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Oxford
Oxford
Street is a major road in the City of Westminster
City of Westminster
in the West End of London, running from Marble Arch
Marble Arch
to Tottenham Court Road
Tottenham Court Road
via Oxford
Oxford
Circus. It is Europe's busiest shopping street, with around half a million daily visitors, and as of 2012 had approximately 300 shops. It is designated as part of the A40, a major road between London
London
and Fishguard, though it is not signed as such, and traffic is regularly restricted to buses and taxis. The road was originally a Roman road, part of the Via Trinobantina between Essex
Essex
and Hampshire
Hampshire
via London. It was known as Tyburn
Tyburn
Road through the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and was once notorious as a street where prisoners from Newgate Prison
Newgate Prison
would be transported towards a public hanging. It became known as Oxford
Oxford
Road and then Oxford
Oxford
Street in the 18th century, and began to change character from a residential street to commercial and retail purposes by the late 19th century, also attracting street traders, confidence tricksters and prostitution. The first department stores in Britain opened on Oxford
Oxford
Street in the early 20th century, including Selfridges, John Lewis and HMV. Unlike nearby shopping streets such as Bond Street, it has retained an element of downmarket street trading alongside more prestigious retail stores. The street suffered heavy bombing during World War II, and several longstanding stores including John Lewis were completely destroyed and rebuilt from scratch. Despite competition from other shopping centres such as Westfield Stratford City and the Brent Cross Shopping Centre, Oxford
Oxford
Street remains in high demand as a retail location, with several chains hosting their flagship stores on the street, and has a number of listed buildings. The annual switching on of Christmas lights by a celebrity has been a popular event since 1959. However, the combination of a very popular retail area and a main thoroughfare for London
London
buses and taxis has caused significant problems with traffic congestion, safety and pollution. Various traffic management schemes have been implemented by Transport for London, including a ban on private vehicles during daytime hours on weekdays and Saturdays, and improved pedestrian crossings.

Contents

1 Location 2 History

2.1 Early history 2.2 Retail development 2.3 Post-war

3 Buildings 4 Transport links 5 Traffic

5.1 Pedestrianisation

6 Pollution 7 Crime 8 Christmas lights 9 Listed buildings 10 Cultural references 11 See also 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links

Location[edit] Oxford
Oxford
Street runs for approximately 1.2 miles (1.9 km). It is entirely within the City of Westminster.[1] The road begins at St Giles Circus as a westward continuation of New Oxford
Oxford
Street, meeting Charing Cross Road, Tottenham Court Road
Tottenham Court Road
(next to Tottenham Court Road station). It runs past Great Portland Street, Wardour Street
Wardour Street
and Rathbone Place
Rathbone Place
to Oxford
Oxford
Circus, where it meets Regent Street. From there it continues past New Bond Street, Bond Street station
Bond Street station
and Vere Street, ending on Marble Arch.[1] The road is within the London
London
Congestion Charging Zone. It is part of the A40, most of which is a trunk road running from London
London
to Fishguard
Fishguard
(via Oxford, Cheltenham, Brecon
Brecon
and Haverfordwest). Like many roads in Central London
London
that are no longer through routes, it is not signposted with that number.[1] Numerous bus routes run along Oxford
Oxford
Street, including 10, 25, 55, 73, 98, 390 and Night Buses N8, N55, N73, N98 and N207.[2] History[edit] Early history[edit]

annotations

Map of the local area before urbanisation

Oxford
Oxford
Street follows the route of a Roman road, the Via Trinobantina, which linked Calleva Atrebatum
Calleva Atrebatum
(near Silchester, Hampshire) with Camulodunum
Camulodunum
(now Colchester) via London
London
and became one of the major routes in and out of the city.[3] Between the 12th century and 1782, it was variously known as Tyburn Road (after the River Tyburn
Tyburn
that crossed it north to south), Uxbridge Road (the name still used for the road between Shepherds Bush
Shepherds Bush
and Uxbridge), Worcester Road and Oxford
Oxford
Road.[4] On Ralph Aggas' "Plan of London", published in the 16th century, the road is described partly as "The Waye to Uxbridge" followed by " Oxford
Oxford
Road", showing rural farmland where the junction of Oxford
Oxford
Street and Rathbone Place
Rathbone Place
now is.[5]

Nos. 399–405 Oxford
Oxford
Street, c. 1882. These buildings have now been demolished.

Though a major coaching route, there were several obstacles along it, including the bridge over the Tyburn. A turnpike trust was established in the 1730s to improve upkeep of the road.[4] It became notorious as the route taken by prisoners on their final journey from Newgate Prison to the gallows at Tyburn
Tyburn
near Marble Arch. Spectators jeered as the prisoners were carted along the road, and could buy rope used in the executions from the hangman in taverns.[6] By about 1729, the road had become known as Oxford
Oxford
Street.[5] Development began in the 18th century after many surrounding fields were purchased by the Earl of Oxford.[6] In 1739, a local gardener, Thomas Huddle, built property on the north side.[7] John Rocque's Map of London, published in 1746, shows urban buildings as far as North Audley Street, but only intermittent rural property beyond. Buildings were erected on the corner of Oxford
Oxford
Street and Davies Street in the 1750s.[8] Further development occurred between 1763 and 1793. The Pantheon, a place for public entertainment, opened at No. 173 in 1772.[7] The street became popular for entertainment including bear-baiters, theatres and public houses.[9] However, it was not attractive to the middle and upper classes due to the nearby Tyburn
Tyburn
gallows and the notorious St Giles rookery, or slum.[6] The gallows were removed in 1783, and by the end of the century, Oxford
Oxford
Street was built up from St Giles Circus
St Giles Circus
to Park Lane, containing a mix of residential houses and entertainment.[6][7] The site of the Princess's Theatre that opened in 1840 is now occupied by Oxford
Oxford
Walk shopping area.[7] Oxford
Oxford
Circus was designed as part of the development of Regent Street by the architect John Nash in 1810. The four quadrants of the circus were designed by Sir Henry Tanner and constructed between 1913 and 1928.[10] Retail development[edit]

View west down Oxford
Oxford
Street in 1961, outside Bond Street
Bond Street
Underground station

Oxford
Oxford
Street changed in character from residential to retail towards the end of the 19th century. Drapers, cobblers and furniture stores opened shops on the street, and some expanded into the first department stores. Street vendors sold tourist souvenirs during this time.[7] A plan in Tallis's London
London
Street Views, published in the late 1830s, remarks that almost all the street, save for the far western end, was primarily retail.[4] John Lewis started in 1864 in small shop at No. 132,[11] while Selfridges
Selfridges
opened on 15 March 1909 at No. 400.[12] Most of the southern side west of Davies Street was completely rebuilt between 1865 and 1890, allowing a more uniform freehold ownership.[4] By the 1930s, the street was almost entirely retail, a position that remains today. However, unlike nearby streets such as Bond Street
Bond Street
and Park Lane, there remained a seedy element including street traders and prostitutes.[13] Aside from a number of fixed places, there are no provisions for selling licensed goods on Oxford
Oxford
Street. The advent of closed-circuit television has reduced the area's attraction to scam artists and illegal street traders.[14][15]

Stanley Green
Stanley Green
advertising on Oxford
Oxford
Street in 1974

Oxford
Oxford
Street suffered considerable bombing during the Second World War. During the night and early hours of 17 to 18 September 1940, 268 Heinkel He 111
Heinkel He 111
and Dornier Do 17 bombers targeted the West End, particularly Oxford
Oxford
Street. Many buildings were damaged, either from direct hits or subsequent fires, including four department stores: John Lewis, Selfridges, Bourne & Hollingsworth and Peter Robinson. George Orwell
George Orwell
wrote in his diary for 24 September that Oxford
Oxford
Street was "completely empty of traffic, and only a few pedestrians", and saw "innumerable fragments of broken glass".[16] John Lewis caught fire again on 25 September and was reduced to a shell. It remained a bomb site for the remainder of the war and beyond, finally being demolished and rebuilt between 1958 and 1960. Peter Robinson partially reopened on 22 September, though the main storefront remained boarded up. The basement was converted into studios for the BBC Eastern Service. Orwell made several broadcasts here from 1941 to 1943.[16] Selfridges
Selfridges
was bombed again on 17 April 1941, suffering further damage, including the destruction of the Palm Court Restaurant. The basement was converted to a communications base, with a dedicated line run along Oxford
Oxford
Street to Whitehall
Whitehall
allowing British Prime Minister Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
to make secure and direct telephone calls to the US President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The store was damaged again on 6 December 1944 after a V2 rocket
V2 rocket
exploded on nearby Duke Street, causing its Christmas tree
Christmas tree
displays to collapse into the street outside. Damage was repaired and the shop re-opened the following day.[16] Post-war[edit]

A view of Oxford
Oxford
Street in 1987, with Selfridges
Selfridges
on the right

In September 1973 a shopping-bag bomb was detonated by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) at the offices of the Prudential Assurance Company, injuring six people.[17] A second bomb was detonated by the IRA next to Selfridges
Selfridges
in December 1974, injuring three people and causing £1.5 million worth of damage.[18] Oxford
Oxford
Street was again targeted by the IRA in August 1975; an undiscovered bomb that had been booby trapped exploded without any injuries.[19] The IRA also detonated a bomb at the John Lewis department store in December 1992 along with another in nearby Cavendish Square, injuring four people.[20] The human billboard Stanley Green
Stanley Green
began selling on Oxford
Oxford
Street in 1968, advertising his belief in the link of proteins to sexual libido and the dangers therein. He regularly patrolled the street with a placard headlined "less passion from less protein",[13] and advertised his pamphlet Eight Passion Proteins with Care until his death in 1993. His placards are now housed in the British Museum.[21] Centre Point, just beyond the eastern end of Oxford
Oxford
Street next to Tottenham Court Road
Tottenham Court Road
station, was designed by property developer Harry Hyams and opened in 1966. It failed to find a suitable tenant and remained empty for many years before being occupied by squatters who used it as a centre of protest against the lack of suitable accommodation in central London. In 2015, building work began to convert it into residential flats, with development expected to finish in 2017.[22] Buildings[edit]

A blue plaque at No. 363 Oxford
Oxford
Street commemorating the founding of HMV
HMV
in 1921

Oxford
Oxford
Street is home to a number of major department stores and flagship retail outlets, containing over 300 shops as of 2012.[23] It is the most frequently visited shopping street in Inner London, attracting over half a million daily visitors in 2014,[24] and is one of the most popular destinations in London
London
for tourists, with an annual estimated turnover of over £1 billion.[25] It forms part of a shopping district in the West End of London, along with other streets including Covent Garden, Bond Street
Bond Street
and Piccadilly.[26] The New West End Company, formerly the Oxford
Oxford
Street Association, oversees stores and trade along the street; its objective is to make the place safe and desirable for shoppers. The group has been critical of overcrowding and the quality of shops and clamped down on abusive traders, who were then refused licences.[25][27] Several British retail chains regard their Oxford
Oxford
Street branch as the flagship store. Debenhams
Debenhams
opened as Marshall & Snelgrove in 1870; in 1919 they merged with Debenhams, which had opened in nearby Wigmore Street in 1778. The company was owned by Burton between 1985 and 1998.[28] The London
London
flagship store of the House of Fraser
House of Fraser
began as D H Evans in 1879 and moved to its current premises in 1935.[29] It was the first department store in the UK with escalators serving every floor.[30] Selfridges, Oxford
Oxford
Street, the second-largest department store in the UK and flagship of the Selfridges
Selfridges
chain, has been in Oxford
Oxford
Street since 1909.[31]

The 100 Club
100 Club
has been a live music venue in the basement of No. 100 Oxford
Oxford
Street since 1942, and has been an important venue for trad jazz, British blues
British blues
and punk bands.

Marks & Spencer has two stores on Oxford
Oxford
Street. The first, Marks & Spencer Marble Arch, is at the junction with Orchard Street. A second branch between Regent Street
Regent Street
and Tottenham Court Road
Tottenham Court Road
stands on the former site of the Pantheon.[32] The music retailer HMV
HMV
opened at No. 363 Oxford
Oxford
Street in 1921 by Sir Edward Elgar. The Beatles
The Beatles
made their first recording in London
London
in 1962, when they cut a 78rpm demo disc in the store.[33] A larger store at No. 150 was opened in 1986 by Sir Bob Geldof, and was the largest music shop in the world at 60,000 square feet (6,000 m2). As well as music and video retail, the premises supported live gigs in the store. Because of financial difficulties, the store closed in 2014, with all retail moving to No. 363.[34] The 100 Club, in the basement of No. 100, has been run as a live music venue since 24 October 1942. It was thought to be safe from bombing threats because of its underground location, and played host to jazz musicians, including Glenn Miller. It was renamed the London Jazz Club in 1948, and subsequently the Humphrey Lyttelton
Humphrey Lyttelton
Club after he took over the lease in the 1950s. Louis Armstrong
Louis Armstrong
played at the venue during this time. It became a key venue for the trad jazz revival, hosting gigs by Chris Barber
Chris Barber
and Acker Bilk. It was renamed the 100 Club
100 Club
in 1964 after Roger Horton bought a stake, adding an alcohol licence for the first time. The venue hosted gigs by several British blues
British blues
bands, including the Who, the Kinks and the Animals. It was an important venue for punk rock in the UK and hosted the first British punk festival on 21 September 1976, featuring the Sex Pistols, the Damned and the Buzzcocks.[35] The Tottenham
The Tottenham
is a Grade II* listed public house at No. 6 Oxford Street, near Tottenham Court Road. It was built in the mid-19th century and is the last remaining pub in the street, which once had 20.[36][37][38] The London
London
College of Fashion has an Oxford
Oxford
Street campus on John Prince's Street near Oxford
Oxford
Circus. The college is part of the University of the Arts London, formerly the London
London
Institute.[39] The cosmetics retailer Lush opened a store in 2015. Measuring 9,300 square feet (860 m2) and containing three floors, it is the company's largest retail premises.[40] Transport links[edit] Oxford
Oxford
Street is served by major bus routes and by four tube stations of the London
London
Underground. From Marble Arch
Marble Arch
eastwards, the stations are:

Marble Arch, on the Central line Bond Street, on the Central line and Jubilee line Oxford
Oxford
Circus, on the Central line, Bakerloo line
Bakerloo line
and Victoria line Tottenham Court Road, on the Central line and Northern line

The four stations serve an average of 100 million passengers every year, with Oxford
Oxford
Circus being the busiest.[41] Crossrail, a major project involving an east-west rail route across London, will have two stations serving Oxford
Oxford
Street, at Bond Street and Tottenham Court Road. Each station will be "double-ended", with exits through the existing tube station and also some distance away: to the east of Bond Street, in Hanover Square near Oxford
Oxford
Circus;[42] to the west of Tottenham Court Road, in Dean Street.[43] Traffic[edit]

On average, half a million people visit Oxford
Oxford
Street every day, and foot traffic is in severe competition with buses and taxis.

Oxford
Oxford
Street has been ranked as the most important retail location in Britain and the busiest shopping street in Europe.[44] The pavements are congested because of shoppers and tourists, many of whom arrive at a tube station, and the roadway is regularly blocked by buses.[45] There is heavy competition between foot and bus traffic on Oxford Street, which is the main east-west bus corridor through Central London. Around 175,000 people get on or off a bus on Oxford
Oxford
Street every day, along with 43,000 further through passengers. Taxis are popular, particularly along the stretch between Oxford
Oxford
Circus and Selfridges.[44] Between 2009 and 2012, there were 71 accidents involving traffic and pedestrians.[46] In 2016, a report suggested buses generally did not travel faster than 4.6 miles per hour (7.4 km/h), compared to a typical pedestrian speed of 3.1 miles per hour (5.0 km/h).[47] There have been several proposals to reduce congestion on Oxford Street. Horse-drawn vehicles were banned in 1931, and traffic signals were installed in the same year.[48][49] To alleviate congestion and help traffic flow of buses, most of Oxford
Oxford
Street is designated a bus lane during peak daytime hours, when private vehicles are banned. It is only open to buses, taxis and two-wheeled vehicles between 7:00am and 7:00pm on all days except Sundays.[44] The ban was introduced experimentally in June 1972. It was considered a success, with an estimated increase of £250,000 in retail sales.[50][51] In 2009, a new diagonal crossing opened at Oxford
Oxford
Circus, allowing pedestrians to cross from one corner of Oxford
Oxford
Street to the opposite corner without having to cross the road twice or use the pedestrian underpass. This doubles the pedestrian capacity at the junction.[52] Pedestrianisation[edit] From 2005 to 2012, Oxford
Oxford
Street was completely traffic-free on a Saturday before Christmas, which became known as VIP Day (for "Very Important Pedestrians"). The scheme was popular and boosted sales by over £17m in 2012. In 2013, the New West End Company announced that the scheme would not go ahead that year as it wanted to do "something new".[53] In 2014 Liberal Democrat members of the London
London
Assembly proposed that Oxford
Oxford
Street should be pedestrianised by 2020.[54] In 2006, the New West End Company and the then Mayor of London, Ken Livingstone, put forward proposals to pedestrianise Oxford
Oxford
Street with a tram service running end to end.[55] However the next Mayor, Boris Johnson, elected in 2008, announced that the scheme would not go ahead as it was not cost effective and too disruptive. In response to a request from Johnson, Transport for London
Transport for London
undertook to reduce the bus flow in Oxford
Oxford
Street by 10% in both 2009 and 2010.[56] Subsequently, the New West End Company called for a 33% reduction in bus movements in Oxford
Oxford
Street.[57] In 2014, Transport for London
Transport for London
suggested that pedestrianisation may not be a suitable long-term measure due to Crossrail
Crossrail
reducing the demand for bus services along Oxford
Oxford
Street, and proposed to ban all traffic except buses and cycles during peak shopping times.[45] Optimisation of existing traffic signals along the street, including Pedestrian Countdown signals, have also been proposed.[58] Transport for London is concerned that in the long term traffic problems may affect trade on Oxford
Oxford
Street, which is now competing with shopping centres such as Westfield London, Westfield Stratford City
Westfield Stratford City
and the Brent Cross Shopping Centre.[46] In 2015, while campaigning for election as London Mayor, Labour's Sadiq Khan
Sadiq Khan
favoured the full pedestrianisation of Oxford
Oxford
Street, which was supported by other parties.[59] After winning the election, he pledged the street would be completely pedestrianised by 2020, including a ban on buses and taxis.[47] By 2017, this had been revised forward to the end of the following year.[60] Pollution[edit] In 2014, a report by a King's College, London
London
scientist showed that Oxford
Oxford
Street had the world's highest concentration of nitrogen dioxide pollution, at 135 micrograms per cubic metre of air (μg/m3). However, this figure was an average that included night-time, when traffic was much lower. At peak times during the day, levels up to 463 μg/m3 were recorded – over 11 times the permitted EU maximum of 40 μg/m3.[61][62] Because of the diesel-powered traffic in the street (buses and taxis), annual average NO2 concentrations on Oxford
Oxford
Street are around 180 μg/m3. This is 4.5 times the EU target of 40 μg/m3 (Council Directive 1999/30/EC).[63] Crime[edit] Oxford
Oxford
Street has had a reputation for having relatively high rates of crime. In 2005 an internal Metropolitan Police
Metropolitan Police
report named it as the most dangerous street in Central London.[64] In 2012 an analysis of crime statistics revealed that Oxford
Oxford
Street was the shopping destination most surrounded by crime in Britain. During 2011, there were 656 vehicle crimes, 915 robberies, 2,597 violent crimes and 5,039 reported instances of anti-social behaviour.[65] In 2014, the United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
issued a travel advisory warnings its citizens to avoid Oxford
Oxford
Street and other areas of Central London such as Bond Street
Bond Street
and Piccadilly
Piccadilly
due to "pickpocketing, fraud and theft".[66][67] Christmas lights[edit]

The 2016 Oxford
Oxford
Street Christmas lights

Every Christmas, Oxford
Oxford
Street is decorated with festive lights. The tradition of Christmas lights began in 1959, five years after the neighbouring Regent Street. There were no light displays in 1976 or 1977 due to economic recession, but the lights returned in 1978 when Oxford
Oxford
Street organised a laser display, and they have been there every year since.[68] Current practice involves a celebrity turning the lights on in mid- to late-November, and they remain lit until 6 January (Twelfth Night). The festivities were postponed in 1963 due to the assassination of John F. Kennedy and in 1989 to fit Kylie Minogue's touring commitments.[68] In 2015, the lights were switched on earlier, on Sunday 1 November, resulting in an unusual closure of the street to all traffic.[69] The following celebrities have turned on the lights since 1981:

1981 — Pilín León (Miss World, Venezuela)[70] 1982 — Daley Thompson[70] 1983 — Pat Phoenix[70] 1984 — Esther Rantzen[70] 1985 — Bob Geldof[70] 1986 — Leslie Grantham, Anita Dobson[70] 1987 — Derek Jameson[70] 1988 — Terry Wogan[70] 1989 — Kylie Minogue[68] 1990 — Cliff Richard[70] 1991 — Westminster Children's Hospital[70] 1992 — Linford Christie[70] 1993 — Richard Branson[70] 1994 — Lenny Henry[70] 1995 — Coronation Street
Coronation Street
cast[70] 1996 — Spice Girls[71] 1997 — Peter Andre[72] 1998 — Zoë Ball[70] 1999 — Ronan Keating[73] 2000 — Charlotte Church[74] 2001 — S Club 7[75] 2002 — Blue[70] 2003 — Enrique Iglesias[76][77] 2004 — Emma Watson, Il Divo, Steve Redgrave[78] 2005 — Westlife[79][80] 2006 — All Saints[81] 2007 — Leona Lewis[82][83] 2008 — Sugababes[84][85] 2009 — Jim Carrey[86][87] 2010 — Children from Kids Company[88] 2011 — The Saturdays[89] 2012 — Robbie Williams[90] 2013 — Jessie J[91] 2014 — Cheryl Fernandez-Versini[92] 2015 — Kylie Minogue[69] 2016 — Craig David[93] 2017 — Rita Ora, Vick Hope & Roman Kemp[94]

Listed buildings[edit] Oxford
Oxford
Street has several Grade II listed buildings. In addition, the façades to Oxford Circus tube station
Oxford Circus tube station
are also listed.[95][96]

Number Grade Year listed Description

6 II* 1987 The Tottenham[38]

34 & 36 II 1987 Built 1912[97]

35 II 2009 Built for Richards & Co. jewellers in 1909[98]

105–109 II 1986 Built c. 1887 for the hatter Henry Heath[99]

133–135 II 2009 Pembroke House, built 1911[100]

147 II 2009 Built in 1897 for the chemist John Robbins.[101]

156–162 II* 1975 Built 1906–08; an early example of a steel-framed structure[102]

164–182 II 1973[103] Former Waring & Gillow department store

173 II 2009 The Pantheon, now Marks and Spencer[32]

219 II 2001[104]

313 II 1975 Built c. 1870–1880[105]

360–366 II 1987[106]

368–370 II 2008 Early 20th-century construction with 1930s facade[107]

No. 147 Oxford
Oxford
Street

United Kingdom House

Cultural references[edit] Oxford
Oxford
Street is mentioned in several works by Charles Dickens. In A Tale of Two Cities, the street (as Oxford
Oxford
Road) is described as having "very few buildings", though in fact it was heavily built up by the late 18th century. It is also referred to in Sketches by Boz
Sketches by Boz
and Bleak House.[108] The street is a square on the British Monopoly game board, forming part of the green set (together with Regent Street
Regent Street
and Bond Street). The three streets were grouped together as they are all primarily retail areas.[6] In 1991, music manager and entrepreneur Malcolm McLaren produced The Ghosts of Oxford
Oxford
Street, a musical documentary about life and history in the local area.[109] See also[edit]

List of eponymous roads in London Somerset House
Somerset House
(demolished 1915), on the corner of Oxford
Oxford
Street and Park Lane

References[edit] Citations

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London
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Oxford
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London
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Oxford
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Oxford
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Oxford
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Street could be traffic-free by December 2018, says mayor". BBC News. 6 November 2017. Retrieved 6 November 2017.  ^ "Diesel fumes choke Tox-ford Street". The Sunday Times. 6 July 2014. Retrieved 7 July 2014.  ^ " Oxford
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Street air pollution 'highest in the world'". Air Quality Times. 7 July 2014. Retrieved 12 November 2015.  ^ "Developing a new Air Quality Strategy and Action Plan – Consultation on Issues" (PDF). Westminster City Council. August 2008.  See p 10 ^ " Oxford
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St tops crime list". London
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Evening Standard. Retrieved 3 July 2017.  ^ "Britain's crime hot spots revealed". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 3 July 2017.  ^ "Wealthy UAE tourists warned to stay away from Oxford
Oxford
Street due to crime". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 3 July 2017.  ^ "Emirati tourists warned of 'dangerous' Oxford
Oxford
Street". The Independent. 20 August 2014. Retrieved 3 July 2017.  ^ a b c "London's bright past". BBC News. 22 December 1997. Retrieved 10 July 2015.  ^ a b " Oxford
Oxford
Street Christmas Lights". Time Out. 12 October 2015. Retrieved 6 November 2015.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Swinnerton 2004, p. 24. ^ Sinclair, David (2004). Wannabe: how the Spice Girls
Spice Girls
reinvented pop fame. Omnibus Press. p. 90. ISBN 978-0-7119-8643-5.  ^ McGeever, Mike (20 December 1997). "Peter Andre's got the 'Time'". Billboard. p. 18. Retrieved 28 November 2010.  ^ "Boyzone star gets in Christmas spirit". BBC. 19 November 1999.  ^ "Charlotte lighting up London". charlottechurch.net. 21 November 2000.  ^ Hu, Claire (1 November 2001). "Seven light up Oxford
Oxford
St heavens". Evening Standard. Retrieved 28 November 2010. [permanent dead link] ^ "Enrique Turns It on For London
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Shoppers". Sky News. 21 November 2003. Retrieved 28 November 2010.  ^ "Enrique the Christmas hero". Mirror. 28 October 2003. Retrieved 28 November 2010.  ^ "Festive switch-on for Potter star". BBC. 16 November 2004.  ^ " Westlife
Westlife
switch on festive lights". BBC. 15 November 2005.  ^ " Westlife
Westlife
switch on London's Christmas lights". RTÉ Ten. 16 November 2005. Retrieved 28 November 2010.  ^ "Energy row over Christmas lights". BBC. 9 November 2006.  ^ "Leona to turn on Christmas lights". BBC. 29 October 2007.  ^ Carmichael, Sri (8 November 2007). "Thousands see Oxford
Oxford
Street lit up by spirit of Christmas". Evening Standard. Archived from the original on 25 November 2009. Retrieved 28 November 2010.  ^ Pilkington, Diana (13 November 2008). "Christmas crackers: Sugababes light up West End as X Factor finalists sing for screaming crowds". Daily Mail. London. Retrieved 28 November 2010.  ^ " Sugababes
Sugababes
switch on Oxford
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Street Christmas lights". The Telegraph. London. 13 November 2008. Retrieved 28 November 2010.  ^ " Jim Carrey
Jim Carrey
switches on Oxford
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Street Christmas lights". The Daily Telegraph. London. 3 November 2009. Retrieved 28 November 2010.  ^ "Actor Carrey switches on lights". BBC News. 4 November 2009. Retrieved 28 November 2010.  ^ "Rihanna lights up Westfield". Evening Standard. London. 5 November 2010. Archived from the original on 8 November 2010. Retrieved 28 November 2010.  ^ " The Saturdays
The Saturdays
sing at Oxford
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Street Christmas lights switch-on". BBC News. 1 November 2011. Retrieved 10 July 2015.  ^ "Gary Barlow tribute ends with Take That reunion". BBC News. 6 November 2012. Retrieved 10 July 2015.  ^ " Jessie J
Jessie J
turns on Oxford
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Street Christmas Lights". The Independent. Retrieved 10 July 2015.  ^ " Oxford
Oxford
Street Christmas lights". London
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Evening Standard. 6 November 2014. Retrieved 10 July 2015.  ^ " Craig David
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to switch on Oxford
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Street Christmas lights this weekend". London
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Evening Sandard. 31 October 2016. Retrieved 29 March 2017.  ^ " Rita Ora
Rita Ora
Just Announced She, Roman Kemp And Vick Hope Are Turning On The Oxford
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Street Christmas Lights!". Capital FM. 26 October 2017. Retrieved 31 October 2017.  ^ "Listed Buildings in Westminster, Greater London, England". British Listed Buildings. Retrieved 8 July 2015.  ^ "Listed buildings". Westminster City Council. Archived from the original on 9 July 2015. Retrieved 8 July 2015.  ^ "34 and 36, Oxford
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Street W1, Westminster". British Listed Buildings. Retrieved 8 July 2015.  ^ "164–182, Oxford
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Street W1, Westminster". British Listed Buildings. Retrieved 8 July 2015.  ^ "219, Oxford
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Sources

Bracken, G. Byrne (2011). Walking Tour London: Sketches of the city's architectural treasures ... Marshall Cavendish. ISBN 978-981-4435-36-9.  Glinert, Ed (2012). The London
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Compendium. Penguin. ISBN 978-0-7181-9204-4.  Hibbert, Christopher; Weinreb, Ben (2010). The London
London
Encyclopedia. Pan MacMillan. ISBN 978-1-4050-4924-5.  Hayward, Arthur (2013). The Dickens Encyclopaedia. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-02758-2.  Inwood, Stephen (2012). Historic London: An Explorer's Companion. Pan Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-75252-8.  Kronenburg, Robert (2013). Live Architecture: Venues, Stages and Arenas for Popular Music. ISBN 978-1-135-71916-6.  Moore, Tim (2003). Do Not Pass Go. Vintage. ISBN 978-0-09-943386-6.  Piper, David; Jervis, Fionnuala (2002). The Companion Guide to London. Companion Guides. ISBN 978-1-900639-36-1.  Sullivan, Edward (2000). Evening Standard London
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Pub Bar Guide 1999. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-0-684-86840-0.  Swinnerton, Jo (2004). The London
London
Companion. Robson Books. ISBN 978-1-86105-799-0.  London's street family: Theory and case studies (PDF) (Report). Transport for London. 2014. p. 138. Retrieved 8 July 2015. 

Further reading[edit]

John Timbs
John Timbs
(1867), " Oxford
Oxford
Street", Curiosities of London
London
(2nd ed.), London: J.C. Hotten, OCLC 12878129  Herbert Fry (1880), " Oxford
Oxford
Street", London
London
in 1880, London: David Bogue  + New Oxford Street
New Oxford Street
(bird's eye view) Findlay Muirhead, ed. (1922), " Oxford
Oxford
Street", London
London
and its Environs (2nd ed.), London: Macmillan & Co., OCLC 365061 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Oxford
Oxford
Street.

Oxford
Oxford
Street's official website Oxford
Oxford
Street panorama Oxford
Oxford
Street landscape architecture Oxford
Oxford
Street Live Webcam

v t e

London
London
landmarks

Buildings and structures

Bridges

Albert Bridge Blackfriars Bridge Hungerford Bridge and Golden Jubilee Bridges Lambeth Bridge London
London
Bridge Millennium Footbridge Southwark Bridge Tower Bridge Vauxhall Bridge Waterloo Bridge Westminster Bridge

Entertainment venues

Cinemas

Empire, Leicester Square BFI IMAX Odeon, Leicester Square

Football stadia

Wembley Stadium
Wembley Stadium
(national stadium) Craven Cottage
Craven Cottage
(Fulham) The Den
The Den
(Millwall) Emirates Stadium
Emirates Stadium
(Arsenal) Loftus Road
Loftus Road
(Queens Park Rangers) London
London
Stadium (West Ham United) Selhurst Park
Selhurst Park
(Crystal Palace) Stamford Bridge (Chelsea) The Valley (Charlton Athletic) White Hart Lane
White Hart Lane
(Tottenham Hotspur)

Other major sports venues

All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club The Championship Course
The Championship Course
(rowing) Crystal Palace National Sports Centre Lord's
Lord's
(cricket) Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park The Oval
The Oval
(cricket) Twickenham Stadium
Twickenham Stadium
(rugby)

Theatres

Adelphi Apollo Victoria Coliseum Criterion Dominion Lyceum Old Vic Palladium Royal National Theatre Royal Opera House Shakespeare's Globe Theatre Royal, Drury Lane Theatre Royal Haymarket Vaudeville

Other

Alexandra Palace Brixton Academy ExCeL Hammersmith Apollo O2 Arena Royal Albert Hall Royal Festival Hall Wembley Arena

Government

10 Downing Street Admiralty Arch Bank of England City Hall County Hall Guildhall Horse Guards Mansion House National Archives Old Bailey Palace of Westminster Royal Courts of Justice Scotland Yard SIS Building

Museums and galleries

British Museum Cutty Sark Golden Hinde HMS Belfast Imperial War Museum Madame Tussauds Museum of London National Gallery National Maritime Museum Natural History Museum Royal Academy of Arts Royal Observatory Science Museum Tate Britain Tate Modern Tower of London Victoria and Albert Museum

Places of worship

All Hallows-by-the-Tower BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir Bevis Marks Synagogue Methodist Central Hall Regent's Park
Regent's Park
Mosque St Martin-in-the-Fields St Mary-le-Bow St Paul's Cathedral Southwark Cathedral Westminster Abbey Westminster Cathedral

Retailing

Shops

Fortnum & Mason Hamleys Harrods Liberty Peter Jones Selfridges

Shopping centres and markets

Borough Market Brent Cross Burlington Arcade Kensington Arcade Leadenhall Market The Mall Wood Green One New Change Petticoat Lane Market Royal Exchange Westfield London Westfield Stratford City

Royal buildings

Partly occupied by the Royal Family

Buckingham Palace Clarence House Kensington Palace St James's Palace

Unoccupied

Banqueting House Hampton Court Palace Kew Palace The Queen's Gallery Royal Mews, Buckingham Palace

Skyscrapers

Broadgate Tower 1 Canada Square 8 Canada Square 25 Canada Square 1 Churchill Place 20 Fenchurch Street Heron Tower Leadenhall Building The Shard St George Wharf Tower 30 St Mary Axe Tower 42

Structures

Albert Memorial ArcelorMittal Orbit Big Ben Cleopatra's Needle Crystal Palace transmitting station London
London
Eye London
London
Wall Marble Arch The Monument Nelson's Column Shaftesbury Memorial Fountain
Shaftesbury Memorial Fountain
("Eros") Thames Barrier Wellington Arch

Transport

City Airport Heathrow Airport Charing Cross station Clapham Junction station Euston station King's Cross station Liverpool Street station London
London
Bridge station Paddington station St Pancras station Stratford station Victoria station Waterloo station Victoria Coach Station Emirates Air Line cable car

Other

Barbican Estate Battersea Power Station British Library BT Tower Kew Gardens Lambeth Palace Lloyd's building London
London
Zoo Oxo Tower St Bartholomew's Hospital Smithfield Market Somerset House

Parks

Royal Parks

Bushy Park Green Park Greenwich Park Hampton Court Park Hyde Park Kensington Gardens Regent's Park Richmond Park St. James's Park

Other

Battersea Park Burgess Park Clapham Common College Green Epping Forest Finsbury Park Gunnersbury Park Hampstead Heath Holland Park Mitcham Common Osterley Park Trent Park Victoria Park Wandsworth Common Wimbledon Common

Squares and public spaces

Covent Garden Horse Guards Parade Leicester Square Oxford
Oxford
Circus Parliament Square Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Circus Sloane Square Trafalgar Square

Streets

Aldwych Baker Street Bishopsgate Bond Street Carnaby Street Chancery Lane Charing Cross Road Cheapside Cornhill Denmark Street Fenchurch Street Fleet Street Haymarket Jermyn Street Kensington High Street King's Road Lombard Street The Mall Oxford
Oxford
Street Park Lane Piccadilly Portobello Road Regent Street Shaftesbury Avenue Sloane Street Strand Tottenham Court Road Victoria Embankment Whitehall

v t e

University of the Arts London

Colleges and subdivisions

Camberwell
Camberwell
College of Arts Central Saint Martins Chelsea College of Art and Design Drama Centre London London
London
College of Communication London
London
College of Fashion Stanley Kubrick Archive Wimbledon College of Art

University

Campus

Camberwell Elephant and Castle Kings Cross Hackney High Holborn Merton Park Millbank Oxford
Oxford
Street Wimbledon

People

Academics Alumni Chairman: Sir John Sorrell Vice-chancellor: Nigel Carrington

Other

History

Affiliates

London
London
Centre for Arts and Cultural Exchange Universities UK

 

.