TheInfoList

300px, upright=1.2, Analog television encoding systems by nation; NTSC_(green),_ NTSC_(green),_SECAM_(orange),_and_PAL_(blue).">SECAM.html"_;"title="NTSC_(green),_SECAM">NTSC_(green),_SECAM_(orange),_and_PAL_(blue). Phase_Alternating_Line_(PAL)_is_a_colour_encoding_system_for_Analog_television.html" ;"title="SECAM_(orange),_and_PAL_(blue)..html" ;"title="SECAM.html" ;"title="NTSC (green), SECAM">NTSC (green), SECAM (orange), and PAL (blue).">SECAM.html" ;"title="NTSC (green), SECAM">NTSC (green), SECAM (orange), and PAL (blue). Phase Alternating Line (PAL) is a colour encoding system for Analog television">analogue television used in broadcast television systems in most countries broadcasting at 625-line / 50 field (25 frame) per second (576i). It was one of three major analogue colour television standards, the others being NTSC and SECAM. Almost all of the countries using PAL are currently in the process of conversion, or have already converted transmission standards to DVB, ISDB or DTMB.

# Geographic reach

PAL was adopted by most European countries, by all African countries that had never been a Belgian or French colony, by
Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is also bordered b ...
,
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 milli ...
,
Paraguay Paraguay (; ), officially the Republic of Paraguay ( es, República del Paraguay, links=no; gn, Tetã Paraguái, links=no), is a country in South America South America is a continent entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in ...
,
Uruguay Uruguay (; ; pt, Uruguai), officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay ( es, República Oriental del Uruguay), is a country in the southeastern region of South America. It borders Argentina to its west and southwest and Brazil to its north and n ...
, and by most of
Asia-Pacific 300px, Map showing the general definition of Asia-Pacific. Dark green refers to the core Asia-Pacific countries, while light green refers to regions that may be included. The Asia-Pacific is the part of the world The world is the Earth and ...
. Countries in those regions that did not adopt PAL were
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metropolitan France and Overseas France, several overseas regions and territories. The metro ...
, most ex-Soviet Union, Soviet states, Japan, South Korea, Myanmar, the Philippines, and Taiwan.

# History

In the 1950s, the Western European countries began plans to introduce colour television, and were faced with the problem that the NTSC standard demonstrated several weaknesses, including colour tone shifting under poor transmission conditions, which became a major issue considering Europe's geographical and weather-related particularities. To overcome NTSC's shortcomings, alternative standards were devised, resulting in the development of the PAL and SECAM standards. The goal was to provide a colour TV standard for the European picture frequency of 50 field (video), fields per second (50 hertz), and finding a way to eliminate the problems with NTSC. PAL was developed by Walter Bruch at Telefunken in Hanover, West Germany, with important input from Dr. Kruse and . The format was patented by Telefunken in 1962, citing Bruch as inventor, and unveiled to members of the European Broadcasting Union (EBU) on 3 January 1963. When asked why the system was named "PAL" and not "Bruch" the inventor answered that a "Bruch system" would probably not have sold very well ("Bruch" is the German word for "breakage"). The first broadcasts began in the United Kingdom in July 1967, followed by West Germany later that year.The standard that defines the PAL system was last published by the International Telecommunication Union in 1998 and has the titl
''Recommendation ITU-R BT.470, Conventional Television Systems''
/ref> The one BBC channel initially using the broadcast standard was BBC Two, BBC2, which had been the first UK TV service to introduce "625-lines" in 1964. Telefunken PALcolour 708T was the first PAL commercial TV set. It was followed by Loewe-Farbfernseher S 920 & F 900. Telefunken was later bought by the French electronics manufacturer Technicolor SA, Thomson. Thomson also bought the ''Compagnie Générale de Télévision'' where Henri de France developed SECAM, the first European Committee for Standardization, European Standard for colour television. Thomson, now called Technicolour SA, also owns the RCA (trademark), RCA brand and licences it to other companies; RCA, Radio Corporation of America, the originator of that brand, created the NTSC colour TV standard before Thomson became involved. The term PAL was often used informally and somewhat imprecisely to refer to the 625-line/50 Hz (576i) television system in general, to differentiate from the 525-line/60 Hz (480i) system generally used with NTSC. Accordingly, DVDs were labelled as PAL or NTSC (referring to the line count and frame rate) even though technically the discs carry neither PAL nor NTSC encoded signal. CCIR 625/50 and EIA 525/60 are the proper names for these (line count and field rate) standards; PAL and NTSC on the other hand are methods of encoding colour information in the signal.

# Colour encoding

Most PAL systems encode the colour information using a variant of the YUV colour space. Y comprises the monochrome luminance signal, with the three RGB colour channels mixed down onto two, U and V. Like NTSC, PAL uses a quadrature amplitude modulation, quadrature amplitude modulated subcarrier carrying the chrominance information added to the luminance video signal to form a composite video baseband signal. The frequency of this subcarrier is 4.43361875 Hertz, MHz for PAL 4.43, compared to 3.579545 MHz for NTSC 3.58. The SECAM system, on the other hand, uses a frequency modulation scheme on its two line alternate colour subcarriers 4.25000 and 4.40625 MHz. The name "Phase Alternating Line" describes the way that the phase of part of the colour information on the video signal is reversed with each line, which automatically corrects phase errors in the transmission of the signal by cancelling them out, at the expense of vertical frame colour resolution. Lines where the colour phase is reversed compared to NTSC are often called PAL or phase-alternation lines, which justifies one of the expansions of the acronym, while the other lines are called NTSC lines. Early PAL receivers relied on the human eye to do that cancelling; however, this resulted in a comb-like effect known as Hanover bars on larger phase errors. Thus, most receivers now use a chrominance analogue delay line, which stores the received colour information on each line of display; an average of the colour information from the previous line and the current line is then used to drive the picture tube. The effect is that phase errors result in colourfulness, saturation changes, which are less objectionable than the equivalent hue changes of NTSC. A minor drawback is that the vertical colour resolution is poorer than the NTSC system's, but since the human eye also has a colour resolution that is much lower than its brightness resolution, this effect is not visible. In any case, NTSC, PAL, and SECAM all have chrominance bandwidth (horizontal colour detail) reduced greatly compared to the luminance signal. File:PAL multi lines.png, 400px, Oscillogram of composite PAL signal—several lines. The 4.43361875 MHz frequency of the colour carrier is a result of 283.75 colour clock cycles per line plus a 25 Hz offset to avoid interferences. Since the line frequency (number of lines per second) is 15625 Hz (625 lines × 50 Hz ÷ 2), the colour carrier frequency calculates as follows: 4.43361875 MHz = 283.75 × 15625 Hz + 25 Hz. The frequency 50 Hz is the optional refresh frequency of the monitor to be able to create an illusion of motion, while 625 lines means the vertical lines or resolution that the PAL system supports. The original colour Carrier signal, carrier is required by the colour decoder to recreate the colour difference signals. Since the carrier is not transmitted with the video information it has to be generated locally in the receiver. In order that the Phase (waves), phase of this locally generated signal can match the transmitted information, a 10 cycle burst of colour subcarrier is added to the video signal shortly after the line sync pulse, but before the picture information, during the so-called Analog television#Structure of a video signal, back porch. This colour burst is not actually in phase with the original colour subcarrier, but leads it by 45 degrees on the odd lines and lags it by 45 degrees on the even lines. This Burst phase, swinging burst enables the colour decoder circuitry to distinguish the phase of the R-Y vector which reverses every line.

## PAL vs. NTSC

PAL usually has 576 visible lines compared with 480 lines with NTSC, meaning that PAL has a 20% higher resolution, in fact it even has a higher resolution than Enhanced Definition standard (852x480). Most TV output for PAL and NTSC use interlaced frames meaning that even lines update on one field and odd lines update on the next field. Interlacing frames gives a smoother motion with half the frame rate. NTSC is used with a frame rate of Interlaced video, 60i or Progressive scan, 30p whereas PAL generally uses Interlaced video, 50i or Progressive scan, 25p; both use a high enough frame rate to give the illusion of fluid motion. This is due to the fact that NTSC is generally used in countries with a utility frequency of 60 Hz and PAL in countries with 50 Hz, although there are many exceptions. Both PAL and NTSC have a higher frame rate than film which uses 24 frames per second. PAL has a closer frame rate to that of film, so most films are sped up 4% to play on PAL systems, shortening the runtime of the film and, without adjustment, slightly raising the pitch of the audio track. Film conversions for NTSC instead use Three-two pull down, 3:2 pull down to spread the 24 frames of film across 60 interlaced fields. This maintains the runtime of the film and preserves the original audio, but may cause worse interlacing artefacts during fast motion. NTSC receivers have a tint control to perform colour correction manually. If this is not adjusted correctly, the colours may be faulty. The PAL standard automatically cancels hue errors by phase reversal, so a tint control is unnecessary yet Saturation control can be more useful. Chrominance phase errors in the PAL system are cancelled out using a 1H delay line resulting in lower saturation, which is much less noticeable to the eye than NTSC hue errors. However, the alternation of colour information—Hanover bars—can lead to picture grain on pictures with extreme phase errors even in PAL systems, if decoder circuits are misaligned or use the simplified decoders of early designs (typically to overcome royalty restrictions). In most cases such extreme phase shifts do not occur. This effect will usually be observed when the transmission path is poor, typically in built up areas or where the terrain is unfavourable. The effect is more noticeable on UHF than VHF signals as VHF signals tend to be more robust. In the early 1970s some Japanese set manufacturers developed decoding systems to avoid paying royalties to Telefunken. The Telefunken licence covered any decoding method that relied on the alternating subcarrier phase to reduce phase errors. This included very basic PAL decoders that relied on the human eye to average out the odd/even line phase errors. One solution was to use a 1H analogue delay line to allow decoding of only the odd or even lines. For example, the chrominance on odd lines would be switched directly through to the decoder and also be stored in the delay line. Then, on even lines, the stored odd line would be decoded again. This method effectively converted PAL to NTSC. Such systems suffered hue errors and other problems inherent in NTSC and required the addition of a manual hue control. PAL and NTSC have slightly divergent colourimetry, colour spaces, but the colour decoder differences here are ignored.

## PAL signal details

For PAL-B/G the signal has these characteristics. (Total horizontal sync time 12.05 µs) After 0.9 µs a colourburst of cycles is sent. Most rise/fall times are in range. Amplitude is 100% for white level, 30% for black, and 0% for sync. The CVBS electrical amplitude is Vpp and impedance of 75 ohm, Ω. 090426 thomsongrassvalley.com The vertical timings are: (Total vertical sync time 1.6 ms) As PAL is interlaced, every two fields are summed to make a complete picture frame. Luma (video), Luminance, $Y$, is derived from red, green, and blue ($R\text{'}G\text{'}B\text{'}$) signals: * $Y= 0.299R\text{'} + 0.587G\text{'} + 0.114B\text{'}$ $U$ and $V$ are used to transmit chrominance. Each has a typical bandwidth of 1.3 MHz. * $U = 0.492\left(B\text{'}-Y\right)$ * $V = 0.877\left(R\text{'}-Y\right)$ Composite PAL signal $= Y + U \sin \left(\omega t\right) + V \cos \left(\omega t\right) +$timing where $\omega = 2\pi F_$. Subcarrier frequency $F_$ is 4.43361875 MHz (±5 Hz) for PAL-B/D/G/H/I/N.

### PAL-B/G/D/K/I

Many countries have turned off analogue transmissions, so the following does not apply anymore, except for using devices which output broadcast signals, such as Digital video recorder, video recorders. The majority of countries using or having used PAL have television standards with 576i, 625 lines and 50 fields per second, differences concern the audio carrier frequency and channel bandwidths. The variants are: * Standards B/G are used in most of Western Europe, Australia, and New Zealand * Standard I in the UK, Ireland, Hong Kong, South Africa, and Macau * Standards D/K (along with SECAM) in most of Central and Eastern Europe * Standard D in mainland China. Most analogue CCTV cameras are Standard D. Systems B and G are similar. System B specifies 7 MHz channel bandwidth, while System G specifies 8 MHz channel bandwidth. Australia used System B for VHF and UHF channels. Similarly, Systems D and K are similar except for the bands they use: System D is only used on VHF (except in mainland China), while System K is only used on UHF. Although System I is used on both bands, it has only been used on UHF in the United Kingdom.

### PAL-M (Brazil)

In Brazil, PAL is used in conjunction with the 525 line, 59.94 field/s system M, using (very nearly) the NTSC colour subcarrier frequency. Exact colour subcarrier frequency of PAL-M is 3.575611 MHz, or 227.25 times System M's horizontal scan frequency. Almost all other countries using system M use NTSC. The PAL colour system (either baseband or with any RF system, with the normal 4.43 MHz subcarrier unlike PAL-M) can also be applied to an NTSC-like 525-line (480i) picture to form what is often known as "PAL-60" (sometimes "PAL-60/525", "Quasi-PAL" or "Pseudo PAL"). PAL-M (a broadcast standard) however should not be confused with "PAL-60" (a video playback system—see below).

### PAL-N (Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay)

In Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay the PAL-N variant is used. It employs the 625 line/50 field per second waveform of PAL-B/G, D/K, H, and I, but on a 6 MHz channel with a chrominance subcarrier frequency of 3.582056 MHz (917/4*H) very similar to NTSC (910/4*H). PAL-N uses the YDbDr colour space. VHS tapes recorded from a PAL-N or a PAL-B/G, D/K, H, or I broadcast are indistinguishable because the downconverted subcarrier on the tape is the same. A VHS recorded off TV (or released) in Europe will play in colour on any PAL-N VCR and PAL-N TV in Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay. Likewise, any tape recorded in Argentina, Paraguay or Uruguay off a PAL-N TV broadcast can be sent to anyone in European countries that use PAL (and Australia/New Zealand, etc.) and it will display in colour. This will also play back successfully in Russia and other SECAM countries, as the USSR mandated PAL compatibility in 1985—this has proved to be very convenient for video collectors. People in Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay usually own TV sets that also display NTSC-M, in addition to PAL-N. DirecTV also conveniently broadcasts in NTSC-M for North, Central, and South America. Most DVD players sold in Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay also play PAL discs—however, this is usually output in the European variant (colour subcarrier frequency 4.433618 MHz), so people who own a TV set which only works in PAL-N (plus NTSC-M in most cases) will have to watch those PAL DVD imports in black and white (unless the TV supports RGB SCART) as the colour subcarrier frequency in the TV set is the PAL-N variation, 3.582056 MHz. In the case that a VHS or DVD player works in PAL (and not in PAL-N) and the TV set works in PAL-N (and not in PAL), there are two options: * images can be seen in black and white, or * an inexpensive transcoder (PAL -> PAL-N) can be purchased in order to see the colours Some DVD players (usually lesser known brands) include an internal transcoder and the signal can be output in NTSC-M, with some video quality loss due to the system's conversion from a 625/50 PAL DVD to the NTSC-M 525/60 output format. A few DVD players sold in Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay also allow a signal output of NTSC-M, PAL, or PAL-N. In that case, a PAL disc (imported from Europe) can be played back on a PAL-N TV because there are no field/line conversions, quality is generally excellent. Extended features of the PAL specification, such as Teletext, are implemented quite differently in PAL-N. PAL-N supports a modified 608 closed captioning format that is designed to ease compatibility with NTSC originated content carried on line 18, and a modified teletext format that can occupy several lines. Some special VHS video recorders are available which can allow viewers the flexibility of enjoying PAL-N recordings using a standard PAL ( 625/50 Hz ) colour TV, or even through multi-system TV sets. Video recorders like Panasonic NV-W1E (AG-W1 for the US), AG-W2, AG-W3, NV-J700AM, Aiwa HV-M110S, HV-M1U, Samsung SV-4000W and SV-7000W feature a digital TV system conversion circuitry.

### PAL-L

The PAL L (Phase Alternating Line with L-sound system) standard uses the same video system as PAL-B/G/H (625 lines, 50 Hz field rate, 15.625 kHz line rate), but with 6 MHz video bandwidth rather than 5.5 MHz. This requires the audio subcarrier to be moved to 6.5 MHz. An 8 MHz channel spacing is used for PAL-L.

### System A

The BBC tested their pre-war 405 line monochrome system with all three colour standards including PAL, before the decision was made to abandon 405 and transmit colour on 625/System I only.

### PAL interoperability

The PAL colour system is usually used with a video format that has 625 lines per frame (576 visible lines, the rest being used for other information such as sync data and captioning) and a refresh rate of 50 Interlaced video, interlaced fields per second (compatible with 25 full frames per second), such systems being B, G, H, I, and N (see Broadcast television systems#ITU identification scheme, broadcast television systems for the technical details of each format). This ensures video interoperability. However, as some of these standards (B/G/H, I and D/K) use different sound carriers (5.5 MHz, 6.0 MHz 6.5 MHz respectively), it may result in a video image without audio when viewing a signal broadcast over the air or cable. Some countries in Eastern Europe which formerly used SECAM with systems D and K have switched to PAL while leaving other aspects of their video system the same, resulting in the different sound carrier. Instead, other European countries have changed completely from SECAM-D/K to PAL-B/G. The PAL-N system has a different sound carrier, and also a different colour subcarrier, and decoding on incompatible PAL systems results in a black-and-white image without sound. The PAL-M system has a different sound carrier and a different colour subcarrier, and does not use 625 lines or 50 frames/second. This would result in no video or audio at all when viewing a European signal.

### Multisystem PAL support and "PAL 60"

Recently manufactured PAL television receivers can typically decode all of these systems except, in some cases, PAL-M and PAL-N. Many of receivers can also receive Eastern European and Middle Eastern SECAM, though rarely French-broadcast SECAM (because France used a quasi-unique positive video modulation, system L) unless they are manufactured for the French market. They will correctly display plain CVBS or S-video SECAM signals. Many can also accept baseband NTSC-M, such as from a VCR or game console, and RF modulated NTSC with a PAL standard audio subcarrier (i.e., from a modulator), though not usually broadcast NTSC (as its 4.5 MHz audio subcarrier is not supported). Many sets also support NTSC with a 4.43 MHz subcarrier. Many 1990s-onwards videocassette recorders sold in Europe can play back NTSC tapes. When operating in this mode most of them do not output a true (625/25) PAL signal, but rather a hybrid consisting of the original NTSC line standard (525/30), but with colour converted to PAL 4.43 MHz—this is known as "PAL 60" (also "quasi-PAL" or "pseudo-PAL") with "60" standing for 60 Hz (for 525/30), instead of 50 Hz (for 625/25). Some video game consoles also output a signal in this mode. Notably, the PlayStation 2 did not actually offer a true PAL 60 mode; while many PlayStation 2 games did offer a "PAL 60" mode as an option, the console would in fact generate an NTSC signal during 60 Hz operation. Most newer television sets can display such a signal correctly, but some will only do so (if at all) in black and white and/or with flickering/foldover at the bottom of the picture, or picture rolling (however, many old TV sets can display the picture properly by means of adjusting the V-Hold and V-Height knobs—assuming they have them). Some TV tuner cards or video capture cards will support this mode (although software/driver modification can be required and the manufacturers' specs may be unclear). A "PAL 60" signal is similar to an NTSC (525/30) signal, but with the usual PAL chrominance subcarrier at 4.43 MHz (instead of 3.58 as with NTSC and South American PAL variants) and with the PAL-specific phase alternation of the red colour difference signal between the lines. Some DVD players offer a choice of PAL vs NTSC output for NTSC discs.

# Countries and territories using PAL

Below countries and territories currently use or once used the PAL system. Many of these have converted or are currently converting PAL to DVB-T (most countries), DVB-T2 (most countries), Digital Terrestrial Multimedia Broadcast, DTMB (China, Hong Kong and Macau) or ISDB (Sri Lanka, Maldives, Botswana and part of South America).

## PAL B, D, G, H, K or I

* (used SECAM) * * * (DVB-T introduction currently in assessment) * * * * * * * * (Digital broadcast using Digital Terrestrial Multimedia Broadcast, DTMB) * * (see New Zealand) * * (migrated from SECAM 1990–1992) * * * * * (UHF only) * * * * * * (Analogue shutoff scheduled to 2 November 2022; simulcasted in DVB-T since 2008 until 2012, been changed to DVB-T2 2012 forward, and the government scheduled to give-away free 7 million STB DVB-T2 in April 2014) * (DVB-T introduction currently in assessment) * (DVB-T introduction currently in assessment) * * * (Once experimented in PAL-M) * (Using PAL for Lebanese channels. Channels from Europe or even from USA are not broadcast analogue) * * * * (PAL-I, DTMB introduced since 15 July 2008) * * (DVB-T2 digital launched. Analogue switch-off was completed by end-October 2019) * * * * * * * * * (see Australia) * (used SECAM) * (DVB-T introduction currently in assessment) * * (DVB-T introduction currently in assessment) * * (Two PAL-I analogue TV services operated by BFBS) * * * * * * * * * (along with SECAM) * * (PAL broadcast to be abandoned. Analog shutoff scheduled for 15 June 2015. Simulcast in DVB-T) * * * * * * * (DVB-T introduction) *

## PAL-M

* (H264 video over ISDB-T, at 480i@60 Hz (SD) or 1080i@60 Hz (HD), simulcast with digital format in ISDB-T International, ISDB-Tb, also called ''SBTVD''), an update to ISDB-T, started in December 2007. PAL broadcasting continues until 2023.

## PAL-N

* (H264 video over ISDB-T, at 576i@50 Hz (SD) or 1080i@50 Hz (HD)) * (Simulcast in ISDB-T) * (Simulcast in ISDB-T)

## Countries and territories that have ceased using PAL

The following countries no longer use PAL for terrestrial broadcasts, and are in process of converting from PAL (cable) to DVB-T.

# Digital PAL/PAL 2.0

The PAL system is analog. There was an attempt to manufacture equipment that digitizes the PAL signal in the 1980s, but it was not commercially successful. Digital devices such as digital television, modern game consoles, computers, etc., use color component systems where the R, G, and B signals are transmitted over three different cables, or Y (luminance), RY, and BY (difference from color). In these cases only the number of total horizontal lines is taken into account—625 in digital PAL and 525 in NTSC—and the frame rate—25 frames/s in PAL Digital and 30 frames/s in digital NTSC. Systems using the MPEG-2 standard, such as DVD and satellite television, cable television, or digital terrestrial television (DTT) have practically nothing to do with PAL.