OXFORD STREET is a major road in the City of Westminster in the West End of London , running from Marble Arch to Tottenham Court Road via Oxford Circus. It is Europe's busiest shopping street, with around half a million daily visitors, and as of 2012 had approximately 300 shops. It is designated as part of the A40 , a major road between London and Fishguard , though it is not signed as such, and traffic is regularly restricted to buses and taxis.
The road was originally a Roman road , part of the Via Trinobantina between Essex and Hampshire via London. It was known as Tyburn Road through the Middle Ages and was once notorious as a street where prisoners from Newgate Prison would be transported towards a public hanging . It became known as Oxford Road and then Oxford Street in the 18th century, and began to change character from a residential street to commercial and retail purposes by the late 19th century, also attracting street traders, confidence tricksters and prostitution. The first department stores in Britain opened on Oxford Street in the early 20th century, including Selfridges , John Lewis and HMV . Unlike nearby shopping streets such as Bond Street , it has retained an element of downmarket street trading alongside more prestigious retail stores. The street suffered heavy bombing during World War II , and several longstanding stores including John Lewis were completely destroyed and rebuilt from scratch.
Despite competition from other shopping centres such as Westfield Stratford City and the Brent Cross shopping centre , Oxford Street remains in high demand as a retail location, with several chains hosting their flagship stores on the street, and has a number of listed buildings . The annual switching on of Christmas lights by a celebrity has been a popular event since 1959. However, the combination of a very popular retail area and a main thoroughfare for London buses and taxis has caused significant problems with traffic congestion , safety and pollution. Various traffic management schemes have been proposed by Transport for London , including a ban on private vehicles during daytime hours on weekdays and Saturdays, and improved pedestrian crossings.
* 1 Location
* 2 History
* 2.1 Early history * 2.2 Retail development * 2.3 Post-war
* 3 Notable buildings * 4 Transport links
* 5 Traffic
* 5.1 Pedestrianisation
* 6 Pollution * 7 Crime * 8 Christmas lights * 9 Listed buildings * 10 Cultural references * 11 See also * 12 References * 13 Further reading * 14 External links
Oxford Street runs for approximately 1.2 miles (1.9 km). From Marble Arch , where it meets Park Lane , Edgware Road , and its westward continuation Bayswater Road , it runs east past Vere Street , New Bond Street and Bond Street station , up to Oxford Circus, where it meets Regent Street .
Beyond Oxford Circus, it meets Great Portland Street , Wardour Street and Rathbone Place and ends at St Giles Circus , the junction with Charing Cross Road and Tottenham Court Road , next to Tottenham Court Road station . The eastward continuation is New Oxford Street, and then Holborn . The road is entirely within the City of Westminster .
The street is classified as part of the A40 , most of which is a trunk road running from London to Fishguard (via Oxford , Cheltenham , Brecon and Haverfordwest ), although like many roads in Central London that are no longer through routes, it is not signposted with the road number. It is within the London Congestion Charging Zone . Numerous bus routes run along Oxford Street, including 10, 25, 55, 73, 98, 390 and Night Buses N8, N55, N73, N98 and N207.
Nos. 399–405 Oxford Street, c. 1882. These buildings have now been demolished.
Oxford Street follows the route of a Roman road , the Via Trinobantina, which linked Calleva Atrebatum (near Silchester , Hampshire ) with Camulodunum (now Colchester ) via London and became one of the major routes in and out of the city.
Between the 12th century and 1782, it was variously known as Tyburn Road (after the River Tyburn that ran just to the south of it, and now flows underneath it), Uxbridge Road (this name is still used for the portion of the London- Oxford road between Shepherds Bush and Uxbridge ), Worcester Road and Oxford Road. On Ralph Aggas' "Plan of London", published in the 16th century, the road is described partly as "The Waye to Uxbridge" followed by " Oxford Road", showing rural farmland where the junction of Oxford Street and Rathbone Place now is.
Despite being a major coaching route, there were several obstacles along it, including the bridge over the Tyburn. A turnpike trust was established in the 1730s to improve upkeep of the road. It became notorious as the route taken by prisoners on their final journey from Newgate Prison to the gallows at Tyburn near Marble Arch. Spectators drunkenly jeered at prisoners as they carted along the road, and could buy rope used in the executions from the hangman in taverns. By about 1729, the road had become known as Oxford Street.
The street began to be redeveloped in the 18th century after many of the surrounding fields were purchased by the Earl of Oxford . In 1739, local gardener Thomas Huddle began to build property on the north side. John Rocque\'s Map of London , published in 1746, shows urban buildings as far as North Audley Street, but only intermittent rural property thereafter. Buildings began to be erected on the corner of Oxford Street and Davies Street in the 1750s. Further development along the street occurred between 1763 and 1793. The Pantheon , a place for public entertainment, opened at No. 173 in 1772.
The street became popular with entertainers including bear-baiters , theatres and public houses . However, it was not attractive to the middle and upper classes due to the nearby Tyburn gallows and St Giles , then a notorious rookery , or slum. The gallows were removed in 1783, and by the end of the century, Oxford Street was built up from St Giles Circus to Park Lane , containing a mix of residential houses and entertainment. The Princess's Theatre opened in 1840, and is now the site of Oxford Walk shopping area.
Oxford Circus was designed as part of the development of Regent Street by the architect John Nash in 1810. The four quadrants of the circus were designed by Sir Henry Tanner and constructed between 1913 and 1928.
Oxford Street changed character from residential to retail towards the end of the 19th century. Drapers, cobblers and furniture stores began to appear on the street, and were later expanded into the first department stores. Street vendors began to sell tourist souvenirs on the street during this time. A plan of Oxford Street in Tallis's London Street Views, published in the late 1830s, remarks that almost all the street, save for the far western end, was primarily retail. John Lewis started in 1864 as a small shop at No. 132, while Selfridges opened on 15 March 1909 at No. 400. Most of the southern side of Oxford Street west of Davies Street was completely rebuilt between 1865 and 1890, allowing a more uniform freehold ownership. By the 1930s, the street was almost entirely retail, a position that remains today. However, unlike nearby streets such as Bond Street and Park Lane , there remained a seedy element including street traders and prostitutes. Aside from a number of fixed places on the street, there are no provisions for selling licensed goods on Oxford Street. The advent of closed-circuit television has reduced the attraction of the area to scam artists and illegal street traders. Stanley Green advertising on Oxford Street in 1974
Oxford Street suffered considerable bombing during the Second World War . During the night and early hours of 17 to 18 September 1940, 268 Heinkel He 111 and Dornier Do 17 bombers targeted the West End, particularly Oxford Street. Many buildings were damaged, either from a direct hit or subsequent fires, including four department stores: John Lewis, Selfridges, Bourne "> A view of Oxford Street in 1987, with Selfridges on the right
In September 1973 a shopping-bag bomb was detonated by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) at the offices of the Prudential Assurance Company on Oxford Street, injuring six people. A second bomb was detonated by the IRA on the street by Selfridges in December 1974, injuring three people and causing £1.5 million worth of damage. Oxford Street was again targeted by the IRA in August 1975; an undiscovered bomb that had been booby trapped exploded without any injuries. The IRA also detonated a bomb at the John Lewis department store on Oxford Street in December 1992 along with another in nearby Cavendish Square , injuring four.
The human billboard Stanley Green began selling on Oxford Street in 1968, advertising his belief in the link of proteins to sexual libido and the dangers therein. He regularly patrolled the street with a placard headlined "less passion from less protein", and advertised his pamphlet _Eight Passion Proteins with Care_ until his death in 1993. His placards are now housed in the British Museum .
Centre Point , just beyond the eastern end of Oxford Street next to Tottenham Court Road station, was designed by property developer Harry Hyams and opened in 1966. It failed to find a suitable tenant and sat empty for many years, eventually being occupied by squatters who used it as a centre of protest against the lack of suitable accommodation in Central London. In 2015, the building began to be converted into residential flats, with development expected to finish in 2017.
Oxford Street is home to a number of major department stores and flagship retail outlets, containing over 300 shops as of 2012. It is the most frequently visited shopping street in Inner London, attracting over half a million daily visitors in 2014, and is one of the most popular destinations in London for tourists, with an annual estimated turnover of over £1 billion. It forms part of a shopping district in the West End of London , along with other streets including Covent Garden , Bond Street and Piccadilly .
The New West End Company, formerly the Oxford Street Association, is a group that oversees stores and trade along the street; its objective is to make the place safe and desirable for shoppers. They have been critical of the overcrowding and quality of shops and started to clamp down on abusive traders, who have then been refused licences.
Several British retail chains regard their Oxford Street branch as the flagship store. Debenhams originally opened as Marshall in 1919 they merged with Debenhams, which had opened in nearby Wigmore Street in 1778. The company was owned by Burton between 1985 and 1998. The London flagship store of the House of Fraser began as D H Evans in 1879 and moved to its current premises in 1935. It was the first department store in the UK with escalators serving every floor. Selfridges, Oxford Street , the second-largest department store in the UK and flagship of the Selfridges chain, has been in Oxford Street since 1909. The 100 Club has been a live music venue in the basement of No. 100 Oxford Street since 1942, and has been an important venue for trad jazz , British blues and punk bands.
On average, half a million people visit Oxford Street every day, and foot traffic is in severe competition with buses and taxis.
Oxford Street has been ranked as the most important retail location in Britain and the busiest shopping street in Europe. The street is often congested both on the pavements, due to the large number of shoppers and tourists, many of whom arrive at one of the tube stations, and on the roadway as a result of the many buses routed along the street.
There is heavy competition between foot and bus traffic on Oxford Street, which is the main east-west bus corridor through Central London. Around 175,000 people get on or off a bus on Oxford Street every day, along with 43,000 further through passengers. Taxis are popular, particularly along the stretch between Oxford Circus and Selfridges. Between 2009 and 2012, there were 71 accidents involving traffic and pedestrians. In 2016, a report suggested buses generally did not travel faster than 4.6 miles per hour (7.4 km/h), compared to a typical pedestrian speed of 3.1 miles per hour (5.0 km/h).
There have been several proposals to reduce congestion on Oxford Street. Horse-drawn vehicles were banned in 1931, and traffic signals were installed in the same year. To alleviate congestion and help traffic flow of buses, most of Oxford Street is designated a bus lane during peak daytime hours, when private vehicles are banned. It is only open to buses, taxis and two-wheeled vehicles between 7:00am and 7:00pm on all days except Sundays. The ban was introduced experimentally in June 1972. It was considered a success, with an estimated increase of £250,000 in retail sales. In 2009, a new diagonal crossing opened at Oxford Circus, allowing pedestrians to cross from one corner of Oxford Street to the opposite corner without having to cross the road twice or use the pedestrian underpass. This doubles the pedestrian capacity at the junction.
From 2005 to 2012, Oxford Street was completely traffic-free on a Saturday before Christmas, which became known as VIP Day (for "Very Important Pedestrians"). The scheme was popular and boosted sales by over £17m in 2012. In 2013, the New West End Company announced that the scheme would not go ahead that year as it wanted to do "something new". In 2014 Liberal Democrat members of the London Assembly proposed that Oxford Street should be pedestrianised by 2020.
In 2006, the New West End Company and the then Mayor of London , Ken Livingstone , put forward proposals to pedestrianise Oxford Street with a tram service running end to end. However the next Mayor, Boris Johnson , elected in 2008, announced that the scheme would not go ahead as it was not cost effective and too disruptive. In response to a request from Johnson, Transport for London undertook to reduce the bus flow in Oxford Street by 10% in both 2009 and 2010. Subsequently, the New West End Company called for a 33% reduction in bus movements in Oxford Street.
In 2014, Transport for London suggested that pedestrianisation may not be a suitable long-term measure due to Crossrail reducing the demand for bus services along Oxford Street, and proposed to ban all traffic except buses and cycles during peak shopping times. Optimisation of existing traffic signals along the street, including Pedestrian Countdown signals, have also been proposed. Transport for London is concerned that in the long term traffic problems may affect trade on Oxford Street, which is now competing with shopping centres such as Westfield London , Westfield Stratford City and the Brent Cross shopping centre . In 2015, while campaigning for election as London Mayor, Labour's Sadiq Khan favoured the full pedestrianisation of Oxford Street, which was supported by other parties. After winning the election, he pledged the street would be completely pedestrianised by 2020, including a ban on buses and taxis.
In 2014, a report by a King\'s College, London scientist showed that Oxford Street had the world's highest concentration of nitrogen dioxide pollution, at 135 micrograms per cubic metre of air (μg/m3). However, this figure was an average that included night-time, when traffic was much lower. At peak times during the day, levels up to 463 μg/m3 were recorded – over 11 times the permitted EU maximum of 40 μg/m3. Because of the diesel-powered traffic in the street (buses and taxis), annual average NO2 concentrations on Oxford Street are around 180 μg/m3. This is 4.5 times the EU target of 40 μg/m3 (Council Directive 1999/30/EC).
Oxford Street has had a reputation for having relatively high rates of crime. In 2005 an internal Metropolitan Police report named it as the most dangerous street in Central London . In 2012 an analysis of crime statistics revealed that Oxford Street was the shopping destination most surrounded by crime in Britain. During 2011, there were 656 vehicle crimes, 915 robberies, 2,597 violent crimes and 5,039 reported instances of anti-social behaviour.
In 2014, the United Arab Emirates issued a travel advisory warnings its citizens to avoid Oxford Street and other areas of Central London such as Bond Street and Piccadilly due to "pickpocketing, fraud and theft".
The 2016 Oxford Street Christmas lights
Every Christmas, Oxford Street is decorated with festive lights. The tradition of Christmas lights began in 1959, five years after the neighbouring Regent Street . There were no light displays in 1976 or 1977 due to economic recession, but the lights returned in 1978 when Oxford Street organised a laser display, and they have been there every year since.
Current practice involves a celebrity turning the lights on in mid- to late-November, and they remain lit until 6 January (Twelfth Night ). The festivities were postponed in 1963 due to the assassination of John F. Kennedy and in 1989 to fit Kylie Minogue 's touring commitments. In 2015, the lights were switched on earlier, on Sunday 1 November, resulting in an unusual closure of the street to all traffic.
The following celebrities have turned on the lights since 1981:
* 1981 — Pilín León ( Miss World , Venezuela ) * 1982 — Daley Thompson * 1983 — Pat Phoenix * 1984 — Esther Rantzen * 1985 — Bob Geldof * 1986 — Leslie Grantham , Anita Dobson * 1987 — Derek Jameson * 1988 — Terry Wogan * 1989 — Kylie Minogue * 1990 — Cliff Richard * 1991 — Westminster Children\'s Hospital * 1992 — Linford Christie * 1993 — Richard Branson * 1994 — Lenny Henry * 1995 — Coronation Street cast * 1996 — Spice Girls * 1997 — Peter Andre * 1998 — Zoë Ball * 1999 — Ronan Keating * 2000 — Charlotte Church * 2001 — S Club 7 * 2002 — Blue * 2003 — Enrique Iglesias * 2004 — Emma Watson , Il Divo , Steve Redgrave * 2005 — Westlife * 2006 — All Saints * 2007 — Leona Lewis * 2008 — Sugababes * 2009 — Jim Carrey * 2010 — Children from Kids Company * 2011 — The Saturdays * 2012 — Robbie Williams * 2013 — Jessie J * 2014 — Cheryl Fernandez-Versini * 2015 — Kylie Minogue * 2016 — Craig David
No. 147 Oxford Street was built in 1897 and has been Grade II listed since 2009.
NUMBER GRADE YEAR LISTED DESCRIPTION
6 II* 1987 The Tottenham
34 & 36 II 1987 Built 1912
35 II 2009 Built for Richards an early example of a steel-framed structure
164–182 II 1973
173 II 2009 The Pantheon , now Marks and Spencer
219 II 2001
313 II 1975 Built c. 1870–1880
360–366 II 1987
368–370 II 2008 Early 20th-century construction with 1930s facade
Oxford Street is mentioned in several works by Charles Dickens . In _ A Tale of Two Cities _, the street (as Oxford Road) is described as having "very few buildings", though in fact it was heavily built up by the late 18th century. It is also referred to in _ Sketches by Boz _ and _ Bleak House _.
The street is a square on the British _Monopoly _ game board, forming part of the green set (together with Regent Street and Bond Street ). The three streets were grouped together as they are all primarily retail areas. In 1991, music manager and entrepreneur Malcolm McLaren produced _The Ghosts of Oxford Street_, a musical documentary about life and history in the local area.
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