Pāli Canon (Pali: Tipitaka;
Sanskrit (IAST): Tripiṭaka) is the
standard collection of scriptures in the Theravadan Buddhist
tradition, as preserved in the
Pāli language. It is the first
known and most-complete extant early Buddhist canon.
It was composed in
North India and was preserved orally until it was
committed to writing during the
Fourth Buddhist Council in Sri Lanka
in 29 BCE, approximately 454 years after the death of Gautama
Buddha.[a] It was composed by members of
Sangha of each ancient major
Buddhist sub-tradition. It is written in Pali, Sanskrit, and regional
Asian languages. It survives in various versions. The surviving Sri
Lankan version is the most complete.
Pāli Canon falls into three general categories, called pitaka
Pali piṭaka, meaning "basket", referring to the receptacles in
which the palm-leaf manuscripts were kept). Because of this, the
canon is traditionally known as the Tipiṭaka (Sanskrit: IAST:
Tripiṭaka; "three baskets"). The three pitakas are as follows:
Pitaka ("Discipline Basket"), dealing with rules or discipline
of the sangha;
Pitaka (Sutra/Sayings Basket), discourses and sermons of Buddha,
some religious poetry and is the largest basket;
Abhidhamma Pitaka, treatises that elaborate Buddhist doctrines,
particularly about mind, also called the "systematic philosophy"
basket, likely composed starting about and after 300 BCE.
Pitaka and the Sutta
Pitaka are remarkably similar to the
works of the early Buddhist schools, often termed Early Buddhist
Abhidhamma Pitaka, however, is a strictly Theravada
collection and has little in common with the
recognized by other Buddhist schools.
1 The Canon in the tradition
2.1.1 Authorship according to Theravadins
2.1.2 Authorship according to academic scholars
220.127.116.11 Views concerning authorship of the Buddha himself
18.104.22.168 Views concerning authorship in the period of pre-sectarian
22.214.171.124 Views concerning agnosticism
2.2 The earliest books of the
3.2 Printed editions and digitized editions
5 Contents of the Canon
5.2 Sutta Pitaka
6 Use of Brahmanical devices
7 Comparison with other Buddhist canons
8 See also
12 Further reading
13 External links
13.1 English translations
Pali Canon online
The Canon in the tradition
In pre-modern times the
Pali Canon was not published in book form, but
written on thin slices of wood (
Palm-leaf manuscript or Bamboo). The
leaves are kept on top of each other by thin sticks and the scripture
is covered in cloth and kept in a box.
The Canon is traditionally described by the
Theravada as the Word of
the Buddha (buddhavacana), though this is not intended in a literal
sense, since it includes teachings by disciples.
The traditional Theravādin (Mahavihārin) interpretation of the Pali
Canon is given in a series of commentaries covering nearly the whole
Canon, compiled by
Buddhaghosa (fl. 4th–5th century CE) and later
monks, mainly on the basis of earlier materials now lost.
Subcommentaries have been written afterward, commenting further on the
Canon and its commentaries. The traditional Theravādin interpretation
is summarized in Buddhaghosa's Visuddhimagga.
An official view is given by a spokesman for the Buddha Sasana Council
of Burma: the Canon contains everything needed to show the path to
nirvāna; the commentaries and subcommentaries sometimes include much
speculative matter, but are faithful to its teachings and often give
very illuminating illustrations. In
Sri Lanka and Thailand, "official"
Buddhism has in large part adopted the interpretations of Western
Although the Canon has existed in written form for two millennia, its
earlier oral nature has not been forgotten in actual Buddhist practice
within the tradition: memorization and recitation remain common. Among
frequently recited texts are the Paritta. Even lay people usually know
at least a few short texts by heart and recite them regularly; this is
considered a form of meditation, at least if one understands the
meaning. Monks are of course expected to know quite a bit more (see
Dhammapada below for an example). A Burmese monk named Vicittasara
even learned the entire Canon by heart for the Sixth Council (again
according to the usual
The relation of the scriptures to
Buddhism as it actually exists among
ordinary monks and lay people is, as with other major religious
traditions, problematic: the evidence suggests that only parts of the
Canon ever enjoyed wide currency, and that non-canonical works were
sometimes very much more widely used; the details varied from place to
Rupert Gethin suggests that the whole of Buddhist history
may be regarded as a working out of the implications of the early
According to a late part of the
Pali Canon, the Buddha taught the
three pitakas. It is traditionally believed by Theravadins that
most of the
Pali Canon originated from the Buddha and his immediate
disciples. According to the scriptures, a council was held shortly
after the Buddha's passing to collect and preserve his teachings. The
Theravada tradition states that it was recited orally from the 5th
BCE to the first century BCE, when it was written down.
The memorization was enforced by regular communal recitations. The
tradition holds that only a few later additions were made. The
Theravādin pitakas were first written down in
Sri Lanka in the Alu
Viharaya Temple no earlier than 29-17 B.C.E.
Much of the material in the Canon is not specifically Theravādin, but
is instead the collection of teachings that this school preserved from
the early, non-sectarian body of teachings. According to Peter Harvey,
it contains material which is at odds with later Theravādin
orthodoxy. He states that "the Theravādins, then, may have added
texts to the Canon for some time, but they do not appear to have
tampered with what they already had from an earlier period." A
variety of factors suggest that the early Sri Lankan Buddhists
regarded canonical literature as such and transmitted it
Authorship according to Theravadins
Prayudh Payutto argues that the
Pali Canon represents the teachings of
the Buddha essentially unchanged apart from minor modifications. He
argues that it also incorporates teachings that precede the Buddha,
and that the later teachings were memorized by the Buddha's followers
while he was still alive. His thesis is based on study of the
processes of the first great council, and the methods for memorization
used by the monks, which started during the Buddha's lifetime. It's
also based on the capability of a few monks, to this day, to memorize
the entire canon.
Bhikkhu Sujato and
Bhikkhu Brahmali argue that it is likely that much
Pali Canon dates back to the time period of the Buddha. They
base this on many lines of evidence including the technology described
in the canon (apart from the obviously later texts), which matches the
technology of his day which was in rapid development, that it doesn't
include back written prophecies of the great Buddhist ruler King
Mahayana texts often do) suggesting that it predates his
time, that in its descriptions of the political geography it presents
India at the time of Buddha, which changed soon after his death, that
it has no mention of places in South India, which would have been well
known to Indians not long after Buddha's death and various other lines
of evidence dating the material back to his time.
Authorship according to academic scholars
The views of scholars concerning the authorship of the
Pali Canon can
be grouped into three categories:
Attribution to the Buddha himself and his early followers
Attribution to the period of pre-sectarian Buddhism
Scholars have both supported and opposed the various existing views.
Views concerning authorship of the Buddha himself
Several scholars of early
Buddhism argue that the nucleus of the
Buddhist teachings in the
Pali Canon may derive from Gautama Buddha
himself, but that part of it also was developed after the Buddha by
his early followers.
Richard Gombrich says that the main preachings of
the Buddha (as in the
Vinaya and Sutta Pitaka) are coherent and
cogent, and must be the work of a single person: the Buddha himself,
not a committee of followers after his death.[b]
Other scholars are more cautious, and attribute part of the
to the Buddha's early followers. Peter Harvey also states that
"much" of the
Pali Canon must derive from the Buddha's teaching, but
also states that "parts of the
Pali Canon clearly originated after the
time of the Buddha."[c]
A.K. Warder has stated that there is no
evidence to suggest that the shared teaching of the early schools was
formulated by anyone else than the Buddha and his immediate
J.W. de Jong
J.W. de Jong has said it would be "hypocritical" to
assert that we can say nothing about the teachings of earliest
Buddhism, arguing that "the basic ideas of
Buddhism found in the
canonical writings could very well have been proclaimed by him [the
Buddha], transmitted and developed by his disciples and, finally,
codified in fixed formulas." Alex Wynne has said that some texts
Pali Canon may go back to the very beginning of Buddhism, which
perhaps include the substance of the Buddha's teaching, and in some
cases, maybe even his words.[e]. He suggests that the canon was
composed early on soon after Buddha's paranirvana, but after a period
of free improvisation, and then the core teachings were preserved
nearly verbatim by memory.
Hajime Nakamura writes that while
nothing can be definitively attributed to Gautama as a historical
figure, some sayings or phrases must derive from him.
Views concerning authorship in the period of pre-sectarian
History of literature
Matter of Rome
Matter of France
Matter of Britain
Modern by century
Most scholars do agree that there was a rough body of sacred
literature that a relatively early community maintained and
Much of the
Pali Canon is found also in the scriptures of other early
schools of Buddhism, parts of whose versions are preserved, mainly in
Chinese. Many scholars have argued that this shared material can be
attributed to the period of Pre-sectarian Buddhism.
This is the period before the early schools separated in about the
fourth or third century BCE.
Views concerning agnosticism
Some scholars see the
Pali Canon as expanding and changing from an
unknown nucleus. Arguments given for an agnostic attitude include
that the evidence for the Buddha's teachings dates from (long) after
Some scholars of later Indian
Buddhism and Tibetan
Buddhism say that
little or nothing goes back to the Buddha. Ronald Davidson has
little confidence that much, if any, of surviving Buddhist scripture
is actually the word of the historical Buddha. Geoffrey Samuel
Pali Canon largely derives from the work of
his colleagues in the 5th century AD.
Gregory Schopen argues
that it is not until the 5th to 6th centuries CE that we can know
anything definite about the contents of the Canon. This position was
criticized by A. Wynne.
The earliest books of the
Different positions have been taken on what are the earliest books of
the Canon. The majority of Western scholars consider the earliest
identifiable stratum to be mainly prose works, the Vinaya
(excluding the Parivāra) and the first four nikāyas of the Sutta
Pitaka, and perhaps also some short verse works such as
the Suttanipata. However, some scholars, particularly in Japan,
maintain that the Suttanipāta is the earliest of all Buddhist
scriptures, followed by the Itivuttaka and Udāna. However, some
of the developments in teachings may only reflect changes in teaching
that the Buddha himself adopted, during the 45 years that the Buddha
Most of the above scholars would probably agree that their early books
include some later additions. On the other hand, some scholars
have claimed that central aspects of late works are or
may be much earlier.
One of the edicts of Ashoka, the 'Calcutta-Bairat edict', lists
several works from the canon which he considers advantageous.
According to Alexander Wynne:
The general consensus seems to be that what Asoka calls Munigatha
correspond to the Munisutta (Sn 207-21), Moneyasute is probably the
second half of the Nalakasutta (Sn 699-723), and Upatisapasine may
correspond to the Sariputtasutta (Sn 955-975). The identification of
most of the other titles is less certain, but Schmithausen, following
Oldenberg before him, identifies what Asoka calls the Laghulovada with
part of a prose text in the Majjhima Nikaya, the
Ambalatthika-Rahulovada Sutta (M no.61).
This seems to be evidence which indicates that some of these texts
were already fixed by the time of the reign of
Ashoka (304–232 BCE),
which means that some of the texts carried by the Buddhist
missionaries at this time might also have been fixed.
According to the Sri Lankan Mahavamsa, the
Pali Canon was written down
in the reign of King Vattagāmini (Vaṭṭagāmiṇi) (1st century
BCE) in Sri Lanka, at the Fourth Buddhist council. Most scholars hold
that little if anything was added to the Canon after this,
though Schopen questions this.
Pali manuscript copy of the Buddhist text Mahaniddesa, showing
three different types of Burmese script, (top) medium square, (centre)
round and (bottom) outline round in red lacquer from the inside of one
of the gilded covers
The climate of Theravāda countries is not conducive to the survival
of manuscripts. Apart from brief quotations in inscriptions and a
two-page fragment from the eighth or ninth century found in Nepal, the
oldest manuscripts known are from late in the fifteenth century,
and there is not very much from before the eighteenth.
Printed editions and digitized editions
The first complete printed edition of the Canon was published in Burma
in 1900, in 38 volumes. The following editions of the
Pali text of
the Canon are readily available in the West:
Pali Text Society edition, 1877–1927 (a few volumes subsequently
replaced by new editions), 57 volumes including indexes.
Pali scriptures and some
Pali commentaries were digitized as an
MS-DOS/extended ASCII compatible database through cooperation between
Dhammakaya Foundation and the
Pali Text Society in 1996 as
PALITEXT version 1.0: CD-ROM Database of the Entire Buddhist Pali
Canon ISBN 978-974-8235-87-5.
Thai edition, 1925–28, 45 volumes; more accurate than the PTS
edition, but with fewer variant readings;
BUDSIR on Internet free with login; and electronic transcript by
BUDSIR: Buddhist scriptures information retrieval, CD-ROM and
online, both requiring payment.
Sixth Council edition, Rangoon, 1954–56, 40 volumes; more accurate
than the Thai edition, but with fewer variant readings;
electronic transcript by Vipāssana Research Institute available
online in searchable database free of charge, or on CD-ROM
(p&p only) from the institute.
Another transcript of this edition, produced under the patronage of
the Supreme Patriarch of Thailand, World Tipitaka Edition, 2005, 40
volumes, published by the Dhamma Society Fund, claims to include
the full extent of changes made at the Sixth Council, and therefore
reflect the results of the council more accurately than some existing
Sixth Council editions. Available for viewing online (registration
required) at Tipiṭaka Quotation WebService.
Sinhalese (Buddha Jayanti) edition, 1957–?1993, 58 volumes including
parallel Sinhalese translations, searchable, free of charge (not yet
fully proofread.) Available at Journal of Buddhist Ethics.
Sinhalese (Buddha Jayanti). Image files in Sinhala script. The only
accurate version of the Sri Lankan text available, in individual page
images. Cannot be searched though.
Transcript in BudhgayaNews
Pali Canon. In this version it is easy
to search for individual words across all 16,000+ pages at once and
view the contexts in which they appear.
No one edition has all the best readings, and scholars must compare
The Complete Collection of Chinese Pattra Scripture
Pali Canon in English Translation, 1895-, in progress, 43 volumes so
Pali Text Society, Bristol; for details of these and other
translations of individual books see the separate articles. In 1994,
the then President of the
Pali Text Society stated that most of these
translations were unsatisfactory. Another former President said in
2003 that most of the translations were done very badly. The style
of many translations from the Canon has been criticized as
"Buddhist Hybrid English", a term invented by Paul Griffiths for
translations from Sanskrit. He describes it as "deplorable",
"comprehensible only to the initiate, written by and for
Selections: see List of
Pali Canon anthologies.
A translation by
Bhikkhu Nanamoli and
Bhikkhu Bodhi of the Majjhima
Nikaya was published by Wisdom Publications in 1995.
Bhikkhu Bodhi of the
Samyutta Nikaya and the Anguttara
Nikaya were published by Wisdom Publications in 2003 and 2012,
A Japanese translation of the Canon, edited by Takakusu Junjiro, was
published in 65 volumes from 1935 to 1941 as The Mahātripiṭaka of
the Southern Tradition (南伝大蔵経 Nanden daizōkyō).
Contents of the Canon
Dhatukatha and Puggalapannatti
As noted above, the Canon consists of three pitakas.
Pitaka or Suttanta Pitaka
Details are given below. For more complete information, see standard
The first category, the
Vinaya Pitaka, is mostly concerned with the
rules of the sangha, both monks and nuns. The rules are preceded by
stories telling how the Buddha came to lay them down, and followed by
explanations and analysis. According to the stories, the rules were
devised on an ad hoc basis as the Buddha encountered various
behavioral problems or disputes among his followers. This pitaka can
be divided into three parts:
Suttavibhanga (-vibhaṅga) Commentary on the Patimokkha, a basic code
of rules for monks and nuns that is not as such included in the Canon.
The monks' rules are dealt with first, followed by those of the nuns'
rules not already covered.
Khandhaka Other rules grouped by topic in 22 chapters.
Parivara (parivāra) Analysis of the rules from various points of
The second category is the Sutta
Pitaka (literally "basket of
threads", or of "the well spoken"; Sanskrit:
Sutra Pitaka, following
the former meaning) which consists primarily of accounts of the
Buddha's teachings. The Sutta
Pitaka has five subdivisions, or
Digha Nikaya (dīghanikāya) 34 long discourses. Joy Manné
argues that this book was particularly intended to make converts,
with its high proportion of debates and devotional material.
Majjhima Nikaya 152 medium-length discourses. Manné argues
that this book was particularly intended to give a solid grounding in
the teaching to converts, with a high proportion of sermons and
Samyutta Nikaya (saṃyutta-) Thousands of short discourses in
fifty-odd groups by subject, person etc.
Bhikkhu Bodhi, in his
translation, says this nikaya has the most detailed explanations of
Anguttara Nikaya (aṅguttara-) Thousands of short discourses arranged
numerically from ones to elevens. It contains more elementary teaching
for ordinary people than the preceding three.
Khuddaka Nikaya A miscellaneous collection of works in prose or verse.
The third category, the
Pitaka (literally "beyond the
dhamma", "higher dhamma" or "special dhamma", Sanskrit: Abhidharma
Pitaka), is a collection of texts which give a scholastic explanation
of Buddhist doctrines particularly about mind, and sometimes referred
to as the "systematic philosophy" basket. There are seven books
Dhammasangani (-saṅgaṇi or -saṅgaṇī) Enumeration, definition
and classification of dhammas
Vibhanga (vibhaṅga) Analysis of 18 topics by various methods,
including those of the Dhammasangani
Dhatukatha (dhātukathā) Deals with interrelations between ideas from
the previous two books
Puggalapannatti (-paññatti) Explanations of types of person,
arranged numerically in lists from ones to tens
Kathavatthu (kathā-) Over 200 debates on points of doctrine
Yamaka Applies to 10 topics a procedure involving converse questions
(e.g. Is X Y? Is Y X?)
Patthana (paṭṭhāna) Analysis of 24 types of condition
The traditional position is that abhidhamma refers to the absolute
teaching, while the suttas are adapted to the hearer. Most scholars
describe the abhidhamma as an attempt to systematize the teachings of
the suttas: Cousins says that where the suttas think in terms
of sequences or processes the abhidhamma thinks in terms of specific
events or occasions.
Use of Brahmanical devices
Pali Canon uses many Brahmanical terminology and concepts. For
Samyutta Nikaya 111,
Majjhima Nikaya 92 and
Vinaya i 246
Pali Canon, the Buddha praises the
Agnihotra as the foremost
sacrifice and the
Gayatri mantra as the foremost meter:
aggihuttamukhā yaññā sāvittī chandaso mukham.
Sacrifices have the agnihotra as foremost; of meter the foremost is
Comparison with other Buddhist canons
See also: Āgama (Buddhism)
The other two main Buddhist canons in use in the present day are the
Chinese Buddhist Canon
Chinese Buddhist Canon and the Tibetan Kangyur.
The standard modern edition of the
Chinese Buddhist Canon
Chinese Buddhist Canon is the
Taishō Revised Tripiṭaka, with a hundred major divisions, totaling
over 80,000 pages. This includes Vinayas for the Dharmaguptaka,
Sarvāstivāda, Mahīśāsaka, and Mahāsaṃghika schools. It also
includes the four major Āgamas, which are analogous to the Nikayas of
Pali Canon. Namely, they are the Saṃyukta Āgama, Madhyama
Āgama, Dīrgha Āgama, and Ekottara Āgama. Also included are the
Dhammapada, the Udāna, the Itivuttaka, and Milindapanha. There are
also additional texts, including early histories, that are preserved
from the early Buddhist schools but not found in Pali. The canon
contains voluminous works of Abhidharma, especially from the
Sarvāstivāda school. The Indian works preserved in the Chinese Canon
were translated from Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit, Classical Sanskrit, or
from regional Prakrits. The Chinese generally referred to these simply
as "Sanskrit" (Ch. 梵語, Fànyǔ). The first woodblock printing of
Chinese Buddhist Canon
Chinese Buddhist Canon was done by imperial order in China
in CE 868.
Kangyur comprises about a hundred volumes and includes
versions of the
Vinaya Pitaka, the
Dhammapada (under the title
Udanavarga) and parts of some other books. Due to the later
compilation, it contains comparatively fewer early
Buddhist texts than
Pali and Chinese canons.
The Chinese and Tibetan canons are not translations of the
differ from it to varying extents, but contain some recognizably
similar early works. However, the
Abhidharma books are fundamentally
different works from the
Abhidhamma Pitaka. The Chinese and
Tibetan canons also consist of Mahāyāna sūtras and Vajrayāna
tantras, which have few parallels in the
Pali commentaries on the
Chinese Buddhist canon
Tibetan Buddhist canon
Sanskrit Buddhist literature
Karl Eugen Neumann
Paracanonical texts (
^ If the language of the
Pāli canon is north Indian in origin, and
without substantial Sinhalese additions, it is likely that the canon
was composed somewhere in north India before its introduction to Sri
^ "I am saying that there was a person called the Buddha, that the
preachings probably go back to him individually... that we can learn
more about what he meant, and that he was saying some very precise
^ "While parts of the
Pali Canon clearly originated after the time of
the Buddha, much must derive from his teaching."
^ "there is no evidence to suggest that it was formulated by anyone
else than the Buddha and his immediate followers." 
^ "If some of the material is so old, it might be possible to
establish what texts go back to the very beginning of Buddhism, texts
which perhaps include the substance of the Buddha's teaching, and in
some cases, maybe even his words", 
^ Ronald Davidson states, "most scholars agree that there was a rough
body of sacred literature (disputed) that a relatively early community
(disputed) maintained and transmitted."
^ "as the Buddha taught for 45 years, some signs of development in
teachings may only reflect changes during this period."
^ Most notably, a version of the Atanatiya Sutta (from the Digha
Nikaya) is included in the tantra (Mikkyo, rgyud) divisions of the
Taisho and of the Cone, Derge, Lhasa, Lithang, Narthang and Peking
(Qianlong) editions of the Kangyur.
^ Gombrich 2006, p. 3.
^ a b c Harvey 1990, p. 3.
^ Maguire 2001, p. 69–.
^ a b c Wynne 2003.
^ Gombrich 2006, p. 4, Quote:
Pali literature is quite extensive,
but very little of it is what we would call secular. So far as we
know, it has all been composed by the members of the Sangha..
^ a b Robert E. Buswell Jr.; Donald S. Lopez Jr. (2013). The Princeton
Dictionary of Buddhism. Princeton University Press. p. 924.
^ a b c d e Gombrich 2006, p. 4.
^ a b Damien Keown (2004). A Dictionary of Buddhism. Oxford University
Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-19-157917-2.
^ Encyclopædia Britannica 2008.
^ Gombrich 2006, p. 20.
^ Gombrich 2006, p. 153-4.
^ Morgan 1956, p. 71.
^ McDaniel 2006, p. 302.
^ Mendelson 1975, p. 266.
^ Brown 2006.
^ Manné 1990, p. 103f.
^ Gethin 1998, p. 43.
^ Book of the Discipline, volume VI, page 123[full citation needed]
^ Norman 2005, p. 75-76.
^ Schopen, Gregory; Lopez Jr., Donald S. (1997). Bones, Stones, And
Buddhist Monks: Collected Papers On The Archaeology, Epigraphy, And
Texts Of Monastic
Buddhism In India. University of Hawaii Press.
p. 27. ISBN 0824817486.
^ Harvey 1995, p. 9.
^ Wynne 2007, p. 4.
^ Payutto, P. A. "The
Pali Canon What a Buddhist Must Know"
Bhikkhu Sujato and
Bhikkhu Brahmali. "The Authenticity of the Early
Buddhist Texts" (PDF). Journal of the Oxford Centre for Buddhist
^ a b Gombrich (b).
^ Gombrich 2006, p. 20f.
^ Peter Harvey
^ Warder 1999, p. inside flap.
^ De Jong 1993, p. 25.
^ Wynne, Alex. "The Oral Transmission of Early Buddhist Literature -
Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies (Volume
27. No. 1 2004)".
^ Nakamura 1999, p. 57.
^ a b c Davidson 2003, p. 147.
^ Buswell 2004, p. 10.
^ Ronald Davidson, academic profile Archived November 12, 2012, at the
^ about Geoffrey Samuel
^ Samuel 2012, p. 48.
^ Schopen 1997, p. 24.
^ Warder 1963, p. viii.
^ a b Cousins 1984, p. 56.
^ Bechert 1984, p. 78.
^ Gethin 1992, p. 42f.
^ Gethin 1992.
^ Nakamura 1999, p. 27.
^ Ñāṇamoli 1982, p. xxix.
^ Cousins & 1982/3.
^ Harvey, page 83
^ Gethin 1992, p. 48.
^ The Guide,
Pali Text Society, page xxvii[full citation needed]
^ a b Wynne 2004.
^ Ñāṇamoli 1982, p. xxxixf.
^ Gethin 1992, p. 8.
^ Harvey, page 3
^ von Hinüber 2000, pp. 4–5.
^ a b "
Pali Text Society Home Page". Palitext.com. Retrieved
^ Grönbold 1984, p. 12 (as noted there and elsewhere, the 1893
Siamese edition was incomplete).
^ Allon 1997, pp. 109–29.
^ Warder 1963, pp. 382.
^ "BUDSIR for Thai Translation". Budsir.org. Retrieved
^ "BUDSIR for Thai Translation". Budsir.mahidol.ac.th. Retrieved
^ Hamm 1973.
Pali Tipitaka". Tipitaka.org. Retrieved 2012-10-14.
Vipassana Research Institute". Vri.dhamma.org. 2009-02-08.
^ "Society worldtipitaka". Dhammasociety.org. 2007-08-29. Archived
from the original on 2007-03-17. Retrieved 2012-10-14.
^ Tipiṭaka Studies
^ "Sri Lankan Pāḷi Texts". Retrieved 2013-01-15.
Pali Canon Online Database". BodhgayaNews. Retrieved
^ Cone 2001.
Fo.ifeng.com. Retrieved 2012-10-14.
^ Norman 1996, pp. 80.
^ Journal of the
Pali Text Society, Volume XXIX, page 102[full
^ Griffiths 1981, pp. 17-32.
^ Norman 1983.
^ von Hinüber 2000, pp. 24-26.
^ a b Harvey, 1990 & appendix.
^ a b Manné 1990, pp. 29-88.
^ a b Harvey 1990, p. 83.
^ Gethin 1998, p. 44.
^ Cousins 1982, p. 7.
^ Shults, Brett (May 2014). "On the Buddha's Use of Some Brahmanical
Pali Texts". Journal of the Oxford Centre for Buddhist
Studies. 6: 119.
^ Bechert 1984, p. 204.
^ Skilling 1997, p. 84n, 553ff, 617ff..
Fo.ifeng.com, retrieved 2012-10-14
Allon, Mark (1997), "An Assessment of the Dhammakaya CD-ROM: Palitext
Version 1.0", Buddhist Studies (Bukkyō Kenkyū), 26: 109–29
Bechert, Heinz; Gombrich, Richard F. (1984), The world of
buddhism : buddhist monks and nuns in society and culture,
London: Thames and Hudson
Brown, E K; Anderson, Anne (2006), Encyclopedia of language
&linguistics, Boston: Elsevier
BUDSIR (Buddhist scriptures information retrieval) for Thai
Translation, retrieved 2012-10-14
Buswell, Robert E (2004), Encyclopedia of Buddhism, USA: Macmillan
Cone, Margaret (2001), Dictionary of Pali, vol. I, Oxford:
Cousins, L. S. (1984), In
Richard Gombrich and K. R. Norman (ed.):
Dhammapala, Buddhist studies in honour of Hammalava Saddhatissa,
Nugegoda, Sri Lanka: University of Sri Jayawardenapura,
Cousins, L. S. (1982),
Pali oral literature. In Denwood and
Piatigorski, eds.: Buddhist Studies, ancient and modern, London:
Curzon Press, pp. 1–11
Davidson, Ronald M. (2003), Indian Esoteric Buddhism, New York: Indian
Esoteric BuddhismColumbia University Press, ISBN 0231126182
De Jong, J.W. (1993), "The Beginnings of Buddhism", The Eastern
Buddhist, 26 (2): 25
Encyclopædia Britannica: ultimate reference suite (2008), Buddhism,
Gethin, Rupert (1998), Foundations of Buddhism, Oxford ; New
York: Oxford University Press
Gethin, Rupert (1992), The Buddha's Path to Awakening, Leiden: E. J.
Gombrich (b), Richard, Interview by Kathleen Gregory, archived from
the original on January 24, 2016, retrieved 2011 Check date
values in: access-date= (help)
Gombrich, Richard F (2006),
Buddhism (2nd ed.), London:
Griffiths, Paul J. (1981), "Buddhist Hybrid English: Some Notes on
Philology and Hermeneutics for Buddhologists", Journal of the
International Association of Buddhist Studies, 4 (2): 17–32
Grönbold, Günter (1984), Der buddhistische Kanon: eine
Bibliographie, Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz
Hamm (1973), In: Cultural Department of the German Embassy in India,
ed., Varanasi: Chowkhamba
Sanskrit Series Office, German Scholars on
India, volume I
Harvey, Peter (1995), The Selfless Mind., Surrey: Curzon Press
Harvey, Peter (1990), Introduction to Buddhism, New York: Cambridge
Jones, Lindsay (2005), Councils, Buddhist. In: Encyclopedia of
religion, Detroit: Macmillan Reference
Maguire, Jack (2001), Essential Buddhism: A Complete Guide to Beliefs
and Practices, Simon and Schuster, ISBN 978-0-671-04188-5
Manné, Joy (1990), "Categories of sutta in the
Pali Nikayas" (PDF),
Journal of the
Pali Text Society, XV: 29–88, archived from the
original (PDF) on September 1, 2014
McDaniel, Justin T. (2005), "The art of reading and teaching
Dhammapadas: reform, texts, contexts in Thai Buddhist history",
Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies, 28 (2):
Mendelson, E. Michael (1975),
Sangha and State in Burma, Ithaca, New
York: Cornell University Press
Morgan, Kenneth W. (1956), Path of the Buddha, New York: Ronald
Nakamura, Hajime (1999), Indian Buddhism: A Survey with
Bibliographical Notes, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass
Ñāṇamoli, Bhikkhu;; Warder, Anthony Kennedy (1982), Introduction
to Path of Discrimination, London:
Pali Text Society: Distributed by
Routledge and Kegan Paul CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list
Norman, K.R. (1983),
Pali Literature, Wiesbaden: Otto
Norman, K.R. (1996), Collected Papers, volume VI, Bristol:
Norman, K. R. (2005). Buddhist Forum Volume V: Philological Approach
to Buddhism. Routledge. pp. 75–76.
Pali Canon Online Database, Bodhgaya News, retrieved 2012-10-14
Samuel, Geoffrey (2012), Introducing Tibetan Buddhism, New York:
Schopen, Gregory (1997), Bones, Stones, and Buddhist Monks, Honolulu:
University of Hawai'i Press
Skilling, P.; ed. (1997). Mahasutras, volume I, Parts I & II.
Pali Text Society. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list
Sri Lankan Pāḷi Texts, retrieved 2013-01-15
Pali Tipitaka", Tipitaka.org, retrieved 2012-10-14
Vipassana Research Institute", Vri.dhamma.org, VRI Publications,
von Hinüber, Oskar (2000), A Handbook of
Pāli Literature, Berlin;
New York: Walter de Gruyter, ISBN 978-3-11-016738-2
Warder, A. K. (1963), Introduction to Pali, London: Published for the
Pali Text Society by Luzac
Warder, Anthony Kennedy (2000), Indian
Buddhism (3rd ed.), Delhi:
Wynne, Alexander (2003), How old is the Suttapiṭaka? The relative
value of textual and epigraphical sources for the study of early
Buddhism (PDF), St John's College, archived from the original
(PDF) on March 9, 2015
Wynne, Alexander (2004). "The Oral Transmission of the Early Buddhist
Literature". Journal of the International Association of Buddhist
Studies. 27 (1): 97–128.
Wynne, Alexander (2007), The origin of Buddhist meditation, New York:
Hinüber, Oskar von (2000). A Handbook of
Pāli Literature. Berlin:
Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-016738-7.
B. C. Law, History of
Pali Literature, volume I, Trubner, London 1931
Russell Webb (ed.), Analysis of the
Pali Canon, The Wheel Publication
No 217, Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy, Sri Lanka, 3rd ed. 2008.
Ko Lay, U. (2003), Guide to Tipiṭaka, Selangor, Malaysia: Burma
Piṭaka Association. Editorial Committee, Archived from the original
on July 24, 2008 CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
Wikimedia Commons has media related to
Sayadaw U Vicittasara Mingun Sayadaw: A Fabulous Memory
Pali Suttas by
Access to Insight has many suttas translated into English
Tipitaka Online of Nibbana.com.
English translations by
Bhikkhu Bodhi of selected suttas of the
Majjhima Nikaya are made available by the Foundation for the
Preservation of the
Mahayana Tradition at Wisdom Publications
English translations by
Bhikkhu Bodhi of selected suttas from the
Anguttara Nikaya at Wisdom Publications
Pali Canon online
Vipassana Research Institute (Based on 6th Council – Burmese
version) (this site also offers a downloadable program which installs
Pali Tipitaka on your desktop for offline viewing)
Sutta Central Early Buddhist texts, translations, and parallels
Tripitaka (Thai version)
Sinhala Tipitaka (Translated into Sinhala by a Government of Sri Lanka
Online Pali-English Dictionary
Four Noble Truths
Noble Eightfold Path
Iconography in Laos and Thailand
Mahapajapati Gotamī (aunt, adoptive mother)
Places where the Buddha stayed
Buddha in world religions
Three marks of existence
Two truths doctrine
Ten spiritual realms
Hungry Ghost realm
Three planes of existence
Seven Factors of Enlightenment
Four Right Exertions
Four stages of enlightenment
Upāsaka and Upāsikā
The ten principal disciples
Emperor Wen of Sui
Chinese Buddhist canon
Tibetan Buddhist canon
Early Buddhist schools
Basic points unifying Theravāda and Mahāyāna
Buddhism in India
Buddhism in India
Great Anti-Buddhist Persecution
Buddhism and the Roman world
Buddhism in the West
Silk Road transmission of Buddhism
Persecution of Buddhists
Banishment of Buddhist monks from Nepal
Sinhalese Buddhist nationalism
Women in Buddhism
The unanswered questions
Japanese Buddhist architecture
Korean Buddhist temples
Thai temple art and architecture
Tibetan Buddhist architecture
Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi
Om mani padme hum
Maya Devi Temple
Temple of the Tooth
East Asian religions