The PACMAD CLADE (previously PACCMAD, PACCAD, or PACC ) is one of two major lineages (or clades ) of the true grasses ( Poaceae ), regrouping six subfamilies and about 5700 species, more than half of all true grasses. Its sister group is the BOP clade . The PACMAD lineage is the only group within the grasses within which the C4 photosynthesis pathway has evolved; studies have shown that this happened independently multiple times.
The name of the clade comes from the first initials of the included subfamilies Panicoideae , Arundinoideae , Chloridoideae , Micrairoideae , Aristidoideae , and Danthonioideae . It has no defined taxonomic rank but is used frequently because it refers to a well-defined monophyletic group with a distinct ecology.
Phylogeny of the PACMAD clade, with photosynthetic pathways for each subfamily:
Aristidoideae C3 border-left:1px solid;vertical-align:top;text-align:center;">
Panicoideae C3 border-left:1px solid;vertical-align:top;text-align:center;">
Chloridoideae C3 border-left:1px solid;vertical-align:top;text-align:center;">
Micrairoideae C3 vertical-align:top;text-align:center;">
* ^ Soreng, Robert J.; Peterson, Paul M.; Romaschenko, Konstantin; Davidse, Gerrit; Zuloaga, Fernando O.; Judziewicz, Emmet J.; Filgueiras, Tarciso S.; Davis, Jerrold I.; Morrone, Osvaldo (2015). "A worldwide phylogenetic classification of the Poaceae (Gramineae)". Journal of Systematics and Evolution. 53 (2): 117–137. ISSN 1674-4918 . doi :10.1111/jse.12150 . * ^ A B Grass Phylogeny Working Group II (2012). "New grass phylogeny resolves deep evolutionary relationships and discovers C4 origins". New Phytologist. 193 (2): 304–312. ISSN 0028-646X . PMID 22115274 . doi :10.1111/j.1469-8137.2011.03972.x .
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Subfamilies and tribes of the grasses ( Poaceae )
* Anomochloeae * Streptochaeteae
* Atractocarpeae * Guaduellieae
see also: List of Poaceae genera
This Poaceae article is a stub . You can help by expanding it .
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