-Y)

Composite PAL
PAL
signal

= Y + U sin ⁡ ( ω t ) + V cos ⁡ ( ω t ) +

displaystyle =Y+Usin(omega t)+Vcos(omega t)+

timing[6] where

ω = 2 π

F

S C

displaystyle omega =2pi F_ SC

. Subcarrier frequency

F

S C

displaystyle F_ SC

is 4.43361875 MHz (±5 Hz) for PAL-B/D/G/H/I/N. PAL
PAL
broadcast systems[edit] This table illustrates the differences:

PAL
PAL
B PAL
PAL
G, H PAL
PAL
I PAL
PAL
D/K PAL
PAL
M PAL
PAL
N

Transmission band VHF UHF UHF/VHF* VHF/UHF VHF/UHF VHF/UHF

Fields 50 50 50 50 60 50

Lines 625 625 625 625 525 625

Active lines 576 576 576 576 480 576

Channel bandwidth 7 MHz 8 MHz 8 MHz 8 MHz 6 MHz 6 MHz

Video
Video
bandwidth 5.0 MHz 5.0 MHz 5.5 MHz 6.0 MHz 4.2 MHz 4.2 MHz

Colour subcarrier 4.43361875 MHz 4.43361875 MHz 4.43361875 MHz 4.43361875 MHz 3.575611 MHz 3.58205625 MHz

Vision/Sound carrier spacing 5.5 MHz 5.5 MHz 6.0 MHz 6.5 MHz 4.5 MHz 4.5 MHz

* System I has never been used on VHF in the UK. PAL-B/G/D/K/I[edit] Many countries have turned off analog transmissions, so the following does not apply, except for using devices which output broadcast signals, such as video recorders. The resolution that PAL
PAL
gave may or may not still be used, but HD or full HD are most commonly used in digital transmissions.[citation needed] The majority of countries using PAL
PAL
have television standards with 625 lines and 50 fields per second, differences concern the audio carrier frequency and channel bandwidths. The variants are:

Standards B/G are used in most of Western Europe, Australia, and New Zealand Standard I in the UK, Ireland, Hong Kong, South Africa, and Macau Standards D/K (along with SECAM) in most of Central and Eastern Europe Standard D in mainland China. Most analogue CCTV cameras are Standard D.

Systems B and G are similar. System B is used for 7 MHz-wide channels on VHF, while System G is used for 8 MHz-wide channels on UHF ( Australia
Australia
uses System B on UHF). Similarly, Systems D and K are similar except for the bands they use: System D is only used on VHF (except in mainland China), while System K is only used on UHF. Although System I is used on both bands, it has only been used on UHF in the United Kingdom. PAL-M
PAL-M
(Brazil)[edit] Main article: PAL-M In Brazil, PAL
PAL
is used in conjunction with the 525 line, 59.94 field/s system M, using (very nearly) the NTSC
NTSC
colour subcarrier frequency. Exact colour subcarrier frequency of PAL-M
PAL-M
is 3.575611 MHz. Almost all other countries using system M use NTSC. The PAL
PAL
colour system (either baseband or with any RF system, with the normal 4.43 MHz subcarrier unlike PAL-M) can also be applied to an NTSC-like 525-line (480i) picture to form what is often known as "PAL-60" (sometimes "PAL-60/525", "Quasi-PAL" or "Pseudo PAL"). PAL-M (a broadcast standard) however should not be confused with "PAL-60" (a video playback system—see below). PAL-N
PAL-N
(Argentina, Paraguay
Paraguay
and Uruguay)[edit] In Argentina, Paraguay
Paraguay
and Uruguay
Uruguay
the PAL-N
PAL-N
variant is used. It employs the 625 line/50 field per second waveform of PAL-B/G, D/K, H, and I, but on a 6 MHz channel with a chrominance subcarrier frequency of 3.582056 MHz very similar to NTSC. VHS tapes recorded from a PAL-N
PAL-N
or a PAL-B/G, D/K, H, or I broadcast are indistinguishable because the downconverted subcarrier on the tape is the same. A VHS recorded off TV (or released) in Europe will play in colour on any PAL-N
PAL-N
VCR and PAL-N
PAL-N
TV in Argentina, Paraguay
Paraguay
and Uruguay. Likewise, any tape recorded in Argentina, Paraguay
Paraguay
or Uruguay off a PAL-N
PAL-N
TV broadcast can be sent to anyone in European countries that use PAL
PAL
(and Australia/New Zealand, etc.) and it will display in colour. This will also play back successfully in Russia and other SECAM
SECAM
countries, as the USSR mandated PAL
PAL
compatibility in 1985—this has proved to be very convenient for video collectors. People in Argentina, Paraguay
Paraguay
and Uruguay
Uruguay
usually own TV sets that also display NTSC-M, in addition to PAL-N. Direct TV also conveniently broadcasts in NTSC-M for North, Central, and South America. Most DVD players sold in Argentina, Paraguay
Paraguay
and Uruguay
Uruguay
also play PAL discs—however, this is usually output in the European variant (colour subcarrier frequency 4.433618 MHz), so people who own a TV set which only works in PAL-N
PAL-N
(plus NTSC-M in most cases) will have to watch those PAL
PAL
DVD
DVD
imports in black and white (unless the TV supports RGB SCART) as the colour subcarrier frequency in the TV set is the PAL-N
PAL-N
variation, 3.582056 MHz. In the case that a VHS or DVD
DVD
player works in PAL
PAL
(and not in PAL-N) and the TV set works in PAL-N
PAL-N
(and not in PAL), there are two options:

images can be seen in black and white, or an inexpensive transcoder ( PAL
PAL
-> PAL-N) can be purchased in order to see the colours

Some DVD
DVD
players (usually lesser known brands) include an internal transcoder and the signal can be output in NTSC-M, with some video quality loss due to the system's conversion from a 625/50 PAL
PAL
DVD
DVD
to the NTSC-M 525/60 output format. A few DVD
DVD
players sold in Argentina, Paraguay
Paraguay
and Uruguay
Uruguay
also allow a signal output of NTSC-M, PAL, or PAL-N. In that case, a PAL
PAL
disc (imported from Europe) can be played back on a PAL-N
PAL-N
TV because there are no field/line conversions, quality is generally excellent. Extended features of the PAL
PAL
specification, such as Teletext, are implemented quite differently in PAL-N. PAL-N
PAL-N
supports a modified 608 closed captioning format that is designed to ease compatibility with NTSC
NTSC
originated content carried on line 18, and a modified teletext format that can occupy several lines. Some special VHS video recorders are available which can allow viewers the flexibility of enjoying PAL-N
PAL-N
recordings using a standard PAL
PAL
( 625/50 Hz ) colour TV, or even through multi-system TV sets. Video
Video
recorders like Panasonic NV-W1E (AG-W1 for the US), AG-W2, AG-W3, NV-J700AM, Aiwa HV-M110S, HV-M1U, Samsung SV-4000W and SV-7000W feature a digital TV system conversion circuitry. PAL-L[edit] The PAL
PAL
L (Phase Alternating Line with L-sound system) standard uses the same video system as PAL-B/G/H (625 lines, 50 Hz field rate, 15.625 kHz line rate), but with 6 MHz video bandwidth rather than 5.5 MHz. This requires the audio subcarrier to be moved to 6.5 MHz. An 8 MHz channel spacing is used for PAL-L. System A[edit] The BBC tested their pre-war 405 line monochrome system with all three colour standards including PAL, before the decision was made to abandon 405 and transmit colour on 625/System I only. PAL
PAL
interoperability[edit] The PAL
PAL
colour system is usually used with a video format that has 625 lines per frame (576 visible lines, the rest being used for other information such as sync data and captioning) and a refresh rate of 50 interlaced fields per second (compatible with 25 full frames per second), such systems being B, G, H, I, and N (see broadcast television systems for the technical details of each format). This ensures video interoperability. However, as some of these standards (B/G/H, I and D/K) use different sound carriers (5.5 MHz, 6.0 MHz 6.5 MHz respectively), it may result in a video image without audio when viewing a signal broadcast over the air or cable. Some countries in Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
which formerly used SECAM
SECAM
with systems D and K have switched to PAL
PAL
while leaving other aspects of their video system the same, resulting in the different sound carrier. Instead, other European countries have changed completely from SECAM-D/K to PAL-B/G.[9] The PAL-N
PAL-N
system has a different sound carrier, and also a different colour subcarrier, and decoding on incompatible PAL
PAL
systems results in a black-and-white image without sound. The PAL-M
PAL-M
system has a different sound carrier and a different colour subcarrier, and does not use 625 lines or 50 frames/second. This would result in no video or audio at all when viewing a European signal. Multisystem PAL
PAL
support and " PAL
PAL
60"[edit] Recently[when?] manufactured PAL
PAL
television receivers can typically decode all of these systems except, in some cases, PAL-M
PAL-M
and PAL-N. Many of receivers can also receive Eastern European and Middle Eastern SECAM, though rarely French-broadcast SECAM
SECAM
(because France used a quasi-unique positive video modulation, system L) unless they are manufactured for the French market. They will correctly display plain CVBS or S-video SECAM
SECAM
signals. Many can also accept baseband NTSC-M, such as from a VCR or game console, and RF modulated NTSC
NTSC
with a PAL standard audio subcarrier (i.e., from a modulator), though not usually broadcast NTSC
NTSC
(as its 4.5 MHz audio subcarrier is not supported). Many sets also support NTSC
NTSC
with a 4.43 MHz subcarrier. Many 1990s-onwards video recorders sold in Europe can play back NTSC tapes. When operating in this mode most of them do not output a true (625/25) PAL
PAL
signal, but rather a hybrid consisting of the original NTSC
NTSC
line standard (525/30), but with colour converted to PAL 4.43 MHz—this is known as " PAL
PAL
60" (also "quasi-PAL" or "pseudo PAL") with "60" standing for 60 Hz (for 525/30), instead of 50 Hz (for 625/25). Some video game consoles also output a signal in this mode. Most newer television sets can display such a signal correctly, but some will only do so (if at all) in black and white and/or with flickering/foldover at the bottom of the picture, or picture rolling (however, many old TV sets can display the picture properly by means of adjusting the V-Hold and V-Height knobs—assuming they have them). Some TV tuner cards or video capture cards will support this mode (although software/driver modification can be required and the manufacturers' specs may be unclear). A "PAL 60" signal is similar to an NTSC
NTSC
(525/30) signal, but with the usual PAL
PAL
chrominance subcarrier at 4.43 MHz (instead of 3.58 as with NTSC
NTSC
and South American PAL
PAL
variants) and with the PAL-specific phase alternation of the red colour difference signal between the lines. Most European DVD
DVD
players output a true NTSC-M signal when playing NTSC
NTSC
discs,[citation needed] which many modern European TV sets can resolve.[citation needed] Countries and territories using PAL[edit] Main article: PAL
PAL
region See also: DVB-T
DVB-T
§ Countries and territories using DVB-T

This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (December 2014)

Below countries and territories currently use or once used the PAL system. Many of these have converted or are currently converting PAL to DVB-T
DVB-T
(most countries), DVB-T2
DVB-T2
(most countries), DTMB
DTMB
(China, Hong Kong and Macau) or ISDB
ISDB
(Sri Lanka, Maldives, Botswana
Botswana
and part of South America). PAL
PAL
B, D, F, G, H, or K[edit]

  Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(used SECAM)[10]   Angola
Angola
[10]   Bahrain
Bahrain
( DVB-T
DVB-T
introduction currently in assessment) [10]   Bangladesh
Bangladesh
[10]   Bhutan
Bhutan
[10]   Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
[10]   Botswana
Botswana
[10]   Bulgaria
Bulgaria
[10]   British Indian Ocean Territory
British Indian Ocean Territory
[10]   Cameroon
Cameroon
[10]   Cape Verde
Cape Verde
[10]   China
China
(Digital broadcast using DMB-T/H)[10]   Cook Islands
Cook Islands
(see New Zealand)   Djibouti
Djibouti
[10]   Egypt
Egypt
(migrated from SECAM
SECAM
1990–1992)[10]   Equatorial Guinea
Equatorial Guinea
[10]   Eritrea
Eritrea
[10]   Ethiopia
Ethiopia
[10]   Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
(UHF only)[10]  Gambia [10]   Greenland
Greenland
[10]   Guinea-Bissau
Guinea-Bissau
[10]   Hong Kong
Hong Kong
(PAL-F, DMB-T/H introduced since 31 December 2007, PAL-F broadcast planned to be abandoned in 2020)   Indonesia
Indonesia
[10] ( PAL
PAL
broadcast to be abandoned by 2018; simulcasted in DVB-T
DVB-T
since 2008 until 2012, been changed to DVB-T2 2012 forward, and the government scheduled to give-away free 7 million STB DVB-T2
DVB-T2
in April 2014)   Iraq
Iraq
[10]( DVB-T
DVB-T
introduction currently in assessment)   Jordan
Jordan
[11] ( DVB-T
DVB-T
introduction currently in assessment)   Kuwait
Kuwait
[10]   Laos
Laos
(Once experimented in PAL-M)[10]   Lebanon
Lebanon
(Using PAL
PAL
for Lebanese Channels. Channels from Europe or even from USA are not broadcast analogue)   Lesotho
Lesotho
[10]  Libya   Malawi
Malawi
[10]

  Malaysia
Malaysia
[11] ( DVB-T2
DVB-T2
digital launched. Analog shutoff to happen in stages starting from 2015 and completing in 2017)   Maldives
Maldives
[10]   Mozambique
Mozambique
[10]   Nauru
Nauru
[10]     Nepal
Nepal
[10]   Niue
Niue
[10]   Norfolk Island
Norfolk Island
(see Australia)   North Korea
North Korea
(used SECAM)[10]   Oman
Oman
( DVB-T
DVB-T
introduction currently in assessment)[10]   Pakistan
Pakistan
[10]  Palestine ( DVB-T
DVB-T
introduction currently in assessment)   Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
[10]   Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
(Two PAL-I analogue TV services operated by BFBS)   Samoa
Samoa
[10]   Seychelles
Seychelles
[10]   Singapore
Singapore
[10] ( DVB-T2
DVB-T2
digital launched in 2013, analogue switchoff expected to be completed on 31 December 2018)   Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
[10]   Somalia
Somalia
[10]  South Sudan   Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
[10]   Sudan
Sudan
[10]   Swaziland
Swaziland
[10]   Syria
Syria
(along with SECAM)[10]   Thailand
Thailand
( PAL
PAL
broadcast to be ceased on 16th July 2018 (Except Channel 3 (Thailand)
Channel 3 (Thailand)
ceased in 2020) ,simulcast in DVB-T2
DVB-T2
System)  Timor-Leste   Tonga
Tonga
[10] ( PAL
PAL
broadcast to be abandoned. Analog shutoff scheduled for 15 June 2015. Simulcast in DVB-T)   Uganda
Uganda
[10]   Vanuatu
Vanuatu
[10]   Vietnam
Vietnam
[10]   Yemen
Yemen
[10] ( DVB-T
DVB-T
introduction)   Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
[10]

PAL-M[edit]

 Brazil[10] (simulcast with digital format in ISDB-Tb, also called SBTVD), an update to ISDB-T, started in December 2007. PAL broadcasting continues until 2023.

PAL-N[edit]

 Argentina[10] (H264 video over ISDB-T, at 576i@50 Hz (SD) or 1080i@50 Hz (HD))  Paraguay[10] ( Simulcast in ISDB-T)  Uruguay[10] (will use ISDB-T)

Countries that have ceased using PAL[edit] The following countries no longer use PAL
PAL
for terrestrial broadcasts, and are in process of converting from PAL
PAL
(cable) to DVB-C.

Country Switched to Switchover completed

 Albania DVB-T 2015-06-1717 June 2015

 Andorra DVB-T 2007-09-2525 September 2007

 Australia DVB-T 2013-12-1010 December 2013

 Austria DVB-T
DVB-T
and DVB-T2 2011-06-077 June 2011

 Azerbaijan DVB-T 2015-06-1717 June 2015

 Belgium DVB-T 2010-03-011 March 2010

 Brunei DVB-T 2015-01-011 January 2015

 Bulgaria DVB-T 2013-09-3030 September 2013

 Cambodia DVB-T2 2015-01-011 January 2015

 Croatia DVB-T 2010-10-2020 October 2010

 Cyprus DVB-T 2011-07-011 July 2011

 Czech Republic DVB-T 2012-06-3030 June 2012

 Denmark DVB-T
DVB-T
and DVB-T2 2009-11-011 November 2009

 Estonia DVB-T 2010-07-011 July 2010

 Faroe Islands DVB-T 2002-12 December 2002

 Finland DVB-T 2007-09-011 September 2007

 Georgia DVB-T 2015-07-011 July 2015

 Germany DVB-T
DVB-T
and DVB-T2 2009-06-044 June 2009

 Ghana DVB-T2 2015-06June 2015

 Greece DVB-T 2015-02-056 February 2015

 Gibraltar DVB-T 2012-12-3131 December 2012

 Guernsey DVB-T 2010-11-1717 November 2010

 Hungary DVB-T
DVB-T
and DVB-T2 2013-10-3131 October 2013

 Iceland DVB-T
DVB-T
and DVB-T2 2015-02-022 February 2015

 India DVB-T 2015-02-3131 March 2015

 Iran DVB-T 2014-12-1919 December 2014

 Ireland DVB-T 2012-10-2424 October 2012

 Isle of Man DVB-T 2012-10-2424 October 2012

 Israel DVB-T
DVB-T
and DVB-T2 2011-06-1313 June 2011

 Italy DVB-T 2012-07-044 July 2012

 Jersey DVB-T 2010-11-1717 November 2010

 Kenya DVB-T 2015-03March 2015

 Latvia DVB-T 2010-06-011 June 2010

 Lithuania DVB-T 2012-10-2929 October 2012

 Luxembourg DVB-T 2006-09-011 September 2006

 Macedonia DVB-T 2013-05-3131 May 2013

 Malta DVB-T 2011-10-3131 October 2011

 Monaco DVB-T 2011-05-2424 May 2011

 Montenegro DVB-T 2015-06-1717 June 2015

 Namibia DVB-T 2014-09-1313 September 2014

 Netherlands DVB-T 2006-12-1414 December 2006

 New Zealand DVB-T 2013-12-011 December 2013

 Norway DVB-T
DVB-T
and DVB-T2 2009-12-011 December 2009

 Poland DVB-T 2013-07-2323 July 2013

 Portugal DVB-T 2012-04-2626 April 2012

 Qatar DVB-T
DVB-T
and DVB-T2 2012-02-1313 February 2012

 Romania DVB-T
DVB-T
switching to DVB-T2 2016-12-3131 December 2016

 Rwanda DVB-T 2014-03March 2014

 Saudi Arabia DVB-T
DVB-T
and DVB-T2 2012-02-1313 February 2012

 Serbia DVB-T2 2015-06-077 June 2015

 South Africa DVB-T 20152015[12]

 San Marino DVB-T 2010-12-022 December 2010

 Slovenia DVB-T 2010-12-011 December 2010

 Slovakia DVB-T 2012-12-3131 December 2012

 Spain DVB-T 2010-04-033 April 2010

 Sweden DVB-T 2007-10-2929 October 2007

  Switzerland DVB-T 2007-11-2626 November 2007

 Tanzania DVB-T 2014-07July 2014

 Turkey DVB-T 2015-03-033 March 2015

 United Arab Emirates DVB-T
DVB-T
and DVB-T2 2012-02-1313 February 2012

 Ukraine DVB-T
DVB-T
and DVB-T2 2016-12-3131 December 2016

 United Kingdom DVB-T
DVB-T
(SD) and DVB-T2
DVB-T2
(HD) 2012-10-2424 October 2012

 Zambia DVB-T2 2014-12-3131 December 2014

See also[edit]

PALplus Broadcast television systems

Advanced Television Systems Committee standards Multichannel television sound NTSC NTSC-J SECAM

DVB Moving image formats Early television stations Digital television Broadcast-safe PAL
PAL
region Differential gain YUV

References[edit]

^ The standard that defines the PAL
PAL
system was published by the International Telecommunication Union
International Telecommunication Union
in 1998 and has the title Recommendation ITU-R BT.470-6, Conventional Television Systems ^ http://www.ebha.org/ebha2007/pdf/Gaillard.pdf The CCIR, the standards and the TV sets’ market in France (section III.1) ^ "Les Videodisques", Georges Broussaud (head/member of development team), editions Masson ^ "PGC categories - Countries using PAL
PAL
standard". Archived from the original on 22 April 2009.  090426 dvd-replica.com ^ a b "Horizontal Blanking Interval of 405-, 525-, 625- and 819-Line Standards" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 May 2009.  090426 pembers.freeserve.co.uk ^ a b c "NTSC, PAL, and SECAM
SECAM
Overview" (PDF).  090426 deetc.isel.ipl.pt page 52 ^ "empty" (PDF).  090426 thomsongrassvalley.com ^ "Vertical Blanking Interval of 625-Line Standard ( PAL
PAL
Colour)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 April 2016. Retrieved 3 September 2015.  ^ "Changes to the terrestrial television systems in Central and East European countries" (PDF). EBU. Retrieved 11 September 2010.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc Michael Hegarty; Anne Phelan; Lisa Kilbride (1 January 1998). Classrooms for Distance Teaching and Learning: A Blueprint. Leuven University Press. pp. 260–. ISBN 978-90-6186-867-5.  ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 21 February 2016. Retrieved 9 December 2017.  ^ http://afkinsider.com/68611/analogue-tv-banning-to-switch-off-many-in-africa/

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to PAL.

Review of the different refresh rates of PAL, NTSC
NTSC
and motion picture films World TV standards

v t e

Broadcast video formats

Television

Analog

525 lines

System M NTSC NTSC-J PAL-M

625 lines

PAL

System B System D System G System H System I System K

PAL-N PALplus SECAM

System B System D System G System K System L (SECAM-L)

Audio

BTSC (MTS) EIAJ NICAM SAP Sound-in-Syncs Zweikanalton
Zweikanalton
(A2/IGR)

Hidden signals

Captioning CGMS-A EPG GCR PDC Teletext VBI VEIL VIT VITC WSS XDS

Historical

Pre-1940 Mechanical television 180-line 405-line

System A

441-line 819-line MAC MUSE

Digital

Interlaced

SDTV

480i 576i

HDTV

1080i

Progressive

LDTV

1seg 240p 288p

EDTV

480p 576p

HDTV

720p 1080p

UHDTV

2160p 4320p

MPEG-2
MPEG-2
standards

ATSC DVB ISDB DTMB DVB 3D-TV

MPEG-4 AVC standards

ATSC A/72 DMB DTMB DVB SBTVD 1seg

HEVC standards

ATSC 3.0

Audio

AC-3 (5.1) DTS MPEG-1 Audio Layer II MPEG Multichannel PCM LPCM AAC HE-AAC

Hidden signals

AFD Broadcast flag Captioning CPCM EPG Teletext

Technical issues

14:9 compromise Broadcast-safe Digital cinema
Digital cinema
(DCI) Display motion blur Moving image formats MPEG transport stream Reverse Standards Conversion Standards conversion Television transmitter Video
Video
on demand Video
Video
processing Widescreen signaling Templates (Analogue TV Topics)

v t e

Color space

List of color spaces Color models

CAM

CIECAM02 iCAM

CIE

CIEXYZ CIELAB CIECAM02 CIELUV Yuv CIEUVW CIE RGB

RGB

RGB color space sRGB rg chromaticity Adobe Wide-gamut ProPhoto scRGB DCI-P3 Rec. 709 Rec. 2020 Rec. 2100

YUV

YUV

PAL

YDbDr

SECAM PAL-N

YIQ

NTSC

YCbCr

Rec. 601 Rec. 709 Rec. 2020 Rec. 2100

ICtCp YPbPr xvYCC YCoCg

Other

CcMmYK CMYK Coloroid LMS Hexachrome HSL, HSV HCL Imaginary color OSA-UCS PCCS RG RYB

Color systems and standards

ACES ANPA Colour Index International

CI list of dyes

DIC Federal Standard 595 HKS ICC profile ISCC–NBS Munsell NCS Ostwald Pantone RAL

list

For the vision capacities of organisms or machines, see  Color vision.

v t e

Analog television
Analog television
broadcasting topics

Systems

180-line 405-line ( System A ) 441-line 525-line ( System J , System M ) 625-line ( System B , System C , System D , System G , System H , System I , System K , System L , System N ) 819-line ( System E , System F )

Color systems

NTSC PAL PAL-M PAL-S PALplus SECAM

Video

Back porch
Back porch
and front porch Black level Blanking level Chrominance Chrominance
Chrominance
subcarrier Colorburst Color killer Color TV Composite video Frame (video) Horizontal scan rate Horizontal blanking interval Luma Nominal analogue blanking Overscan Raster scan Safe area Television lines Vertical blanking interval White clipper

Sound

Multichannel television sound NICAM Sound-in-Syncs Zweikanalton

Modulation

Frequency modulation Quadrature amplitude modulation Vestigial sideband modulation (VSB)

Transmission

Amplifiers Antenna (radio) Broadcast transmitter/Transmitter station Cavity amplifier Differential gain Differential phase Diplexer Dipole antenna Dummy load Frequency mixer Intercarrier method Intermediate frequency Output power of an analog TV transmitter Pre-emphasis Residual carrier Split sound system Superheterodyne transmitter Television receive-only Direct-broadcast satellite television Television transmitter Terrestrial television Transposer

Frequencies & Bands

Frequency offset Microwave transmission Television channel frequencies UHF VHF

Propagation

Beam tilt Distortion Earth bulge Field strength in free space Knife-edge effect Noise (electronics) Null fill Path loss Radiation pattern Skew Television interference

Testing

Distortionmeter Field strength meter Vectorscope VIT signals Zero reference pulse

Artifacts

Dot crawl Ghosting Hanover bars Sparklies

v t e

Telecommunications

History

Beacon Broadcasting Cable protection system Cable TV Communications satellite Computer network Drums Electrical telegraph Fax Heliographs Hydraulic telegraph Internet Mass media Mobile phone Optical telecommunication Optical telegraphy Pager Photophone Prepay mobile phone Radio Radiotelephone Satellite communications Semaphore Smartphone Smoke signals Telecommunications history Telautograph Telegraphy Teleprinter
Teleprinter
(teletype) Telephone The Telephone Cases Television Timeline of communication technology Undersea telegraph line Videoconferencing Videophone Videotelephony Whistled language

Pioneers

Edwin Howard Armstrong John Logie Baird Paul Baran Alexander Graham Bell Tim Berners-Lee Jagadish Chandra Bose Vint Cerf Claude Chappe Donald Davies Lee de Forest Philo Farnsworth Reginald Fessenden Elisha Gray Erna Schneider Hoover Charles K. Kao Hedy Lamarr Innocenzo Manzetti Guglielmo Marconi Antonio Meucci Radia Perlman Alexander Stepanovich Popov Johann Philipp Reis Nikola Tesla Camille Tissot Alfred Vail Charles Wheatstone Vladimir K. Zworykin

Transmission media

Coaxial cable Fiber-optic communication

Optical fiber

Free-space optical communication Molecular communication Radio waves Transmission line

Network topology and switching

Links Nodes Terminal node Network switching (circuit packet) Telephone exchange

Multiplexing

Space-division Frequency-division Time-division Polarization-division Orbital angular-momentum Code-division

Networks

ARPANET BITNET Cellular network Computer CYCLADES Ethernet FidoNet Internet ISDN LAN Mobile NGN NPL network Public Switched Telephone Radio Telecommunications equipment Television Telex WAN Wireless World Wide Web

.