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The Info List - PACMAD Clade


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The PACMAD CLADE (previously PACCMAD, PACCAD, or PACC ) is one of two major lineages (or clades ) of the true grasses ( Poaceae ), regrouping six subfamilies and about 5700 species, more than half of all true grasses. Its sister group is the BOP clade . The PACMAD lineage is the only group within the grasses within which the C4 photosynthesis pathway has evolved; studies have shown that this happened independently multiple times.

The name of the clade comes from the first initials of the included subfamilies Panicoideae , Arundinoideae , Chloridoideae , Micrairoideae , Aristidoideae , and Danthonioideae . It has no defined taxonomic rank but is used frequently because it refers to a well-defined monophyletic group with a distinct ecology.

Phylogeny of the PACMAD clade, with photosynthetic pathways for each subfamily:

Poaceae

Anomochlooideae

Pharoideae

Puelioideae

BOP clade

PACMAD CLADE

Aristidoideae C3 border-left:1px solid;vertical-align:top;text-align:center;">

Panicoideae C3 border-left:1px solid;vertical-align:top;text-align:center;">

Chloridoideae C3 border-left:1px solid;vertical-align:top;text-align:center;">

Danthonioideae C3

Arundinoideae C3

Micrairoideae C3 vertical-align:top;text-align:center;">

REFERENCES

* ^ Soreng, Robert J.; Peterson, Paul M.; Romaschenko, Konstantin; Davidse, Gerrit; Zuloaga, Fernando O.; Judziewicz, Emmet J.; Filgueiras, Tarciso S.; Davis, Jerrold I.; Morrone, Osvaldo (2015). "A worldwide phylogenetic classification of the Poaceae (Gramineae)". Journal of Systematics and Evolution. 53 (2): 117–137. ISSN 1674-4918 . doi :10.1111/jse.12150 . * ^ A B Grass Phylogeny Working Group II (2012). "New grass phylogeny resolves deep evolutionary relationships and discovers C4 origins". New Phytologist. 193 (2): 304–312. ISSN 0028-646X . PMID 22115274 . doi :10.1111/j.1469-8137.2011.03972.x .

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Subfamilies and tribes of the grasses ( Poaceae )

EARLY CLADES

Anomochlooideae Pharoideae Puelioideae

* Anomochloeae * Streptochaeteae

* Phareae

* Atractocarpeae * Guaduellieae

BOP CLADE

Bamboos (Bambusoideae) Oryzoideae Pooideae

* Arundinarieae * Bambuseae * Olyreae

* Ehrharteae * Oryzeae * Phyllorachideae * Streptogyneae

* Ampelodesmeae * Brachyelytreae * Brachypodieae * Bromeae * Brylkinieae * Diarrheneae * Littledaleae * Lygeeae * Meliceae * Phaenospermateae * Poeae * Nardeae * Stipeae * Triticeae

PACMAD CLADE

Aristidoideae Arundinoideae Chloridoideae Danthonioideae Micrairoideae Panicoideae

* Aristideae

* Arundineae * Molinieae

* Centropodieae * Cynodonteae * Eragrostideae * Triraphideae * Zoysieae

* Danthonieae

* Eriachneae * Hubbardieae * Isachneae * Micraireae

* Andropogoneae * Arundinelleae * Centotheceae * Chasmanthieae * Cyperochloeae * Gynerieae * Lecomtelleae * Paniceae * Paspaleae * Steyermarkochloeae * Thysanolaeneae * Tristachyideae * Zeugiteae

see also: List of Poaceae genera

This Poaceae article is a stub . You can help by expanding it .

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