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University of Oxford
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Oxford has produced a large number of distinguished jurists, judges and lawyers around the world. jurists, judges and lawyers around the world. Lords Bingham and Denning, commonly recognised as two of the most influential English judges in the history of the common law,[181][182][183][184] both studied at Oxford. Within the United Kingdom, three of the current Justices of the Supreme Court are Oxford-educated: Robert Reed (Deputy President of the Supreme Court), Nicholas Wilson, and Michael Briggs;[185] retired Justices include David Neuberger (President of the Supreme Court 2012–2017), Jonathan Mance (Deputy President of the Supreme Court 2017–2018), Alan Rodger, Jonathan Sumption, Mark Saville, John Dyson, and Simon Brown. The twelve Lord Chancellors and nine Lord Chief Justices that have been educated at Oxford include Thomas Bingham,[181] Stanley Buckmaster, Thomas More,[186] Thomas Wolsey,[187] Gavin Simonds.[188] The twenty-two Law Lords count amongst them Leonard Hoffmann, Kenneth Diplock, Richard Wilberforce, James Atkin, Simon Brown, Nicolas Browne-Wilkinson, Robert Goff, Brian Hutton, Jonathan Mance, Alan Rodger, Mark Saville, Leslie Scarman, Johan Steyn;[189] Master of the Rolls include Alfred Denning and Wilfred Greene;[184] Lord Justices of Appeal include John Laws, Brian Leveson and John Mummery. The British Government's Attorneys General have included Dominic Grieve, Nicholas Lyell, Patrick Mayhew, John Hobson, Reginald Manningham-Buller, Lionel Heald, Frank Soskice, David Maxwell Fyfe, Donald Somervell, William Jowitt; Directors of Public Prosecutions include Sir Thomas Hetherington QC, Dame Barbara Mills QC and Sir Keir Starmer QC.

In the United States, three of the nine incumbent Justices of the Supreme Court are Oxonians, namely Stephen Breyer,[190] Elena Kagan,[191] and Neil Gorsuch;[192] retired Justices include John Marshall Harlan II,[193] David Souter[194] and Byron White.[195] Internationally, Oxonians Sir Humphrey Waldock[196] served in the International Court of Justice; Akua Kuenyehia, sat in the International Criminal Court; Sir Nicolas Bratza[197] and Paul Mahoney sat in the European Court of Human Rights; Kenneth Hayne,[198] Dyson Heydon, as well as Patrick Keane sat in the High Court of Australia; both Kailas Nath Wanchoo, A. N. Ray served as Chief Justices of the Supreme Court of India; Cornelia Sorabji, Oxford's first female law student, was India's first female advocate; in Hong Kong, Aarif Barma, Thomas Au and Doreen Le Pichon[199] currently serve in the Court of Appeal (Hong Kong), while Charles Ching and Henry Litton both served as Permanent Judges of the Court of Final App

In the United States, three of the nine incumbent Justices of the Supreme Court are Oxonians, namely Stephen Breyer,[190] Elena Kagan,[191] and Neil Gorsuch;[192] retired Justices include John Marshall Harlan II,[193] David Souter[194] and Byron White.[195] Internationally, Oxonians Sir Humphrey Waldock[196] served in the International Court of Justice; Akua Kuenyehia, sat in the International Criminal Court; Sir Nicolas Bratza[197] and Paul Mahoney sat in the European Court of Human Rights; Kenneth Hayne,[198] Dyson Heydon, as well as Patrick Keane sat in the High Court of Australia; both Kailas Nath Wanchoo, A. N. Ray served as Chief Justices of the Supreme Court of India; Cornelia Sorabji, Oxford's first female law student, was India's first female advocate; in Hong Kong, Aarif Barma, Thomas Au and Doreen Le Pichon[199] currently serve in the Court of Appeal (Hong Kong), while Charles Ching and Henry Litton both served as Permanent Judges of the Court of Final Appeal of Hong Kong;[200] six Puisne Justices of the Supreme Court of Canada and a chief justice of the now defunct Federal Court of Canada were also educated at Oxford.

The list of noted legal scholars includes H. L. A. Hart,[201] Ronald Dworkin,[201] Andrew Burrows, Sir Guenter Treitel, Jeremy Waldron, A. V. Dicey, William Blackstone, John Gardner, Robert A. Gorman, Timothy Endicott, Peter Birks, John Finnis, Andrew Ashworth, Joseph Raz, Paul Craig, Leslie Green, Tony Honoré, Neil MacCormick and Hugh Collins. Other distinguished practitioners who have attended Oxford include Lord Pannick Qc,[202] Geoffrey Robertson QC, Amal Clooney,[203] Lord Faulks QC, and Dinah Rose QC.

Three Oxford mathematicians, Michael Atiyah, Daniel Quillen and Simon Donaldson, have won Fields Medals, often called the "Nobel Prize for mathematics". Andrew Wiles, who proved Fermat's Last Theorem, was educated at Oxford and is currently the Regius Professor and Royal Society Research Professor in Mathematics at Oxford.[204] Marcus du Sautoy and Roger Penrose are both currently mathematics professors, and Jackie Stedall was a professor of the university. Stephen Wolfram, chief designer of Mathematica and Wolfram Alpha studied at the university, along with Tim Berners-Lee,[16] inventor of the World Wide Web,[205] Edgar F. Codd, inventor of the relational model of data,[206] and Tony Hoare, programming languages pioneer and inventor of Quicksort.

The university is associated with eleven winners of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, five in physics and sixteen in medicine.[207]

Scientists who performed research in Oxford include chemist Dorothy Hodgkin who received her Nobel Prize for "determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances",[208] Howard Florey who shared the 1945 Nobel prize "for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases", and John B. Goodenough, who shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2019 "for the development of lithium-ion batteries".[209] Both Richard Dawkins[210] and Frederick Soddy[211] studied at the university and returned for research purposes. Robert Hooke,[16] Edwin Hubble,[16] and Stephen Hawking[16] all studied in Oxford.

Robert Boyle, a founder of modern chemistry, never formally studied or held a post within the university, but resided within the city to be part of the scientific community and was awarded an honorary degree.[212] Notable scientists who spent brief periods at Oxford include Albert Einstein[213] developer of general theory of relativity and the concept of photons; and Erwin Schrödinger who formulated the Schrö