Lockheed P-80 Shooting Star
1 Design and development
2 Operational history
2.1 U.S. Navy service 2.2 Korean War
3.1 P-80/F-80 3.2 Derivatives
4 Operators 5 Aircraft on display
5.1 Brazil 5.2 Chile 5.3 United States 5.4 Uruguay
6 Specifications (P-80C/F-80C) 7 See also 8 References
8.1 Notes 8.2 Citations 8.3 Bibliography
9 External links
Design and development
The XP-80 had a conventional all-metal airframe, with a slim low wing
and tricycle landing gear. Like most early jets designed during World
War II—and before the Allies captured German research data that
showed the speed advantages of swept-wings—the XP-80 had straight
wings, similar to previous propeller-driven fighters. It was the first
operational jet fighter to have its engine in the fuselage, a format
previously used in the pioneering German
Heinkel He 178
The original XP-80 prototype Lulu-Belle
The impetus for development of the P-80 was the discovery by Allied
intelligence of the
XP-80A Gray Ghost in flight
The second prototype, designated XP-80A, was designed for the larger
P-80A FP-80A (RF-80A) P-80B F-80C/TF-80C
Flyaway cost $110,000 $107,796 $95,000 $93,456
Operational P-80Bs at Langley AFB
The Shooting Star began to enter service in late 1944 with 12
pre-production YP-80As, one of which was destroyed in the accident in
which Burcham was killed. A 13th YP-80A was modified to the sole F-14
photo reconnaissance model and lost in a December crash.
Four were sent to Europe for operational testing (demonstration,
familiarization, and possible interception roles), two to England and
two to the
1st Fighter Group
TO-1 Shooting Star of VMF-311
Several P-80A Shooting Stars[N 2] were transferred to the United
States Navy beginning 29 June 1945, retaining their P-80 designations.
At Naval Air Station Patuxent River, one Navy P-80 was modified with
required add-ons, such as an arrestor hook and loaded aboard the
aircraft carrier USS Franklin D. Roosevelt at Norfolk, Virginia,
on 31 October 1946. The following day the aircraft made four deck-run
takeoffs and two catapult launches, with five arrested landings, flown
by Marine Major Marion Carl. A second series of trials was held on 11
The U.S. Navy had already begun procuring its own jet aircraft, but
the slow pace of delivery was causing retention problems among pilots,
particularly those of the Marines who were still flying Vought F4U
Corsairs. To increase land-based jet-transition training in the late
1940s, 50 F-80Cs were transferred to the U.S. Navy from the U.S. Air
Force in 1949 as jet trainers. Designated TO-1 by the Navy (changed to
TV-1 in 1950), 25 were based at Naval Air Station North Island,
California, with VF-52, and 16 assigned to the Marine Corps, equipping
F-80Cs of the 8th Fighter-Bomber Group
Shooting Stars first saw combat service in the Korean War, employing both the F-80C variant and RF-80 photo-recon variants. The F-80 flew both air-to-air and air-to-ground sorties, claiming several aerial victories against North Korean Yak-9s and Il-10s. On 8 November 1950, the first American claim for a jet-versus-jet aerial kill was made when Lieutenant Russell J. Brown, flying an F-80, reported that he shot down a MiG-15. Soviet records showed that the MiG survived the encounter. Despite initial claims of success, the speed of the straight-wing F-80s was inferior to the 668 mph MiGs. The MiGs incorporated German research that showed that swept wings delayed the onset of compressibility problems, and enabled speeds much closer to the speed of sound. F-80s were soon replaced in the air superiority role by the North American F-86 Sabre, which had been delayed to also incorporate swept wings into an improved straight-winged naval FJ-1 Fury. However, F-80 pilots still claimed to have destroyed a total of six MiG-15s in aerial combat. When sufficient Sabres were in operation, the Shooting Star flew exclusively ground-attack missions, and were also used for advanced flight training duties and air defense in Japan. By the end of hostilities, the only F-80s still flying in Korea were photo-reconnaissance variants. F-80Cs equipped 10 USAF squadrons in Korea:
8th Fighter-Bomber Wing (35th, 36th, and 80th Fighter-Bomber Squadrons), based at Suwon Air Base, was the longest-serving F-80 unit in Korea. It began missions from Japan in June 1950 and continued to fly the Shooting Star until May 1953, when it converted to F-86 Sabres. 49th Fighter-Bomber Group (7th, 8th, and 9th FBS) deployed to Taegu AB (K-2), Korea, from Japan in September 1950 and continued fighter-bomber missions in the F-80C until June 1951, when it converted to the F-84 Thunderjet. 51st Fighter-Interceptor Wing (16th and 25th FIS) operated F-80Cs from Kimpo AB (K-14) and Japan from September 1950 to November 1951 when it transitioned to F-86s. 35th Fighter-Interceptor Group and two squadrons, the 39th and 40th FIS, went to Pohang, Korea in July 1950, but converted to the P-51 Mustang before the end of the year.
One RF-80A unit operated in Korea:
Of the 277 F-80s lost in operations (approximately 30% of the existing
inventory), 113 were lost to ground fire and 14 to enemy aircraft.
F-80s are credited by the USAF with destroying 17 aircraft in
air-to-air combat and 24 on the ground. Major Charles J. Loring,
Jr. was posthumously awarded the
Medal of Honor
EF-80 prone pilot test aircraft
Prototype powered by a de Havilland-built Halford H.1B turbojet and
first flown 8 January 1944, one built.
Production prototype variant powered by a
A F-14A/FP-80A reconnaissance aircraft
F-14A Unknown number of conversions from P-80A, all redesignated FP-80A. XFP-80A Modified P-80A 44-85201 with hinged nose for camera equipment.
F-80A test aircraft (s/n 44-85044) with twin 0.5 in (12.7 mm) machine guns in oblique mount, similar to World War II German Schräge Musik, to study the ability to attack Soviet bombers from below
FP-80A 152 block 15-LO; operational photo reconnaissance aircraft. RF-80A USAF designation of FP-80A, 66 operational F-80A's modified to RF-80A standard. ERF-80A Modified P-80A 44-85042 with experimental nose contour. XP-80B Reconfigured P-80A, improved J-33 engine, one built as prototype for P-80B P-80B 209 block 1-LO; 31 block 5-LO; first model fitted with an ejection seat (retrofitted into -As) F-80B USAF designation of P-80B. P-80R Modification of XP-80B to racer. P-80C 162 block 1-LO; 75 block 5-LO; 561 block 10-LO F-80C USAF designation of P-80C; 128 F-80A modified to F-80C-11-LO with J-33-A-35 engine and ejection seat installed; fitted with 260 US gal (220 imp gal; 980 l) tiptanks; major P-80 production version. RF-80C 70 modified F-80A and F-80C, and six modified RF-80A, to RF-80C and RF-80C-11, respectively; upgraded photo recon plane. DF-80A Designation given to number of F-80As converted into drone directors. QF-80A/QF-80C/QF-80F Project Bad Boy F-80 conversions by Sperry Gyroscope to target drones. Q-8 was initially proposed as designation for the QF-80. TP-80C First designation for TF-80C trainer prototype. TF-80C Prototype for T-33 (48-0356). TO-1/TV-1 U.S. Navy variant of F-80C; 49 block 1-LO and one block 5-LO aircraft transferred to USN in 1949; 16 initially went to U.S. Marine Corps.
Lockheed also produced a two-seat trainer variant with a longer fuselage, the T-33, which remained in production until 1959 and was produced under license in Japan and Canada. The trainer was used by more than 20 different countries. A total of 6,557 T-33s were built and some are still flying.
Lockheed F-94 Starfire
Two TF-80Cs were modified as prototypes for the F-94 Starfire, an all-weather fighter produced in three variants. Operators
Peruvian F-80C preserved in a
Brazil 33 F-80Cs delivered starting in 1958, withdrawn from service in 1973. Chile around 30 F-80Cs delivered from 1958 on, last ones retired from service in 1974. Colombia 16 F-80Cs delivered starting in 1958, retired by 1966. Ecuador 16 F-80Cs delivered between 1957 and 1960, six returned to the USA in 1965. Peru 16 F-80Cs delivered starting in 1958, used by the 13th Fighter-Bomber Group until the type was phased out in 1973. United States
United States Air Force
United States Navy
Uruguay at least 17 F-80Cs delivered, withdrawn from use in 1971.
Aircraft on display Brazil
49-0787 – Museo Nacional Aeronautico y del Espacio, Los Cerrillos Airport, Santiago, Chile.
Lockheed XP-80 "Lulu-Belle" at the National Air and Space Museum, Washington, D.C.
44-83020 (Lulu-Belle) –
National Air and Space Museum
Hill Aerospace Museum
45-8357 – Museum of Aviation at Robins Air Force Base, Warner
Castle Air Museum
47-0171 – Iowa Gold Star Military Museum, Camp Dodge, Des Moines,
47-0215 – Reflections of Freedom Air Park, McConnell AFB, Wichita,
47-1837 – Redesignated USMC TO-1 BuNo 33840 at the Flying
Leatherneck Aviation Museum at MCAS Miramar, San Diego, California.
47-1392 – Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base Fort Worth, Fort
EAA Airventure Museum
44-85200 – National Museum of the
United States Air Force
47-0205 (FAU213) – Museo de la aeronautica in Montevideo, Uruguay.
USAF P-80A of the first production series, bearing a buzz number
F-80C Shooting Star
Data from Quest for Performance General characteristics
Crew: 1 Length: 34 ft 5 in (10.49 m) Wingspan: 38 ft 9 in (11.81 m) Height: 11 ft 3 in (3.43 m) Wing area: 237.6 ft² (22.07 m²) Aspect ratio: 6.37 Empty weight: 8,420 lb (3,819 kg) Loaded weight: 12,650 lb (5,738 kg) Max. takeoff weight: 16,856 lb (7,646 kg) Zero-lift drag coefficient: 0.0134 Drag area: 3.2 ft² (0.30 m²) Powerplant: 1 × Allison J33-A-35 centrifugal compressor turbojet, 4600 lbf (20.46 kN) / 5400 lbf (24.02 kN) with water injection
Maximum speed: 600 mph, Mach .76 (P-80A 558 mph at sea level and 492 mph at 40,000 ft) (965 km/h) Cruise speed: 410 mph (660 km/h) Range: 1,200 mi (1,930 km) Service ceiling: 46,000 ft (14,000 m) Rate of climb: 4,580 ft/min (23.3 m/s) 5.5 min to 20,000 ft (6,100 m) Wing loading: 53 lb/ft² (260 kg/m²) Thrust/weight: 0.364 (0.427 with water injection) Lift-to-drag ratio: 17.7
Guns: 6 × 0.50 in (12.7 mm) M3 Browning machine guns (300 rpg) Rockets: 8 × 127mm unguided rockets Bombs: 2 × 1,000 lb (454 kg) bombs
United States Air Force
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Bell P-59 Airacomet
de Havilland Vampire
List of military aircraft of the United States List of fighter aircraft List of jet aircraft of World War II List of Lockheed aircraft
Royal Air Force
^ a b c Knaack 1978
^ Green and Swanborough 2001, p. 345.
^ a b c d Felton, James. "Shooting Star." Life, 13 August 1945, pp.
43–46. Retrieved: 25 November 2011.
^ Gunston 1989, p. 59.
^ Heppenheimer, T.A. "The Jet Plane is Born." American Heritage
magazine, Fall 1993. Volume 9, Issue 2. Retrieved: 1 August 2011.
^ Ethell and Price 1994, p. 180.
^ Dutton, Mark. "Maj Frederic Austin "Fred" Borsodi." Find a grave, 6
August 2010. Retrieved: 5 August 2013.
^ a b "Lockheed F-80 "Shooting Star." The 456th Fighter Interception
Squadron. Retrieved: 1 August 2011.
^ Dorr, Robert F."Project Extraversion: P-80 Shooting Stars in World
War II." Defense Media Network. Retrieved: 5 August 2013.
^ Bilstein 2001, p. 179.
^ Long Beach Press Telegram 27 January 1946
^ a b "P-80 Shooting Star/44-85200." Archived 12 January 2015 at the
Wayback Machine. National Museum of the USAF. Retrieved: 9 October
^ Francillon 1982, pp. 241–242
^ Francillon 1982, p. 249
^ a b Polmar 2001, pp. 12–14.
^ a b Knez, Saso, Diego Fernando Zampini and Joe L. Brenan. "Korean
War Database." AirCombat Information Group, (ACIG), 28 October 2003.
Retrieved: 6 July 2008.
^ "USAF Credits for the Destruction of Enemy Aircraft, Korean War."
Air Force Historical Study 81, p. 46. Retrieved: 1 August 2011.
^ a b Fitzsimons 1978, p. 2319.
^ Jones 1975, p. 202.
^ Andrade 1982, p. 81.
^ Andrade 1982, p. 126.
^ Andrade 1982, p. 143.
^ Andrade 1982, p. 167.
^ Andrade 1982, p. 239.
^ Andrade 1982, p. 263.
^ "P-80 Shooting Star/49-0433." aerialvisuals.ca. Retrieved: 30
^ "P-80 Shooting Star/49-0787." aerialvisuals.ca. Retrieved: 30
^ "P-80 Shooting Star/44-83020." NASM. Retrieved: 10 June 2011.
^ "P-80 Shooting Star/44-84999." Archived 23 April 2013 at the Wayback
Machine. Hill Aerospace Museum. Retrieved: 6 May 2013.
^ Baugher, Joe. "1944 USAAF Serial Numbers (44-83886 to 44-92098)".
JoeBaugher.com. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
^ "P-80 Shooting Star/44-85123." Air Force Flight Test Museum
Inventory. Retrieved: 12 January 2015.
^ "P-80 Shooting Star/44-85125." Air Zoo. Retrieved: 6 May 2013.
^ "P-80 Shooting Star/44-85391." Air Victory Museum. Retrieved: 6 May
^ "P-80 Shooting Star/44-85488."
Planes of Fame
Andrade, John. Latin-American Military Aviation. Leicester, UK:
Midland Counties Publications, 1982. ISBN 0-904597-31-8.
Arnold, Rhodes. Shooting Star, T-Bird & Starfire: A Famous
Lockheed Family. Tucson, Arizona: Aztex Corp., 1981.
Baugher, Joe. "Lockheed P-80/F-80 Shooting Star." USAAC/USAAF/USAF
Fighter and Pursuit Aircraft, 16 July 1999.
Bilstein, Roger E. Flight in America: From the Wrights to the
Astronauts. Baltimore, Maryland: Hopkins Fulfillment Service, Johns
Hopkins University Press, 2001. ISBN 978-0-8018-6685-2.
Davis, Larry. MiG Alley: Air to Air Combat Over Korea. Carrollton,
Texas: Squadron/Signal Publications, 1978. ISBN 0-89747-081-8.
Davis, Larry. P-80 Shooting Star. T-33/F-94 in action. Carrollton,
Texas: Squadron/Signal Publications, 1980. ISBN 0-89747-099-0.
Dorr, Robert F. "P-80 Shooting Star Variants". Wings of Fame Vol. 11.
London: Aerospace Publishing, 1998. ISBN 1-86184-017-9.
Fitzsimons, Bernard, ed. "Shooting Star, Lockheed F-80/T-33."
Illustrated Encyclopedia of 20th Century Weapons and Warfare, Volume
21. London: Phoebus, 1978. ISBN 0-8393-6175-0.
Francillon, René J. Lockheed aircraft since 1913 London: Putnam &
Company, 1982. ISBN 0-370-30329-6
Green, William. War Planes of the Second World War, Volume Four:
Fighters. London: MacDonald & Co., 1961 (Sixth impression 1969).
Green, William and Gordon Swanborough. The Great Book of Fighters. St.
Paul, Minnesota: MBI Publishing, 2001. ISBN 0-7603-1194-3.
Green, William and Gordon Swanborough. WW2 Aircraft Fact Files: US
Army Air Force Fighters, Part 2. London: Macdonald and Jane's
Publishers, 1978. ISBN 0-354-01072-7.
Gunston, Bill. World Encyclopedia of Aero Engines. Cambridge, UK:
Patrick Stephens, 1989. ISBN 1-85260-163-9.
Jenkins, Dennis R. and Tony R. Landis. Experimental & Prototype
U.S. Air Force Jet Fighters. North Branch, Minnesota: Specialty Press,
2008. ISBN 978-1-58007-111-6.
Jones, Lloyd S. US Fighters, Army-Air Force: 1925 to 1980s. Los
Angeles: Aero Publishers, 1975. ISBN 0-8168-9200-8.
Knaack, Marcelle Size. Encyclopedia of US Air Force Aircraft and
Missile Systems: Volume 1 Post-
World War II
Wikimedia Commons has media related to F-80 Shooting Star.
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USAAS/USAAC/USAAF/USAF fighter designations 1924–1962
Pursuit (pre-1948) Fighter (post-1948)
P-1 P-2 P-3 XP-4 P-5 P-6 XP-7 XP-8 XP-9 XP-10 P-11 P-12 XP-13 XP-14 XP-15 P-16 P-17 YP-18 YP-19 YP-20 P-21 XP-22 P-23 YP-24 P-25 P-26 P-27 P-28 P-29 P-30 XP-31 P-32 P-33 XP-34 P-35 P-36 P-37 P-38 P-39 P-40 XP-41 P-42 P-43 P-44 P-45 XP-46 P-47 XP-48 XP-49 XP-50 P-51 XP-52 P-53 XP-54 XP-55 XP-56 XP-57 XP-58 P-59 P-60 P-61/C XP-62 P-63 P-64 P-65 P-66 XP-67 XP-68 P-69 P-70 XP-71 XP-72 P-73 P-741 P-75 P-76 XP-77 P-78 XP-79 P-80 XP-81 F-82 XP-83 F-84 F-85 F-86/D XF-87 F-88 F-89 XF-90 XF-91 XF-92 YF-93 F-94 F-95 F-96 F-97 F-98 F-99 F-100 F-101 F-102 XF-103 F-104 F-105 F-106 F-107 XF-108 XF-109 F-110 F-111/B
PB-1 PB-2 PB-3
1 Not assigned See also: F-24 • F-117 • P-400 • post-1962 sequence
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USAF drone aircraft designations 1948–1962
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1 Not assigned
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